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700studyguide

  1. 1. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc.Introduction to OSHManagement
  2. 2. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 2 of 94OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideIntroduction to Occupational Safety and HealthCopyright © 2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc.No portion of this text may be reprinted for other than personal use. Any commercial use ofthis document is strictly forbidden.Contact OSHAcademy to arrange for use as a training document.This study guide is designed to be reviewed off-line as a tool for preparation to successfullycomplete OSHAcademy Course 700.Read each module, answer the quiz questions, and submit the quiz questions online throughthe course webpage. You can print the post-quiz response screen which will contain the correctanswers to the questions.The final exam will consist of questions developed from the course content and module quizzes.We hope you enjoy the course and if you have any questions, feel free to email or call:OSHAcademy1915 NW Amberglen Parkway, Suite 400Beaverton, Oregon 97006www.oshatrain.orginstructor@oshatrain.org+1.888.668.9079
  3. 3. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 3 of 94
  4. 4. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 4 of 94ContentsCourse Introduction........................................................................................................................ 8Managements Responsibility..................................................................................................... 8Safety is smart business!............................................................................................................. 8Why should we emphasize workplace safety and health?......................................................... 8Getting Started............................................................................................................................ 9Module 1: Top Management Commitment.................................................................................. 10Getting Top Management Commitment .................................................................................. 10The 5-Ps in a Safety Management System............................................................................... 10Why do managers make a commitment to safety? ................................................................. 10Fulfilling the social imperative.................................................................................................. 10Fulfilling the fiscal imperative................................................................................................... 11Fulfilling the legal imperative ................................................................................................... 11Its a question of leadership...................................................................................................... 12Tough-coercive leadership........................................................................................................ 12Tough-controlling leadership.................................................................................................... 13Tough-caring leadership model................................................................................................ 13Reactive vs. Proactive Safety Strategies................................................................................... 17Be business smart...be proactive.............................................................................................. 17Goals and objectives................................................................................................................. 17Effective recommendations describe costs and benefits......................................................... 19Plan the work, work the plan.................................................................................................... 20Module 1 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 21Module 2: Labor and Management Accountability...................................................................... 22Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 22What is Accountability? ............................................................................................................ 22The Six Elements of an Effective Accountability System.......................................................... 23Element 1: Formal Standards of Performance .................................................................... 23Element 2: Adequate Resources and Psychosocial Support ................................................ 24Element 3: A System of Performance Measurement........................................................... 24
  5. 5. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 5 of 94Element 4: Application of Effective Consequences.............................................................. 25Two basic categories of consequences..................................................................................... 26Soon, Certain, Significant, and Sincere..................................................................................... 27Element 5: Appropriate Application of Consequences............................................................ 29What are the criteria for appropriate consequences?............................................................. 30Are consequences justified?..................................................................................................... 30Element 6: Continuous Evaluation of the Accountability System........................................ 32Evaluating for Accountability.................................................................................................... 33Whos accountable for what?................................................................................................... 33When are negative consequences appropriate?...................................................................... 33Last Words ................................................................................................................................ 35Module 2 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 36Module 3: Employee Involvement................................................................................................ 38Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 38Successful recognition programs require smart management and strong leadership............ 39Recognition and rewards...................................................................................................... 40The big secret: Its not what you reward with...its what you reward ................................. 40Reactive safety incentive programs...................................................................................... 41Proactive safety recognition programs................................................................................. 42Integrate the safety recognition program................................................................................ 43Proactive recognition programs that work............................................................................... 43Module 3 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 45Module 4: Effective Communications........................................................................................... 47Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 47A most important responsibility!.............................................................................................. 49Module 4 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 51Module 5: Hazard Identification and Control............................................................................... 53Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 53OK...so whats a hazard?........................................................................................................... 53
  6. 6. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 6 of 94Look around...what do you see?............................................................................................... 53Controlling Exposure - The Hierarchy of Controls .................................................................... 53The Five Workplace Hazard Categories.................................................................................... 54Materials............................................................................................................................... 55Equipment............................................................................................................................. 55Environment.......................................................................................................................... 55People ................................................................................................................................... 56System................................................................................................................................... 56Two identification and control strategies................................................................................. 56Whats the major weakness of the safety inspection?............................................................. 57So, whats the solution?............................................................................................................ 58Key Principle.............................................................................................................................. 58The missing guardrail................................................................................................................ 60Module 5 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 61Module 6: Incident and Accident Investigation............................................................................ 63Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 63Fix the system not the blame! .................................................................................................. 63Accidents just happen...dont they? ......................................................................................... 64Incident and Accident defined.................................................................................................. 64Plan the work...work the plan! ................................................................................................. 64Just the facts, maam...just the facts ........................................................................................ 65What happened next? .............................................................................................................. 66What caused the accident? ...................................................................................................... 67Surface causes....................................................................................................................... 67Root causes........................................................................................................................... 67Time to Report Findings............................................................................................................ 68Module 6 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 70Module 7: Safety Education and Training..................................................................................... 72Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 72
  7. 7. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 7 of 94The Big Picture .......................................................................................................................... 72What are the OSHA training requirements?............................................................................. 72Beyond OSHA compliance ........................................................................................................ 73Why is education so important?............................................................................................... 74Its all about "Show and Tell".................................................................................................... 74A Simple Seven-Step On-The-Job Training (OJT) Process......................................................... 75Module 7 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 78Module 8: Total Quality Safety Management .............................................................................. 80A Never Ending Story ................................................................................................................ 80Quality and Safety: Partners in productivity............................................................................. 80The Shewhart/Deming Cycle .................................................................................................... 80What is Total Quality Management (TQM)? ............................................................................ 81The champions of Total Quality Safety Management.............................................................. 81Demings Fourteen Points Applied to Total Quality Safety ...................................................... 82Competitive safety incentive programs.................................................................................... 88Bringing management and labor together ........................................................................... 88Last words................................................................................................................................. 92Module 8 Quiz........................................................................................................................... 93
  8. 8. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 8 of 94Course IntroductionManagements ResponsibilityAccording to the OSHA Act every employer has a legal obligation tofurnish employment (work) and a place of employment (workplace)free from known hazards that could cause serious injury or death.This course is designed to give you some ideas to help meet thatobligation and apply effective management principles to thefunction of workplace safety. The ultimate goal is to help youunderstand these principles so that it affects your thinking, beliefs,decision and finally your actions to improve your companys safetymanagement system and leadership culture.Safety is smart business!If you want to reduce the costs and risks associated with workplaceinjuries, illnesses and fatalities, you should place as much emphasison safety and health in your workplace as you do on othermanagement issues such as production, sales, transportation and quality control. The oldphrase, "Safety First", may sound nice, but in reality, safety is more effective if its thought to bea priority. In a highly competitive environment priorities can change rapidly. To survive, acompany must both produce and be safe. Turn safety into a core value that never changes.Change "Safety First" to "Safety Only.""Safety Only" emphasizes the idea that its fine to produce as hard and fast as you can, as longas you can do it safely. High productivity is desired, but if a safety hazard or practice isdiscovered that might cause serious physical harm or death, it should be correctedimmediately, even if that means shutting down production. Thats commitment to safety!Why should we emphasize workplace safety and health?Simple, it keeps people safe and healthful, and it decreases the long-term costs of doingbusiness. But make sure your company is emphasizing accident prevention rather than losscontrol. Accident prevention is a proactive approach while loss control tends to be much morereactive. Youll learn more about this later.In safety and health, you can pay now or pay later. Its smart to pay for safety and health beforean accident occurs. For every proactive dollar spent preventing workplace accidents, manymore are saved in direct/indirect accident costs.
  9. 9. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 9 of 94For every reactive dollar spent on the direct costs of a workers injury or illness, much more isspent to cover the indirect and unknown costs associated with the injury or illness.Read more on direct, indirect and unknown accident costs.Getting Started• Study the seven key elements of an effective safety and health program covered in thiscourse, and come up with a plan to suit your individual workplace.• Decide exactly what you want to accomplish, and determine what steps are necessaryto achieve your goals.• Some of the elements may already exist, needing only minor changes to make themmore effective.• Next, plan how and when each step will be carried out and who will do it. If yourcompany has a safety committee, its members can be a great help in this effort.• Put the plan in writing. Its smart to put your plan in writing so everyone can read it andget involved.OSHA has developed a Safety and Health Program Advisor that will help you analyze andevaluate your organizations safety and health management system. We encourage you to usethis resource.
  10. 10. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 10 of 94Module 1: Top Management CommitmentGetting Top Management CommitmentIt is essential to the success of your companys safety and health program that topmanagement demonstrates not only an interest, but a long term serious commitment toprotect every employee from injury and illness on the job. But, if you think you dont have thatlevel of commitment, how do you get it? Real commitment doesnt just appear out of thin air.What is the secret?The 5-Ps in a Safety Management SystemManagement commitment to safety will occur to the extenteach manager clearly understands the positive benefits derivedfrom their effort. Understanding the benefits will create astrong desire to improve the companys safety culture.Managers will invest serious time and money into effectivesafety management by developing what I call the "5-Ps" withina safety management system:• Programs• Policies• Plans• Processes, and• ProceduresManagers will also display leadership through effective accountability and recognition ofbehaviors and results. More on these topics later!Why do managers make a commitment to safety?Employers put time and money into employee safety for one or more basic reasons:Fulfilling the social imperativeThis strategy is the most effective in the long term. These managers have come to therealization that long-term corporate survival depends on more than maximizing short-termprofits. They will value and tap into the incredible creative potential of each employee, fromjanitor to president. These managers will appreciate the inherent value of each employee, not
  11. 11. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 11 of 94just as a worker, but as a corporate "family" member. They also value the roles each of theiremployees fulfills away from work as mothers,fathers, coaches, helpers, etc. Safety is perceived acore corporate value that does not change when thegoing gets tough. When managers value safety at thislevel, they naturally employ the next two strategies.Fulfilling the fiscal imperativeThis strategy can be quite effective. Managers whoare motivated to invest in safety understand thefinancial benefits derived from effective application ofsafety programs. The primary reason for "doingsafety" shifts is to maximizing profits. The goal is tofulfill the obligation to stakeholders to operate thebusiness in a fiscally prudent manner. Thesemanagers will do whatever needs to be doneproactively or reactively to save on direct and indirectcosts of accidents. Management may display acommitment beyond minimum legal requirements if they see a financial advantage. Safety ismost likely a high priority. However, commitment to safety may be subject to rapid changewhen the going gets tough.Fulfilling the legal imperativeThis is the least effective strategy. The primary goal for managers is to fulfill the obligation tocomply with OSHA rules. Managers want to stay out of trouble, so they do only what has to bedone to meet minimum requirements. Safety is not a priority or value, but thought of as abother more than anything else: just the cost of doing business. Safety strategies are typicallyreactive because safety is not a problem unless there is an accident. OSHA may be consideredthe "bad guy" because management doesnt understand how OSHA can offer consultationservices as well as enforcement activities. You need to be familiar with how OSHA works sohere is a link to the OSHA Field Operations Manual. Its the OSHA Bible :-)
  12. 12. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 12 of 94Its a question of leadershipEvery day, employees, supervisors and managers have many opportunities to communicate andact in ways that demonstrate safety leadership. Unfortunately, these opportunities gounanswered because they are not seen as opportunities. Employers and manager do notunderstand that the simple expression of tough-caring safety leadership can result in enormousbenefits. The inability to perceive leadership opportunities as they arise limits the companyspotential to succeed.Its appropriate to assume that employees at all levels of the organization are good peopletrying to do the best they can with what theyve got. The problem is, they dont always have thephysical resources and psychosocial support to achieve the kind of results expected of them.Why? Ultimately, the workplace culture may not support effective safety management andleadership.The way we perceive "The way things are around here"...can exert a great influence onleadership styles. We can associate three fundamental leadership styles to the threemanagement imperatives discussed above. Lets take a look at this association.Tough-coercive leadershipIn this leadership approach, managers are tough on safety to protect themselves: to avoidpenalties. The managers approach to controlling performance may primarily rely on the threatof punishment. The objective is to achieve compliance to fulfill legal or fiscal imperatives. Theculture is fear-driven. Management resorts to an accountability system that emphasizesnegative consequences. By what managers do and say, they may communicate negativemessages to employees that establish or reinforce negative relationships. Here are someexamples of what a tough-coercive leader might say: Punishment - "If I go down...Im taking you all with me!" (Ive heard this myself!) Punishment - "If you violate this safety rule, you will be fired." Punishment - "If you report hazards, you will be labeled a complainer." Negative reinforcement - "If you work accident free, you wont be fired."
  13. 13. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 13 of 94As you might guess, fear-driven cultures, by definition cannot be effective in achieving world-class safety because employees work (and dont work) to avoid a negative consequence.Employees and managers all work to avoid punishment. Consequently, fear-driven thoughts,beliefs and decisions may be driving their behaviors. Bottom-line: a fear-driven safety culturewill not work. It cannot be effective for employees and managers at any level of theorganization. It may be successful in achieving compliance, but thats it.Tough-controlling leadershipManagers are tough on safety to control losses. They have high standards for behavior andperformance, and they control all aspects of work to ensure compliance.This leadership model is most frequently exhibited in the "traditional" management model. Asemployers gain greater understanding, attitudes and strategies to fulfill their legal and fiscalimperatives improve. They become more effective in designing safety systems that successfullyreduce injuries and illnesses, thereby cutting production costs. Tight control is necessary toachieve numerical goals. Communication is typically top-down and information is used tocontrol. A safety "director" is usually appointed to act as a cop: responsible for controlling thesafety function.Tough-controlling leaders move beyond the threat of punishment as the primary strategy toinfluence behavior. However, they will rely to a somewhat lesser extent on negativereinforcement and punishment to influence behavior. Positive reinforcement may also be usedas a controlling strategy. Tough-controlling leadership styles may or may not result in a fear-based culture. Examples of what you might hear from a tough-controlling leader include: Negative reinforcement - "If you have an accident, youll be disciplined." Negative reinforcement - "If you dont have an accident, you wont lose your bonus." Positive reinforcement - "If you comply with safety rules, you will be recognized."Tough-caring leadership modelManagers are tough on safety because they have high expectations and they insist theirfollowers behave, and they care about the success of their employees first. This is a self-lessleadership approach.
  14. 14. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 14 of 94The tough-caring leadership model represents a major shift in leadership and managementthinking from the selfish tough controlling model. Managers understand that complying withthe law, controlling losses, and improving production can best be assured if employees aremotivated, safe, and able.Management understands that they can best fulfill their commitment to external customers byfulfilling their obligations to internal customers: their employees.Communication is typically all-way: information is used to share so that everyone succeeds. Aquantum leap in effective safety (and all other functions) occurs when employers adopt atough-caring approach to leadership. Rather than being the safety cop, the safety manager isresponsible to "help" all line managers and supervisors "do" safety. Line managers must be thecops, not the safety department. This results in dramatic positive changes in corporate culturewhich is success-driven.Although positive reinforcement is the primary strategy used to influence behaviors, tough-caring leaders are not reluctant in administering discipline when its justified because theyunderstand it to be a matter of leadership. However, before they discipline, managers will firstevaluate the degree to which they, themselves, have fulfilled their obligations to theiremployees. If they have failed in that effort, they will apologize and correct their own deficiencyrather than discipline. What are you likely to hear from a tough-caring leader? Positive reinforcement - "If you comply with safety rules, report injuries and hazards, Iwill personally recognize you." Positive reinforcement - "If you get involved in the safety committee, you will be morepromotable." Positive reinforcement - "If you suggest and help make improvements, I will personallyrecognize and reward you."You can imagine that in a tough-caring safety culture, trust between management and labor ispromoted through mutual respect, involvement and ownership in all aspects of workplacesafety.
  15. 15. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 15 of 94Are you really committed? Show me the time and money.Top management may communicate their support for safety, but the real test for commitmentis the degree to which management acts on their communication with serious investments intime and money. When management merely communicates their interest in safety, but doesnot follow through with action, they are expressing moral support, not commitment.Leaders get what they give!Real commitment is an expression of tough-caring leadership by example. Integrity, character,and discipline are values that all managers seek in their employees. Employees willdemonstrate these important attributes when (and only when) they see managementexhibiting these values first. Great leaders truly care about those they lead. What better way todemonstrate leadership than by providing a safe and healthful place of work for all employees.Just food for thought: If youre a manager or supervisor, ask yourself, "Do I really like mypeople?" If the answer isnt yes, start now to rethink your opinion because its almostimpossible to demonstrate caring leadership if you dont actually like your people."We choose to have zero injuries. We choose to have zero injuries this day and do this, notbecause it is easy, but because it is hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measurethe best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept,one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, because we care forourselves and others too." S. Farnham, Safety Manager, Contrack, InternationalManagers get what they design!They say "perception is reality." If you perceive a lack of top management commitment tosafety and health, what can you do about it? First of all, think about fixing the system, not theblame. Its all about system design.If management is not demonstrating commitment through action, you have an opportunity tobecome a key player to get things moving. With the help of the safety committee you can"educate up" to help management gain the all-important vision and understanding needed to
  16. 16. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 16 of 94positively affect attitudes and subsequent behaviors that give workplace safety the emphasis itdeserves. Now lets take a look at what you can do.We need to know who we are to be more effective at what we doYour first step may be quite simple, yet it can have a major long-term impact on safety andhealth in the workplace. Propose that the company include the concept of safety in their visionstatement and mission statement.The vision statement lets the employee and customer know who you are by defining the roleyour company plays and what its basic values are. The vision statement reflects the corporateculture. One way to understand corporate culture is to think of it as the companys unique"personality" setting it apart from all others.Vision StatementXYZ Widgets values its "relationship with customer" above all. To be successful we treat allemployees as valued internal customers. We respect their ideas, value their work, and providewhatever is needed so that they may accomplish excellence in a safe-productive manner. Doingthis empowers our employees so that they may manifest our values daily with our externalcustomers.It is the mission of XYZ Widgets to safely manufacture and deliver the highest quality megalithiccyberwidgets to our valued customers throughout the world.The mission statement tells the world what you do -- why your company exists, by stating itsintended purpose. The mission statement lets everyone know what your companys product orservice is; who its customers are; what its service territory is.If your company doesnt have a mission statement, try to develop one and convincemanagement of the benefits that will result from a written mission statement. Now lets take alook at two basic approaches employers may adopt in safety and health program management.
  17. 17. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 17 of 94Reactive vs. Proactive Safety StrategiesDont just react to safetyIts sad but true - some companies have adopted an approach to safety and health thatemphasizes a reactive strategy. A reactive approach assumesthat accidents just happen, and theres not much that can bedone about it. Consequently, the company places most of itseffort into reacting to accidents after they occur. A reactiveresponse occurs after an injury or illness and usually has thepurpose of minimizing the costs associated with the injury or illness.Reactive safety programs always cost much more than proactive programs...always...becausethey arent implemented until an injury or illness has occurred. When management emphasizesa reactive approach to safety and health, it sends two negative messages to employees, (1) wedont care about you, and (2) its all about money, not your safety. Here are some examples ofreactive safety programs.Be business smart...be proactiveA proactive strategy emphasizes prevention: doing whatever it takes to make sure accidentsnever happen in the workplace. There are no excuses for an accident. A proactive response tosafety and health in the workplace occurs before an accident has occurred. It anticipates andtries to prevent accidents.By emphasizing accident prevention, management sends a message of caring to all employees.Proactive strategies are always less expensive than reactive strategies because the companymakes investments that result in potentially huge returns. Remember, proactive programs areimplemented to prevent future injuries and illnesses. Here are some examples of proactivesafety and health programs.Goals and objectivesSo now you have a vision and mission statement developed. The next step is to think of someproactive goals and objectives to improve your companys safety and health program.
  18. 18. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 18 of 94Goals are easy to write. Theyre nothing more than wishes. For instance, a goal might be to "geteveryone trained". However, operational objectives take a little more thought.Objectives should have the following elements present: Starts with an action verb. (Decrease, increase, improve, etc.) Specifies a single key result to be accomplished. Is quantifiable. Uses numbers to measure a desired change. (i.e., 50% increase) Specifies a target date for accomplishment.For example, operational safety objectives might be written like this: "Increase the number of safety suggestions to 25 a month by July 31st." "Reduce the number of back injuries in the warehouse by 70% by the end of 1997."Remember to work with the safety committee to share the goals and objectives with everyonein the company. By the end of this course you should be able to think of many more ways toincrease management commitment.Talk money... the bottom lineHave you ever proposed a recommendation to correct a hazard or improve a procedure, only tohave it fall on what appears to be deaf ears? Odds are, managementcares very much about safety and health in the workplace, but like you,they are very busy. When a busy manager receives a recommendationfrom the safety committee, and its merely a vague one-liner like, "Weneed to install a new guardrail in the warehouse," the likely responsemight be to put it on the back burner.Dan Petersen, Author of Safety Management: A Human Approach, states that, "Management isfirst of all interested in how the safety professionals ideas relate to the profits of theorganization. That is, what will management get in return for the money it is being asked tospend? Thus, safety people ought to be dollar-oriented when talking to management. Even if
  19. 19. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 19 of 94management understands the language of frequency and severity rates, dollar indicators oughtto be used instead."Effective recommendations describe costs and benefitsAccording to the National Safety Council, when considering all industries nationally, the averagedirect and indirect claim cost for a lost time injury is over $28,000, and a fatality averages$910,000.Indirect costs, according to the NSC figures above, average 1.6x direct costs. However, itsimportant to understand that indirect costs may be much higher. Three things to remember inwhen estimating indirect costs: The lower the direct cost, the higher the ratio between the direct and indirect costs. Forinstance, if someone suffers only minor injury requiring a few hundred dollars to closethe claim, the indirect/direct costs ratio may be much higher than the NSC average. Capital intensive operations, where large sums have been invested in facilities, realizehigher and average indirect/direct cost ratios. For example, if someone is seriously orfatally injured on an oil-drilling rig, resulting in operations shutting down for a day or so,many thousands of dollars in lost production will result. In high capital intensive workprocesses, the expected ratio between direct and indirect costs may be 5x to 50x. Labor intensive operations, where more investment is made in labor than capital assets,realize lower indirect/direct cost ratios. Someone may suffer a serious injury, butoperations are not as likely to be significantly impacted. In labor intensive operations theexpected ratio between direct and indirect costs may be 2x to 10x.Safety Pays!Take a look and download OSHAs Safety Pays software program that can be helpful indetermining direct and indirect cost.You can use these figures to demonstrate the benefits of taking corrective action:Your supervisor may ask you what the Return on Investment (ROI) will be. If the investment incorrective actions is $1,000, and the potential accident could cost the company $28,000sometime in the foreseeable future (lets say five years), just divide $28,000 by $1,000 and you
  20. 20. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 20 of 94come up with 2800 percent. Divide that total by 5 years and you come up with an annual ROI ofmore than 500 percent a year. Now thats a great return!Management may want to know how quickly the investment will be paid back: what thePayback Period is. Just divide $28,000 by 60 months and you come up with $467 per month inpotential accident costs. Since the investment is $1,000, it will be paid back in a little over twomonths. After that, the corrective action may be considered as actually saving the company some bigmoney. Now thats talking the bottom line!If you want, take a closer look at some key elements of an effective recommendation.Plan the work, work the planNow you have some ammunition to help increase top management commitment that is soimportant to workplace safety and health. Youll receive many more tips and ideas about thisthroughout the course. An important step in making sure the above ideas are effectivelyapplied is to develop an action plan to get top management commitment. An action plan isnothing more than a set of long-term strategies and short-term tactics ("how" statements).
  21. 21. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 21 of 94Module 1 QuizUse this quiz to self-check your understanding of the module content. You can also go onlineand take this quiz within the module. The online quiz provides the correct answer oncesubmitted.1. "Just tell me what I have to do to stay out of trouble" best reflects which safetyimperative?a. Fiscal imperativeb. Legal imperativec. Moral imperatived. Ostrich imperative2. Management commitment can be obtained most effectivelyby:a. Complaining about the lack of commitmentb. Threatening to complain to OSHAc. Providing useful informationd. Inviting management to committee meetings3. Which service provider(s) might assist in your effort to obtain management commitment?a. Your Workers Compensation insurerb. OSHA consultantsc. Private consultantsd. Any of the above4. Safety should be primarily the responsibility of the safety director and/or the safetycommittee.a. Trueb. False5. Commitment requires investing time and money into what we support.a. Trueb. False
  22. 22. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 22 of 94Module 2: Labor and Management AccountabilityIntroductionAccountability ranks right at the top with management commitment as a critical ingredient in acompanys safety and health management system. Why do we behave the way we do in theworkplace? Consequences. Why do we take the unsafe shortcut?Management may impose all kinds of safety policies, programs, written plans, directives, rules,training...on and on...yet if appropriate application of effective consequences within a cultureof accountability does not exist, desired behaviors will not be sustained. If employees do notbelieve they are going to be held accountable for the decisions they make and the actions theytake, you can be sure that any safety effort is ultimately doomed to failure.What is Accountability?You hear a lot about responsibility and accountability in safety and health, and sometimespeople speak as though the two terms have the same meaning. But, as used in OSHA standardsand generally in safety and health management, these two terms have very different meanings.Lets find out why.Take a look at a dictionary. Youll find responsibility and accountability defined something like: Responsible - expected or obliged to account for or answer to; involving obligation orduties. Responsibility - able to account for or answer to. Accountable - responsible; liable; legally bound or subject to giving an account (orexplanation), answerable. Accountability - able to give account or answer to.If you examine only these two definitions, its understandable why we might conclude thatthese two terms have virtually the same meaning. However, the notion of being "liable orlegally bound" sets accountability apart. When applying these two concepts to management inthe workplace, they take on very important and distinct differences in meaning and application. Responsibility may be thought of as simply the "obligation to fulfill a task." To beresponsible, you need only be assigned one or more duties.
  23. 23. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 23 of 94 Accountability may be thought of as establishing the "obligation to fulfill a task tostandard or else." When you are held accountable, your performance is measuredagainst some specific criteria or standard and consequences are applied appropriate tothe level or quality of performance.The Six Elements of an Effective Accountability SystemAccountability may also be thought of as one of the very important subsystems within theoverall safety management system. The safety committee or coordinator may use theseguidelines to help develop, monitor and improve workplace accountability for safety.Six important elements should be present in an employer safety accountability system."The way things are around here"...can exert a great influence on leadership styles. We canassociate three fundamental leadership styles to the three management imperatives discussedabove. Lets take a look at this association.Element 1: Formal Standards of PerformanceOSHA has developed rules in occupational safety and health which serve as standards ofperformance for employers. Similarly, employers are required to establish company policies,procedures, written plans, processes, job descriptions and rules to clearly convey theirstandards of performance in safety and health to employees.It is important that safety policies and disciplinary procedures be clearly stated in writing andmade available to everyone. In fact, it is necessary to educate all employees on these policiesand procedures. Make sure they certify that they have read, understood, and will comply withthose safety policies and procedures. Do this when they are hired, and annually thereafter.If standards of acceptable behavior and performance are not established and clearlycommunicated to employees, an effective accountability system is impossible. Managementmay not be justified in administering discipline without clearly written and communicatedstandards.
  24. 24. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 24 of 94Element 2: Adequate Resources and Psychosocial SupportBefore employers are justified in administering appropriate consequences, they should firstprovide their employees with the means and methods to achieve the standards of performancethat have been established. Employers should provide a safe and healthful physical andpsychosocial workplace environment. Physical resources. Ensures safe and healthful conditions. Safe tools, equipment,machinery, materials, workstations, facilities, environment. OSHA emphasizes thiscategory. Psychosocial support. Ensures safe behaviors. Effective safety education and training,reasonable work schedules and production quotas, human resource programs, safe workprocedures, competent management, tough-caring leadership. Through the years,Federal OSHA and professional safety organizations have demonstrated more emphasisin this area as evidenced by increased interest in developing rules requiring acomprehensive safety and health program, and workplace violence standards.Element 3: A System of Performance MeasurementOnce again, when applied to safety behavior and performance, accountability demands morethan simply being answerable. In an effective accountability system the quality or level of safetyperformance is measured regularly and often. Measurement processes include informal/formalobservations. Real measurement means more than merely observing behaviors. It also includesquantifying observations...adding up the numbers. Those numbers form the statistics that youcan use to improve the safety management system.Accountability and controlA basic rule of thumb for any accountability system states that, "a person should be heldaccountable for a responsibility only if that person is able to control or has the ability to fulfillthat responsibility." If a person is being measured and held accountable for results over whichthey have no control, that person will attempt to gain control somehow. The attempt toestablish control may include inappropriate strategies.
  25. 25. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 25 of 94For example, a supervisor whos measured only on department accident rates may threaten tofire anyone who completes an OSHA 101 injury report. Not only is that behaviorcounterproductive for the company, it is illegal!The employer ultimately controls all of the many operational variables such as raw materials,equipment, machinery, work schedules, personnel, and policies that make up the day-to-daywork environment. Employer performance in providing resources and implementing policies,etc., should be measured.On the other hand, employees may have very little control over operations in the workplace.They do, however, have control over their own behavior. Employees have the ability to make achoice to comply with safety rules, and they may choose to report injuries and hazards in theworkplace. Consequently, we need to measure these personal behaviors.In the workplace, its important that supervisors measure their employees safety behaviors.Managers should measure supervisor activities and behaviors. OSHA doesnt merely observe.They inspect, investigate, and issue citations that may include monetary penalties: Now thatsmeasurement with consequences, isnt it?Element 4: Application of Effective ConsequencesWhat are "consequences"?A "consequence" is anything that happens as a result of something that happens. Another wayto express it is to think of the initial behavior as the "cause" and the consequence as the"effect" of the cause. For every cause, there is an effect.For instance, if you hit your thumb with a hammer, the consequence is pain, injury,embarrassment, etc. If you think (initial activity) safety is not important, you are more likely tobehave in an unsafe manner (consequence). If a supervisor yells at an employee, the employeemay yell back, or go home, or quit (possible consequences).Its important to understand there is no such thing as "no consequence" for an action. Youcannot NOT have a consequence for an action. For instance, if a supervisor thanks a worker for
  26. 26. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 26 of 94making a safety suggestion, that is a consequence (positive). If the supervisor ignores theworker who made the safety suggestion, that is a consequence too (negative).Effective consequences increase desired behaviors or decrease undesired behaviors. Ifemployee safety performance meets or exceeds the standards set by the employer, some sortof recognition should follow. On the other hand, if the employee makes an informed choice notto comply with the companys safety rules, some sort of appropriate corrective action shouldfollow. There are various strategies for administering positive and negative consequences.Careful planning is critical to ensure consequences are effective. Lets take a look at fourapproaches to consider.Two basic categories of consequencesTop management may communicate their support for safety, but the real test for commitmentis the degree to which management acts on their communication with serious investments intime and money. When management merely communicates their interest in safety, but doesnot follow through with action, they are expressing moral support, not commitment.Leaders get what they give!Positive reinforcement - If we do something well, we get rewarded. Important points toremember about positive reinforcement include: It must always increase desired behavior; The worker performs to receive a positive consequence; The worker may perform far beyond minimum standards - discretionary effort; The focus is on excellence - its success-based strategy; Examples include:o If you report a hazard youll be recognized in a positive way;o If you prevent an injury or save money you will be rewarded.Negative reinforcement - If we do something well, we dont get punished. Elements of negativereinforcement include:
  27. 27. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 27 of 94 The worker performs to avoid the consequence - nothing else; The intent is to increase desired behaviors; The worker performs to minimum standard - just enough to get by; The focus is on compliance - its a fear-based strategy; Examples include:o “If you break a safety rule, youll be fired;”o “If you comply with safety rules, you wont be reprimanded.”Theres no such thing as a non-consequences. You might think that ignoring behaviors is a wayto withhold a consequence. No such luck. Every response, including ignoring, is a consequence.Ignoring is usually the least effective consequence because it leads to extinction of desiredbehaviors. Think about it. Have you ever been ignored when you thought you should have beenrecognized? I bet you were upset. And it didnt matter why you were ignored either: you didntlike it. So, lets take a look at some of the characteristics of extinction: It is the withdrawal of recognition; The worker is ignored and no matter what, desired behavior becomes less frequent. Forinstance:o If the worker misbehaves and is ignored, he may perceive it as positive and thebehavior will continue;o If the worker behaves and is ignored, he may perceive it as negative and thebehavior will discontinue; Worker eventually performs without expectation of recognition; No relationship with management exists; It is the most common form of consequence in the workplace - Its epidemic inorganizations Examples of the thoughts and beliefs produced when people are ignored include:o “It doesnt matter how hard I work around here.”o “Apathy is rampant, but who cares.”Soon, Certain, Significant, and SincereIn all instances, to be effective, consequences should be soon, certain, significant, and sincere.Accountability is operating effectively only when consequences follow behavior. When
  28. 28. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 28 of 94consequences are nonexistent or inconsistent, accountability is not functioning properly in yourcompany.Consequences for safety behaviors that meet or exceed expectations usually includerecognition and rewards. However, only appropriate behaviors should be rewarded. Theemployer should recognize employees for behaviors and performance over which they haveexclusive control. If the person has authority...decision-making control, then the person shouldbe held accountable for the decision and subsequent behaviors and personal outcomes.Managers and supervisors have varying degrees of control over the conditions of their workareas and the behaviors of their employees. For employees, control usually refers only topersonal behaviors. Lets look at some examples of activities and behaviors that are typicallyaccountability measures.Examples of measured safety behaviors and performance at various levels include: Top/mid-level managers. Unfortunately, measurement at this level usually includes results statistics overwhich top managers actually have little direct control. These measures include: Accident rates. Experience modification rate (MOD Rate). Workers compensation costs.This situation may cause top managers to put pressure on supervisors to hold down thenumber of accidents in their departments. Consequently, the result may be ineffectivemeasurement at all levels. Appropriate behaviors and activities to measure at top/mid- levelmanagement include: Involvement in safety management system formulation and implementation; Developing effective safety policies, programs, procedures; Arranging management/supervisor safety training; Providing physical resources and psychosocial support; Involvement in safety education/training; Supporting involvement in the safety committee.
  29. 29. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 29 of 94Supervisors: Supervisors may not be able to completely control the results (such as the accidentrate) of their work area. They do, however, have the ability to control their safety managementand leadership activities. Therefore, measurement at this level should primarily includepersonal safety behaviors and activities such as: Making sure workers have safe materials, tools, equipment, machinery, etc. Ensuring a healthful psychosocial environment Following company safety rules Conducting safety inspections Enforcing safety rules Training safe work procedures Recognizing employees for safety Conducting safety meetingsEmployees: Measurement of employees usually includes personal behaviors such as: Complying with company safety rules Reporting injuries immediately Reporting hazards Making suggestions Involvement in safety activitiesAfter all is said and done, if the behaviors and activities above are expected and recognized, theresults that we all worry about will take care of themselves. Improve the process and watch theoutcome follow! Is this all "pie in the sky"? It doesnt have to be. Now lets take a look at somereal-world problems related to this element.Element 5: Appropriate Application of ConsequencesWithout the expectation of consequences, accountability has no credibility and will not beeffective. No consequences...no accountability. Consequences need to be appropriate as wellas effective. This is the element with which everyone is probably most familiar. Unfortunately,in some companies, consequences are either not appropriate, not effective, or both.
  30. 30. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 30 of 94What are the criteria for appropriate consequences? They are justified. They correspond to the degree of positive or negative results of the behavior. They are applied consistently throughout the entire organization.Are consequences justified?Negative consequences are justified when the person administering discipline has fulfilled theirown accountabilities first. Positive consequences are justified any time employees meet orexceed expectations. Heres an important principle (I call it the 5-R principle): The moreRegularly you Recognize and Reward, the more Rarely youll have to Reprimand.Its critical to understand that before administering progressive discipline, managers andsupervisors make a judgment about how well they have fulfilled their own accountabilities. Thisis important to make sure they are actually justified in administering corrective actions.Determining the appropriateness of administering negative consequences does not have to bedifficult. You can use the acronym to the left to help remember the five basic safety obligationsmanagers and supervisors have responsibility to fulfill. Lets take a look at each of the fiveobligations:1. Training: Employees must be provided with the required knowledge and gain the skillsto comply with safety requirements. Employees, then, have the necessary knowledgeand skills to understand the natural and system consequences of noncompliance.Managers and supervisors should ask, "Have I provided (or has the employee received)quality safety training?"2. Resources: Do employees have the physical resources and psychosocial support tocomply with safety requirements? Supervisors need to provide adequate tools,equipment, materials to make it possible for employees work safely. Supervisors shouldalso manage workloads, schedules, employee relations so that the workplace is asstress-free as possible. When the employee believes working fast is more importantthan working safe, supervisors are failing in this area. Managers and supervisors shouldask, "Have I provided the employee with a safe and healthy workplace?"
  31. 31. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 31 of 943. Enforcement: Do employees believe they will be disciplined if theyre caught violatingsafety rules? Or, do they know that all you will do is shake your finger and threatenthem without following through. If supervisors allow employees to violate safety rules,all justification for discipline disappears. Managers and supervisors should ask, "Have Iapplied safety accountability fairly and consistently in the past?"4. Supervision: By definition, adequate supervision means "detecting and correctinghazards or unsafe behavior before they cause an injury or illness." If supervisors arestuck in the office all day its not possible to oversee the work employees are doing. Lackof supervision is a major reason disciplining employees after an accident is usuallyinappropriate. Managers and supervisors should ask, "Did I catch them violating safetyrules before they got hurt?"5. Leadership: Supervisors must "walk the talk." That means they need to set the highestexamples by following all safety policies and rules, and they need to be fulfilling theother four obligations. Managers and supervisors should ask, "Am I setting the rightexample for my employees?"If managers/supervisors can honestly answer “YES” to each of the above five questions, it maybe appropriate to administer negative consequences (discipline, reprimand) because theiraccountabilities have been fulfilled first. If manager/supervisors cannot honestly answer eachquestion in the affirmative, leadership requires an apology and a commitment to makeimprovements (provider better training, resources and expectations of enforcement,supervision and leadership).Do consequences correspond with the positive or negative results of the behavior? Consequences should increase with the severity of the potential injury or illness thatmight result from the behavior. If an employee is performing an unsafe work practicethat could result in a fatal injury to himself or another employee, that certainly warrants asevere consequence. On the other hand, an employee who performs a behavior thatviolates a safety rule yet will not result in an injury or illness, a less severe consequence ismore appropriate.
  32. 32. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 32 of 94 Consequences should increase with the level of responsibility of the person performingthe behavior. If an employee neglects to perform a safe work practice such as wearingear protection, a safety rule has been violated and discipline may be in order. However, ifa supervisor or manager neglects to wear the ear protection, were not just talking aboutviolating a safety rule. That safety rule has, in effect, been legally revised. A mandatoryrequirement becomes a discretionary guideline and not auditable or enforceable.A more severe level of discipline would be in order because of the position of responsibilitythey assume. The supervisor or manager, in fact, gives permission for all employees to violatethe same safety rule. The negative impact on the safety of employees has the potential to bemuch greater when the supervisor or manager violates a safety rule.On the other hand, if a supervisor or manager does something positive, the net impact willlikely be greater than that of one of his or her employees. Consequently, more significantpositive consequences are certainly in order.Are consequences applied consistently at all levels of the organization?To build a high level of trust between management and labor, accountability must be appliedconsistently at all levels of the organization: up and down, and across functions. Everysupervisor and manager must be held accountable in the same fair manner consistent withemployees. If labor perceives the accountability system as applying only to them, they willnaturally consider it unfair: the primary failure mode for accountability systems.Element 6: Continuous Evaluation of the Accountability System.Although as a supervisor you may not be responsible for formally evaluating the accountabilitysystem its good to know that someone is. Usually, the safety coordinator and/or safetycommittee are involved in this activity. In some "state-plan" states, like Oregon, the safetycommittee is required by law to conduct an evaluation of the employers accountability system.The process usually involves three levels of activity: Identification: Inspect the accountability system policies, plans, procedures, processes toidentify what exists.
  33. 33. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 33 of 94 Analysis: Dissect and thoroughly study each accountability system policy, plan,procedure, process to understand what they look like. The devil is in the detail. Evaluation: Compare and contrast each accountability system policy, plan, procedure,process against benchmarks and best practices to judge their effectiveness.If you believe there are weaknesses in your employers accountability system, make sure totake notes on the behaviors and conditions you see in the workplace that may be pointing toaccountability system policies, plans, processes, and procedures that are inadequate or missing.Evaluating for AccountabilityOSHA looks primarily for two program elements when evaluating an employer foraccountability: Policy and consequences. OSHA does not mandate specificrecognition/disciplinary procedures: Thats the responsibility of the employer. But, an effectiveprocedure that is written and clearly communicated should be in place. Does your companyhave a written policy that addresses accountability? If it does, are the three key componentsaddressed?Whos accountable for what?Employers are held accountable by law for ensuring a safe and healthful workplace, andemployees are held accountable by their employers for individual safety behavior. Itsimportant to note that if employees are "empowered" (authorized) to perform certainresponsibilities and have control over those responsibilities; they should also be heldaccountable. For instance, if they are empowered to fix minor hazards in their work area, theyshould realize that if they dont follow through they should expect some sort of consequencesas a result.When are negative consequences appropriate?Put yourself into the role of a supervisor. It may not be appropriate to administer disciplinaryprocedures even if it first appears that an employee is not complying with safety rules. Beforedisciplining an employee, it is appropriate to first ask some very important questions todetermine if you, as a supervisor, have fulfilled your own safety responsibilities adequately.
  34. 34. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 34 of 94To think of it another way, you may be pointing the finger of discipline at an employee, butremember, the other fingers are all pointing back at you, as if to ask some very pointedquestions about how well you are fulfilling your supervisor accountabilities.The first supervisor accountability: Providing a safe environment. As stated earlier, one veryimportant supervisor accountability is to provide a safe and healthful work area. This meansproviding all those resources necessary for employees to complete their tasks safely.Jump for more information on providing a safe and healthful work area.The second supervisor accountability: Safety Training. Providing safety training is extremelyimportant supervisor accountability. Training teaches the skills to apply the knowledge theemployee has learned. Demonstration is the key to effective safety training.Go online and jump for more information on providing safety training.The third supervisor accountability: Safety Oversight. OSHA attaches a rather narrow definitionto the term "supervision," considering it to be primarily a control and monitoring function.OSHA expects someone with authority to oversee work being accomplished to make sureunsafe work conditions do not exist, and that employees use safe work practices. Adequatesupervision means detecting and correcting hazards before they cause an injury or illness.Go online and jump here for more information on safety supervision.The fourth supervisor accountability: Enforcing safety rules. Accountability is generally thoughtto mean "enforcement of safety rules" using progressive discipline. However, its important tounderstand that consequences may take many forms, and that they are not always negative. Ifprogressive discipline is used, its important that supervisors understand how to administer itfairly and consistently.Go online and jump here for more information on enforcing safety rules.
  35. 35. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 35 of 94Last WordsWell, that was a lot of information. You learned that the components of responsibility andaccountability are different. Accountability has three basic components: established standards,methods of measurement, and consequences. You also learned that supervisors haveaccountabilities associated with controlling the workplace, and employees have accountabilitiesrelated to personal behavior. Now its time to take the module quiz.
  36. 36. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 36 of 94Module 2 QuizUse this quiz to self-check your understanding of the module content. You can also go onlineand take this quiz within the module. The online quiz provides the correct answer oncesubmitted.6. According to the text, being held "accountable" may be defined as being able to give theright answers to any questions that might be asked.a. trueb. false7. One of the important responsibilities of a supervisor or manager is to make sure safety isconsidered when purchasing materials, equipment, and tools for employees?a. trueb. false8. According to the text, which of the following is not a question a manager should ask firstbefore considering discipline?a. Have I provided adequate safety training?b. Have I provided adequate resources?c. Have I provided proper safety supervision?d. All of the above9. You are a supervisor and you have just noticed an employee driving a forklift at adangerous speed in the warehouse. Today is his first day at work. Of the five questions youshould ask yourself to determine if discipline is appropriate, which one is most likely going tobe answered no?a. Have I provided as safe and healthful work area?b. Have I provided appropriate safety training?c. Have I provided proper safety supervision?d. Have I enforced safety rules in the past?
  37. 37. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 37 of 9410. According to the text, to build a high level of trust between management and labor,accountability must be:a. reviewed by the safety committeeb. applied immediately after the violationc. applied consistently at all levels of the organizationd. understood by all
  38. 38. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 38 of 94Module 3: Employee InvolvementIntroductionIts difficult to have an effective safety and health program without developing a corporatesafety culture that encourages genuine employee involvement.As we discovered in Module Two, employees are held accountable by the employer for threepersonal behaviors: (1) complying with safety rules, (2) reporting workplace injuriesimmediately, and (3) reporting hazards. We also learned that making safety suggestions andinvolvement in a safety committee or team are two very important behaviors that, althoughnot mandated, should be strongly encouraged. It makes sense for the company to developstrategies that promote these employee behaviors.This module will explore some of the effective strategies for increasing employee involvementin workplace safety. Well primarily address effective recognition because, as we learnedearlier, we do what we do to avoid negative consequences or obtain positive consequences.Recognition as a positive consequence can be quite effective in dramatically increasing dailyinvolvement in safety. Lets see what Michael Topf has to say about employee involvement:What is Employee Involvement - Michael D. TopfWhat does it look like?Employee involvement... "means participation by employees at every level. When used as partof the term employee ownership, "employee" does not refer uniquely to line or hourly workers,but to everyone involved in the organization at every level and in every department.What does it require?For any safety, health and environmental improvement process to become self-sustaining andsuccessful, it needs to become a seamless part of the organization. This is doubly true if thedesired end result is employee ownership. To that end, the process and its benefits must be seenas having value for the employees, their families and others in the company." Michael D. Topf,President, The Topf Organization www.TopfOrg.com Occupational Hazards, May 2000.
  39. 39. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 39 of 94Successful recognition programs require smart management and strong leadershipIts important to understand that administering "programs" is basically a management functionrequiring effective organizational skill. Many companies develop and implement formal safetyrecognition programs because, well, thats what theyve been told works best and thats whateveryone else does. There are many different types of safety recognition program strategiesused and promoted these days. Of course, some are more effective than others, but there iscertainly no one-fits-all program available today. To be successful, the recognition programmust fit the unique culture of the organization.For instance, you cant work a highly participative safety recognition program successfully in anoppressively authoritarian corporate culture. It just wont work. On the other hand, a world-class safety culture may not develop a managed safety recognition program with formalprocedures. Rather, managers will likely perceive the process of recognition as theiropportunity to demonstrate leadership so that ultimately, positive working relationships areestablished or reinforced.From Robert: I set up a new suggestion box at my last office. Employees were informed it wasthere to use for any suggestions they may have. I would check it once a day and they couldeither sign their suggestion or not. All suggestions would be looked into and [the] personmaking the suggestion would be advised of the outcome within (5) days or, if the suggestionwas unsigned, the outcome would be announced at our next safety meeting.Because of the feeling it was all a big joke anyway and no one really cared, only one person in12 months made a suggestion. I handled it just as I said I would. If the employees suggestionwas such that I could fix it without getting approval, I did so. Didnt seem to encourage others.The real problem was they had heard it all before and just didnt believe anymore.You will find that safety recognition programs work best when they exist within a framework ofstrong leadership. However, if your company does not currently have a formal safetyrecognition program, it doesnt necessarily mean safety incentives and recognition are not inplace and being used effectively. It just means a formal program has not been established. Inthe best case scenario where there is the presence of strong, tough-caring safety leadership, a
  40. 40. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 40 of 94formal program may not be needed because leaders are regularly providing meaningfulincentives and recognition informally, one-on-one to their employees.So, in evaluating your organizations need for incentives and recognition, take a good look at thecurrent quality of leadership. If you believe safety leadership could be improved, its probably agood idea to think about introducing and implementing some of the ideas presented in thismodule to your safety committee or safety director. By doing so, your company mayimplement an effective recognition program that can also act as a catalyst to help move thecorporate culture towards strong safety leadership.Recognition and rewardsRewards are great...Safety rewards come in a bazillion colors, flavors, and varieties. We are all motivated byprimarily two types of rewards: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards are tangible andexternal. You can touch, eat, see, smell, or otherwise use them. On the other hand, intrinsicrewards are intangible, internal, and housed within us. See some examples.But, recognition is better...Now, consider this. Is it the reward, itself, or the recognition you receive that matters most?Like many others, you probably think that the recognition behind the reward is most important.We like to be recognized and appreciated for what we do. It makes us feel that we are valuable,important, and a part of a team...something bigger than ourselves. Go online to take a lookGeigles 15 Steps to Effective Recognition.The big secret: Its not what you reward with...its what you rewardWhen designing safety recognition programs it is important to remember its not the nature ofthe reward that is most important: the big secret is recognizing appropriate behavior in theright way. To be most effective, as you learned by reading the 15 Steps to Effective Recognition,recognition needs not be formal and fancy. To be most effective, recognition needs to comefrom the heart. Listen to one of Steves short "safety sermons" on policy-driven vs. heart-drivenrecognition.
  41. 41. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 41 of 94Reactive safety incentive programsIn Module One, we talked about the concepts of reactive and proactive safety programs. Safetyincentive programs can be both reactive and/or proactive, depending on the behaviors that arebeing recognized and rewarded.Believe it or not, most companies implement reactive safety incentive programs that rewardinappropriate behavior. What might this most common behavior be?They reward "withholding injury reports."Thats right! Look for a banner or a sign that says, "80,000 bazillion work hours without areported accident!" When you see that, youll know the company is rewarding its employees fornot reporting their injuries. Sure, they might have 80,000 hours without a reported accident,but that doesnt mean the workplace is accident free: only that accidents arent being reported.In reality, the workplace may be full of the "walking wounded" who dont report an injury orillness.The problem occurs when employees, in an effort to be team players and loyal co-workers, oras a result of negative peer pressure, do not report their injuries. They do not want to ruin thesafety record for their department. In some cases the pressure is so great they will not reportan injury until the pain becomes so severe that they miss work and must report it to theirsupervisor. Consequently, the actual number of injuries in the workplace may decline, but theseverity of each injury increases, and becomes much more costly. In such cases, everybodyloses.Of course, the employer is not intending to encourage or promote "not reporting," but,because the inherent strategy of the program is flawed, it functions unintentionally to do justthat. The employer is doing the right thing...by having a recognition program...but the employeris doing it wrong...consequently the result actually functions to hurt the safety and healthprogram rather than help it.This unfortunate situation can be seen most easily when "not reporting" is the only behaviorrewarded. If appropriate behaviors are also being recognized and rewarded, the negative
  42. 42. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 42 of 94impact of this reward strategy is diminished. So, lets take a look at what those appropriatebehaviors are.Proactive safety recognition programsMore and more companies are discovering that the most effective safety recognition programsare primarily proactive. Proactive recognition programs reward employee behaviors that areboth (1) mandated by the employer and/or OSHA regulations, and (2) encouraged but notrequired. All of the proactive employer behaviors listed below actually prevent or minimize thenegative impact of injuries and illnesses in the workplace.For management:•Providing the resources for a safe and healthful workplace.•Providing effective safety education and training.•Providing effective safety supervision - oversight.•Providing and maintaining a culture of tough-caring accountability.For employees:•Complying with company and OSHA safety rules;•Reporting injuries immediately;•Reporting hazards.For all:•Making safety suggestions.•Involvement in safety (committees, teams, events, etc.).Those behaviors listed for management and employees are mandated by OSHA regulations.Making suggestions and involvement are not mandated, but should be strongly encouraged. Allof these behaviors represent highly professional behavior that should also be recognized, andwhen justified, rewarded.When employees are recognized and rewarded for these behaviors, their overall involvement insafety and health increases greatly. They become more aware, interested, and involved in
  43. 43. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 43 of 94uncovering unsafe work conditions, unsafe practices, and system weaknesses. They know thatreporting injuries as soon as they occur reduces lost work time and accident costs. It minimizeshurt (pain) for the employee...and hurt (monetary loss) for the employer.Integrate the safety recognition programSo now we come around full-circle back to our main point. Recognition is actually more afunction of leadership than management. A company that delegates safety recognitionresponsibilities to a safety director or a safety committee sets up a system that relies on only afew people to provide leadership. Of course, it also sends the message that safety is not a lineresponsibility, but a staff duty. On the other hand, an organization that places responsibilitysquarely on the heads of managers, supervisor, and employees for recognizing professionalsafety behaviors, provides everyone with opportunities to display leadership.Proactive recognition programs that workHere are a few ideas for developing a proactive safety recognition program for your company:1. Safety Buck: Supervisors carry safety bucks, and when they see someone doing somethingright, they reward them. The employee can take the safety buck to the company cafeteriafor lunch, or they can use it at a local participating store to purchase items.2. Bonus Program: When an employee identifies a hazard in the workplace that could causeserious physical harm or a fatality, they are rewarded with a bonus check. In some cases thebonus check is a fixed amount. In other programs the bonus check is a small percentage ofthe potential direct cost for the accident that might have occurred. By the way, the averagedirect cost for a disabling claim in is around $10,000. Doesnt it make sense to reward anindividual with $100 for identifying a hazard that could potentially cost the companythousands?3. Safety Hero: After an extended period of time, employees are rewarded with a certificate orbonus check for complying with company safety rules.4. Reporting Injuries: Wait a minute...Do I really mean that employees should be recognizedfor reporting injuries? Thats right. If employees report injuries immediately, they not onlyminimize the physical/psychological impact of the injury on themselves, they reduce the
  44. 44. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 44 of 94direct/indirect accident costs to the company. Both the individual and the company win ifthe employee reports injuries immediately.These are just a sample of many ideas available. There are many other ways to recognizeemployees being used by companies across the country. Call your local OSHA office to see ifthey know of companies in your area that have developed successful proactive safetyrecognition programs. Use those companies as benchmarks.Well, that about wraps it up for this module. In the next module, well take a look atcommunications and the use of safety committees. The only task left is the module quiz below.Good Luck!
  45. 45. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 45 of 94Module 3 QuizUse this quiz to self-check your understanding of the module content. You can also go onlineand take this quiz within the module. The online quiz provides the correct answer oncesubmitted.11. Mugs, jackets, safety bucks, pizza parties, certificates, and bonuses are all examples of:a. intangible recognitionb. tangible rewardsc. effective reprimandsd. tricky redirection12. Which of the following is a behavior typically rewarded in a reactive safety incentiveprogram?a. complying with safety rulesb. reporting injuriesc. withholding injury reportsd. reporting Hazards13. To be successful, the recognition program must:a. fit the unique culture of the organizationb. be formally approved by the safety committeec. meet governmental regulatory requirementsd. always recognize accident records14. All of the following are behaviors mandated by OSHA law except:a. complying with safety rulesb. reporting injuriesc. reporting hazardsd. making suggestions
  46. 46. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 46 of 9415. Which of the following is not a proactive behavior that helps prevent or minimize thenegative impact of injuries and illnesses in the workplace?a. complying with safety rulesb. withholding injury reportsc. reporting hazardsd. making suggestions
  47. 47. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 47 of 94Module 4: Effective CommunicationsIntroductionIn Module Three, we learned about the importance of recognizing appropriate safety behaviorsto improve employee involvement, the third element of a world-class safety and healthmanagement culture. In this module well continue learning about increasing employeeinvolvement through effective communications. Effective communications is extremelyimportant to the goal of increasing employee involvement in safety and health. Skilled safetycommunications will support leadership, at all levels, from the CEO to the employee. So, letsget started with a review of some basic communications concepts and principles.Return to sender...Employers put time and money into employee safety for one or more basic reasons.The most basic communication theory talks about the requirement for both a sender andreceiver in the communication process. The characteristics of the sender and receiver may bequite different. For instance, communication may take place between two individuals, twogroups, two companies, two nations, and sometime in the future...(maybe) between twoworlds. Although the scope of the communications process may expand, the process still boilsdown to basically two people talking over various channels.The sender initiates the communication and the receiver receives, interprets, and responds tothe communication. At this point the initial sender assumes the role of receiver. Where andhow the process ends depends on the purpose of the communication and the dynamics of theprocess itself. Even the simplest communication between two individuals may be a verycomplicated process.Its not what you say...its how you say it!Another important concept in communications is the Two-Level Theory which states that in anycommunications process messages are sent and received on two levels. The first level is called
  48. 48. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 48 of 94the content level and describes only what is sent. The only information transferred at this levelis data, usually in the form of spoken words.Speaking of data... Data, the android on Star Trek only communicates on the content level. Ifyou are familiar with this character you know that the failure to communicate on a relationshiplevel prevents him from becoming more like his human counterparts.The second level of communication exists on a higher, more abstract plane. Its called therelationship level which describes the communication that establishes the relationship betweenthe sender and the receiver. It is how the message is sent that sets up the relationship.Relationships between sender and receiver are always established with every communication.Generally the tone of voice and body language combine to set up relationships.Back to Star Trek (the original series)! James Kirk, the Captain of the Starship Enterprise, alwayscommunicated on both the content level and relationship level, while Mr. Spock, our favoriteVulcan, tried with some difficulty to communicate only on the content level. Consequently healways appeared cool, calm, cold, and mechanical.Lets take a closer look at the dynamics of content/relationship communications:First Scenario:Charlie Pendergast is sitting at the breakfast table reading the morning paper while his wife,Gloria is cooking up some turkey sausage and eggs (They take turns cooking). Charlie suddenlylooks up from the paper and asks rather flirtatiously, "Oh dear, when are those eggs going to bedone?" Gloria is getting positive attention from Charlie and responds casually with, "Here theycome now, dear," and brings Charlie a nice plate of bacon and eggs, and gives him a big kiss.
  49. 49. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 49 of 94Second Scenario:Charlie Pendergast is sitting at the breakfast table, face buried in the morning paper while hiswife, Gloria, is cooking up some turkey sausage and eggs. Charlie, face in paper, obviouslyirritated, verbally assaults Gloria with, "Oh Dear, WHEN ARE THOSE EGGS GOING TO BEDONE?!" Gloria feels hurt and unappreciated. She slowly turns, fire in her eyes, and says, "Herethey come now...DEAR!" and throws the plate full of eggs down on the table in front of him,and stomps off to the bedroom.In both cases, the content of Charlies message was exactly the same. However, the relationshipset up between the two in the second scenario differed greatly from that established inscenario number one. Consequently, Gloria gave Charlie a vastly different response in thesecond scenario. In the first scenario, Charlie sent a positive relationship message. In thesecond scenario, the relationship message was very negative. To Gloria, how Charlie sent themessage had far more impact than what he said.So how does all this fit into workplace safety and health?Every time a supervisor recognizes an employee for safe work behaviors, it reinforces andmakes that behavior more likely to occur in the future. It sends a very positive message, doesntit? On the other hand, if a supervisor yells at you for "complaining," a very negative message issent. But, I think the worst situation occurs when you are totally ignored by a supervisor. Itsends a message that you are invisible, unimportant, and of little or no value. Ignoring otherswho are trying to communicate is the worst response possible. People wont care why you areignoring them: They just dont like being ignored. Theyll make all kind of assumptions aboutwhy theyre being ignored, and be upset about it. Heres a tip. If you want to have betterworking relationships with co-workers, always be the first to say "hi" when you meet them forthe day. Always be first. It sends a positive message.A most important responsibility!If you are a safety committee representative, think about the relationship set up between youand your co-workers. What happens when you receive their concerns and suggestions, reportthem to the safety committee, but fail to provide feedback in a timely manner? Arent youignoring them? Again, its the worst of all possible responses. Make sure that you get back with
  50. 50. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 50 of 94your co-workers as soon as possible to let them know the status of their concerns orsuggestions. This is probably your most important job as a safety committee representative.Imagine, workers competing to be on the safety committee...Are your co-workers just "dying" to be a member of the safety committee? Most likely not.Why not? They really dont perceive much benefit from it, do they? So how do we increaseemployee involvement in the safety committee? Well, thats one of the subjects discussed inOSTN Course 701, Safety Committee Operations. But for now, its time for you to take thismodules quiz. Good luck!
  51. 51. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 51 of 94Module 4 QuizUse this quiz to self-check your understanding of the module content. You can also go onlineand take this quiz within the module. The online quiz provides the correct answer oncesubmitted.16. The words we speak when talking with another person is the __________ of the message.The tone of voice we use is likely to establish a ____________ between the sender andreceiver.a. information, distanceb. content, relationshipc. relationship, contentd. transmission, reception17. Which communication level has the greatest impact on the receiver?a. Content Levelb. Interpersonal Levelc. Personal Leveld. Relationship Level18. According to the text, this behavior probably sends the most negative message toanother person:a. debatingb. yellingc. ignoringd. arguing19. What was given as the "tip" for improving your work relationship with co-workers?a. always say "hi" firstb. never kiss up to your bossc. always look the other in the eyed. never be the first to say "hi"
  52. 52. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 52 of 9420. According to the text, if your suggestion box is continually empty, the most likelyproblem is:a. failure to check the box oftenb. failure to lock the boxc. failure to tell employees about the boxd. failure to thank employees in a timely manner
  53. 53. OSHAcademy Course 700 Study GuideCopyright © 2000-2013 Geigle Safety Group, Inc. Page 53 of 94Module 5: Hazard Identification and ControlIntroductionIn module four, we studied about communication and how it can be used to improve employeeinvolvement in the companys injury and illness prevention program. In this module, well take alook at how employees can get involved in proactive hazard identification (eh-heh...that shouldbe hazard investigation) to help eliminate hazards in the workplace.OK...so whats a hazard?Before we study identifying, investigating and controlling hazards in the workplace, itsimportant to know how OSHA defines a hazard:“Any workplace condition or a persons "state of being" that could cause an injury or illness toan employee.”Look around...what do you see?Ill bet if you look around your workplace, youll be able to locate a few hazardous conditions orwork practices without too much trouble. Did you know that at any time an OSHA inspectorcould announce their presence at your corporate front door to begin a comprehensiveinspection? What would they find? What do they look for? Now, if you used the sameinspection strategy as an inspector, wouldnt that be smart? Well, thats what Im going to showyou in this module!Controlling Exposure - The Hierarchy of ControlsControlling exposures to occupational hazards is the fundamental method of protectingworkers. Traditionally, a hierarchy of controls has been used as a means of determining how toimplement feasible and effective controls. One representation of this hierarchy is summarizedbelow.• Elimination• Substitution• Engineering controls• Administrative controls• Personal protective equipment

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