Dr. Y. NARASIMHA MURTHY Ph.D Sri Sai Baba National College (Autonomous) ANANTAPUR- 515001-A.P yayavaram @ yahoo.com
Recent advances in Electronics Engineering & Technology has revolutionized almost every aspect of human life. Communications, household appliances, medical are few names from the vast list of areas.
Contd..Rapid advancement in the field of Electronics Engineering promises a new future to the mankind by redefining all aspects of human life.Let us try to see these developments in a systematic order.
Contd.. In 1875, American, G.R. Carey invented the phototube. In 1878, Englishman Sir William Crookes invented the Crookes tube, an early prototype of cathode-ray tube. In 1895, German, Wilhelm Roentgen invented an early prototype X-ray tube.
Contd.. In 1897, German, Karl Ferdinand Braun invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope. In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the first practical electron tube called the Fleming Valve. Leming invents the vacuum tube diode.
Contd.. In 1906, Lee de Forest invented the audion later called the triode, an improvement on the Fleming Valve tube. In 1913, William D. Coolidge invented the Coolidge Tube, the first practical X-ray tube. In 1920, RCA began the first commercial electron tube manufacturing.
Limitations !! Large size Power dissipation Time of operation Poor responce Cost…
Second Generation -Solid state electronics Started in 1930s with the first solid- state device the "cats whisker" detector, first used in radio receivers. A whisker-like wire is placed lightly in contact with a solid crystal (such as a germanium crystal) in order to detect a radio signal by the contact junction effect.
Revolution in Solid state electronics Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley invented in 1947 the first bipolar point-contact transistor As an acknowledgement of this accomplishment, Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect.”
John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs, 1948.
Contd…. The first silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in 1954. The first MOS transistor actually built was by Kahng and Atalla at Bell Labs in 1960
Advantages Small size and minimal weight, allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices. Highly automated manufacturing processes, resulting in low per-unit cost. Lower possible operating voltages, making transistors suitable for small, battery-powered applications.
Contd.. No warm-up required for cathode heaters after power application Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency. Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness. Extremely long life. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than 50 years.
Contd.. Complementary devices available, facilitating the design of complementary- symmetry circuits, which is not possible with vacuum tubes. Insensitivityto mechanical shock and vibration, thus avoiding the problem of micro phonics in audio applications
Limitations Silicon transistors typically do not operate at voltages higher than about 1000 volts (SiC devices can be operated as high as 3000 volts). In contrast, vacuum tubes have been developed that can be operated at tens of thousands of volts.
IC TECHNOLOGY The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components.
Contd.. Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when the German engineer Werner Jacobi (Siemens AG) filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 2-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed small and cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. A commercial use of his patent has not been reported.
First Commercial ICJack Clair Kilby an Americanelectrical engineer took part(along with Robert Noyce)in the realization of the firstintegrated circuit whileworking at Texas Instrumentsin 1958. He was awarded theNobel Prize in Physics in 2000.
VLSI SSI : "small-scale integration“ , digital circuits containing transistors numbering in the tens MSI : Contained hundreds of transistors on a single chip, called "medium-scale integration" (MSI)-1960s. LSI :Large-scale integration with tens of thousands of transistors per chip-mid 1970s
contd.. The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present, was "very large-scale integration" (VLSI). The development started with hundreds of thousands of transistors in the early 1980s, and continues beyond several billion transistors as of 2009.
ADVANTAGES Size : Sub-micron size Speed and Power: Smaller size of IC components yields higher speed and lower power consumption due to smaller parasitic resistances, capacitances an.d inductances. Design is versatile , Simply change the mask to change the design . But designing the lay-out is a time consuming process
MICROPROCESSOR The first known advertisement for the 4004 is dated November 15, 1971 and appeared in Electronic News. The Intel’s 4004 is generally regarded as the first commercially available microprocessor. Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin and Busicom engineer Masatoshi Shima are the people who took part in the design of first 4-bit microprocessor INTEL 4004.
The 4004 with cover removed (left) and asactually used (right)
Microcontroller TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran succeeded in creating the first microcontroller (also called a microcomputer) in 1971. The result of their work was the TMS 1000, a 4-bit microcontroller and released commercially into market in 1974
ASIC Technology An application-specific integrated circuit, or ASIC , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 or the 4000 series.
A tray of Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips
SOC- System on -chip Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors, memory blocks including ROM, RAM, EEPROM, Flash and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on- chip)
The implications of these developmentsThe rapid advancements in electronics influenced : Consumer Electronics Communications & Wireless communication Medical electronics Transport Electronics(Automobile) Optoelectronic systems Remote sensing & Power Electronics
Consumer ElectronicsHigh-definition TV setshave become a partof almost every household .Resolution is now upto 4096 x 2160 (4K) pixels, equivalent to more than 8 megapixels, and visitorswill be amazed by the pin-sharp images. With four timesthe resolution of full HD now available this technologyis ideal for beamers and large screens.
OLED displays OLED displays are very thin, making them ideal for devices with very slim designs. To date they have found their way onto mobile phones, smart phones and tablet PCs. Small OLED TVs have been on the market for some time and this year the first large (55-inch) OLED are ready for sale.
Smart TVs Conventional broadcasts are not the only thing that smart TVs can receive. They can also access internet content and services. Owners can start apps on-screen, play games with partners “in the cloud“, take out films from media theques, or keep in touch with friends through e-mails, Skype, Twitter or Face book.
Contd … By 2011 some 6 million internet TVs had already been sold. According to market researchers, in 2012 every second set sold in Germany will be a smart TV. In addition to apps some smart TVs also feature browsers that can surf the internet, similar to a PC.
Ultra Books Last year tablets were the big hit and in 2012 ultra books are setting a new trend. They are extremely thin, feature extended battery life, boot up in seconds and sport handsome looks. Some models even let the user decide whether to operate this mobile device as a notebook or tablet. Weighing only 1 to 2 kilograms, ultra books fully match the performance of a conventional notebook.
Contd… Photos, music and videos are no longer stored on shelves, in albums and shoe boxes. All that is a thing of the past. Nowadays they are archived digitally on PCs, notebooks and network hard drives and via a home network can be retrieved by virtually any digital device, be it a smart phone, networked TV set or a tablet. Standards such as UPnP and DLNA make accessing media in a home network easy
Contd.. Communication between CE components and household appliances opens up wealth of possibilities for future applications. Washing machines can be monitored via a smart phone or tablet while their owners are on the move. The lighting or blinds in the house can be activated even when on holiday. When shopping, users can be alerted to low food stocks in the fridge.
Communications –Wireless GPS, Bluetooth ,CDMA ,2G,3G ,WiFi , Zigbee etc.. are the recent trends in communication technology. The mobile phone technology has revolutionized the entire communication domain
Contd.. The Cell Phone Has Become the Biggest Platform Created. Nearly 3 ~ 4.6 B Total Wireless subscribers and nearly 950 M 3G Subscribers are now enjoying . It is expected to be ~2.7B by 2014
Samsung Galaxy- Icon for Innovative technology ?
Contd…The recent technology that revolutionized the home security is the Zig Bee. i.e Zig Bee enabled digital home.
A ZigBee-enabled digital home As soon as you use your digital key to unlock the door, your house adjusts the lighting, heat, and window blinds to your liking and puts on your favorite CD in the kitchen. While you were at work, the house fed the cat, turned off the space heater your kids accidentally left on in the basement, and recorded motion-triggered video from security cameras around the property.
Contd… Your refrigerator detect an almost empty milk carton and add a gallon of two percent to the shopping list that it will e- mail to you automatically. Your house was ready to detect water or gas leaks, freezing pipes, and fire and could have called you or the fire department or a plumber.
Safety trends in automotive electronics Safety awareness for vehicles has been increasing strongly since the 1980s. It started with simple seat-belt systems continued with airbags, and has now led to the first really intelligent safety systems.
Contd -- With today’s advances in sensor and processor technology, the possibilities are growing rapidly. Governments are also viewing these as ways to decrease traffic casualties, and legislation is starting to demand that car manufacturers make use of the technology.
Most car headlights can light the road up to around 60 meters away. Lamps like High- Intensity Discharge (HID) types have gradually increased the range, but it is still limited. Infrared imaging systems will allow drivers to gain information about traffic up to around 150 meters away - more than twice the distance of ordinary low beam headlights.
Blind spot detection Most blind spot detection systems use radar sensors located behind the rear bumper that can monitor both sides of a vehicle. The driver is alerted to any potential hazard when another vehicle enters the blind spot. Very often, this is done by a visible icon displayed in the side view mirror, although some vendors are now also using cameras for blind spot detection.
Contd.. Radar has the advantage of operating in all weather conditions, and accurately measures the distance to moving objects. Cameras can identify moving and stationary objects, though, and can therefore improve the accuracy of radar obstacle detection systems.
Driver alertness Drivers not being alert, whether from fatigue or distraction, is one of the main causes of vehicle crashes. For some high- end cars, buses and trucks offer an option that monitors the driver’s face using a camera located in the vehicle instrument panel.
Contd.. The camera monitors a driver’s head and eye position , and the frequency at which the driver blinks his or her eyes. When needed, it sounds an alert to keep the driver awake, and can apply additional braking force when other sensors predict an imminent collision.
Lane departure warning In US alone, around 4,500 deaths occur each year from head-on collisions or sideswipes when vehicles cross the enterline and collide with oncoming traffic. Lane departure warning systems can indicate when it’s possible to cross the centerline using a green symbol on the dashboard display.
They can provide an auditory alert if a driver crosses a lane marking without first having indicated. Most recent systems use CMOS cameras to "follow" the centerlines. Besides lane departure warning systems, these cameras will in the near future also be used for traffic sign recognition.
Medical Electronics Recent developments in electronics has also revolutionized the medical domain especially patient monitoring and diagnosis. Tele medicine ,remote patient monitoring technology is slowly gaining momentum
contd… The huge advances in medical devices, especially the new mobile and connected devices, are being driven by the latest developments in semiconductors. These include large scale integration and reduced power consumption, but also semiconductor devices specifically targeted at medical applications.