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French architechure


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french architechure

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French architechure

  1. 1. FRENCH ARCHITECHURE Submitted by:- Yaswanth reddy arch 1211110016
  2. 2. Styles used  Roman  Romanesque  Gothic  Beaux arts  Rococo  Neo classicism  Baroque  renaissance
  3. 3. Roman  The architecture of Ancient Rome at first adopted the external Greek architecture and by the late Republic, the architectural style developed its own highly distinctive style by introducing the previously little-used arches, vaults anddomes.A crucial factor in this development, coined the Roman Architectural Revolution, was the invention of concrete. Social elements such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new (architectural) solutions of their own.The use of vaults and arches together with a sound knowledge of building materials, for example, enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing structures for public use.
  4. 4. Amphitheatre  An amphitheatre (or amphitheater) is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.The term derives from theancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον (amphitheatron), from ἀμφί (amphi), meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον (théātron), meaning "place for viewing".  Ancient Greek theatres were built to a semicircular plan, with tiered seating above a performance area. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. Modern usage for "amphitheater" does not always respect the ancient usage, and so the word can embrace theatre-style stages with the audience only on one side, theatres in the round, and stadiums. Natural formations shaped like man- made theatres or amphitheatres are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres.
  5. 5. Romanesque  Architecture of a Romanesque style developed simultaneously in parts of France in the 10th century and prior to the later influence of the Abbey of Cluny.The style, sometimes called "First Romanesque" or "Lombard Romanesque", is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band.This structure has necessitated the use of very thick walls, and massive piers from which the domes spring.There are radiating chapels around the apse, which is a typically French feature and was to evolve into the chevette. Notre-Dame in Domfront, Normandy is a cruciform church with a short apsidal east end.The nave has lost its aisle, and has probably some of its length.The crossing has a tower that rises in two differentiated stages and is surmounted by a pyramidical spire of a type seen widely in France and Germany and also on Norman towers in England.The Abbey of Fongombault in France shows the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. The cruciform plan is clearly visible.There is a chevette of chapels surrounding the chance apse.The crossing is surmounted by a tower. The transepts end with gables.
  6. 6. Cluny Abbey
  7. 7. Gothic architecture  French Gothic architecture is a style of architecture prevalent in France from 1140 until about 1500, which largely divided into two styles, Early Gothic and Late Gothic style.The Early Gothic style began in 1140 and was created by penguin the pointed arch and transition from late Romanesque architecture.To heighten the wall, builders divided it into four tiers: arches , gallery, triforium, and clerestorey.  The Late Gothic style of the 13th century canonized proportions and shapes from early Gothic and developed them further to achieve light, yet tall and majestic structures.The wall structure was modified from four to only three tiers: arcade, triforium, and clerestorey.
  8. 8. gallery,Arcade,triforium and clerestorey.
  9. 9. Chartres Cathedral  The French medieval Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres) is a Roman RiteCatholic cathedral located in Chartres, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Paris. It is considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Since at least the 12th century the cathedral has been an important destination for travellers – and remains so to this day, attracting large numbers of Christian pilgrims.
  10. 10. Beaux Arts  Another Parisian style, Beaux-Arts originated from the legendary École des Beaux Arts (School of Fine Arts). Flourishing during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Symmetrical façades were ornamented with lavish details such as swags, medallions, flowers, and shields.These massive, imposing homes were almost always constructed of stone and were reserved for only the very wealthy. However a more 'humble' home might show Beaux Arts influences if it has stone balconies and masonry ornaments. Many American architects studied at the École des Beaux Arts, and the style strongly influenced United States architecture from about 1880 to 1920.
  11. 11. Palais Garnier  The Palais Garnier (pronounced: [palɛ ɡaʁnje]; English: Garnier Palace) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera. It was originally called the Salle des Capucines because of its location on the Boulevard des Capucines in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, but soon became known as the Palais Garnier in recognition of its opulence and its architect, Charles Garnier.The theatre was also often referred to as the Opéra Garnier, the Opéra de Paris or simply the Opéra. It was the primary home of the Paris Opera and its associated Paris Opera Ballet until 1989, when a new 2,700-seat house, the Opéra Bastille, with elaborate facilities for set and production changes, opened at the Place de la Bastille.The Paris Opera now mainly uses the Palais Garnier for ballet.  The Palais Garnier is "probably the most famous opera house in the world, a symbol of Paris like Notre Dame cathedral, theLouvre, or the Sacré Coeur basilica."This is at least partly due to its use as the setting for Gaston Leroux's 1910 novel The Phantom of theOpera and the novel's subsequent adaptations in films and Andrew LloydWebber's popular 1986 musical.Another contributing factor is that among the buildings constructed in Paris during the Second Empire, besides being the most expensive, it has been described as the only one that is "unquestionably a masterpiece of the first rank."This opinion is far from unanimous however: the 20th-century French architect Le Corbusier once described it as "a lying art" and contended that the "Garnier movement is a décor of the grave".
  12. 12. Rococo  Rococo developed first in the decorative arts and interior design. Louis XIV's succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By the end of the old king's reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter elements with more curves and natural patterns.These elements are obvious in the architectural designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Régence, court life moved away fromVersailles and this artistic change became well established, first in the royal palace and then throughout French high society. The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is often seen as perfectly in tune with the excesses of Louis XV's regime.  The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France. Rococo still maintained the Baroque taste for complex forms and intricate patterns, but by this point, it had begun to integrate a variety of diverse characteristics, including a taste for Oriental designs and asymmetric compositions.The style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture.The Rococo style spread with French artists and engraved publications. It was readily received in theCatholic parts of Germany, Bohemia, andAustria, where it was merged with the lively German Baroque traditions.
  13. 13. Arc de Triomphe
  14. 14. Neoclassicism  The first phase of neoclassicism in France is expressed in the "Louis XVI style" of architects likeAnge-Jacques Gabriel (PetitTrianon, 1762–68); the second phase, in the styles called Directoire and "Empire", might be characterized by Jean Chalgrin’s severe astylar Arc de Triomphe (designed in 1806). In England the two phases might be characterized first by the structures of Robert Adam, the second by those of Sir John Soane.The interior style in France was initially a Parisian style, the "Goût grec" ("Greek style") not a court style. Only when the young king acceded to the throne in 1771 did Marie Antoinette, his fashion-loving Queen, bring the "Louis XVI" style to court.  From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism that is called the Greek Revival. Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond— a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals— although from the late 19th century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles. By the mid-19th century, several European cities - notably St Petersburg,Athens, Berlin and Munich- were transformed into veritable museums of Neoclassical architecture. By comparison, the Greek revival in France was never popular with either the State or the public. What little there is started with Charles deWailly's crypt in the church of St Leu-StGilles (1773– 80), and Claude Nicolas Ledoux's Barriere des Bonshommes (1785-9). First-hand evidence of Greek architecture was of very little importance to the French, due to the influence of Marc-Antoine Laugier's doctrines that sought to discern the principles of the Greeks instead of their mere practices. It would take until Laboustre's Neo-Grec of the second Empire for the Greek revival to flower briefly in France.
  15. 15. Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg  Kazan Cathedral or Kazanskiy Kafedralniy Sobor (Russian: нский льный р), also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, is a cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Nevsky Prospekt in St. Petersburg. It is dedicated to Our Lady of Kazan, probably the most venerated icon in Russia.
  16. 16. Baroque  French Baroque is a form of Baroque architecture that evolved in France during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610– 43), Louis XIV (1643–1714) and Louis XV (1714–74). French Baroque profoundly influenced 18th-century secular architecture throughout Europe. Although the open three wing layout of the palace was established in France as the canonical solution as early as the 16th century, it was the Palais du Luxembourg (1615–20) by Salomon de Brosse that determined the sober and classicizing direction that French Baroque architecture was to take. For the first time, the corps de logis was emphasized as the representative main part of the building, while the side wings were treated as hierarchically inferior and appropriately scaled down.The medieval tower has been completely replaced by the central projection in the shape of a monumental three-storey gateway.  Probably the most accomplished formulator of the new manner was François Mansart, credited with introducing the full Baroque to France. In his design for Château de Maisons (1642), Mansart succeeded in reconciling academic and baroque approaches, while demonstrating respect for the gothic-inherited idiosyncrasies of the French tradition. Maisons-Laffitte illustrates the ongoing transition from the post-medieval chateaux of the 16th century to the villa-like country houses of the eighteenth.The structure is strictly symmetrical, with an order applied to each story, mostly in pilaster form.The frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with remarkable plasticity and the whole ensemble reads like a three-dimensional whole. Mansart's structures are stripped of overblown decorative effects, so typical of contemporary Rome. Italian Baroque influence is muted and relegated to the field of decorative ornamentation.  The next step in the development of European residential architecture involved the integration of the gardens in the composition of the palace, as is exemplified byVaux-le-Vicomte (1656–61), where the architect Louis Le Vau, the designer Charles Le Brun and the gardenerAndré Le Nôtre complemented each other. From the main cornice to a low plinth, the miniature palace is clothed in the so-called "colossal order", which makes the structure look more impressive.The creative collaboration of LeVau and Le Nôtre marked the arrival of the "Magnificent Manner" which allowed to extend Baroque architecture outside the palace walls and transform the surrounding landscape into an immaculate mosaic of expansive vistas
  17. 17. Vaux-le-Vicomte  The Château deVaux-le-Vicomte is a baroque French château located in Maincy, near Melun, 55 km southeast of Paris in the Seine-et-Marne département of France. It was built from 1658 to 1661 for Nicolas Fouquet, Marquis de Belle Île,Viscount of Melun andVaux, the superintendent of finances of Louis XIV.  The château was an influential work of architecture in mid- 17th century Europe. AtVaux-le-Vicomte, the architect Louis LeVau, the landscape architect André le Nôtre, and the painter-decorator Charles Le Brun worked together on a large-scale project for the first time.Their collaboration marked the beginning of the "Louis XIV style" combining architecture, interior design and landscape design.The garden's pronounced visual axis is an example of this style.
  18. 18. Renaissance  During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but also stylistic ideas. In the LoireValley a wave of building was carried and many Renaissance chateaux appeared at this time, the earliest example being the Château d'Amboise (c. 1495) in which Leonardo daVinci spent his last years.The style became dominant under Francis I (See Châteaux of the LoireValley).  The style progressively developed into a French Mannerism known as the Henry II style under architects such asSebastiano Serlio, who was engaged after 1540 in work at the Château de Fontainebleau.At Fontainebleau Italian artists such as Rosso Fiorentino, Francesco Primaticcio, and Niccolo dell' Abbate formed the First School of Fontainebleau.Architects such as Philibert Delorme,Androuet du Cerceau,GiacomoVignola, and Pierre Lescot, were inspired by the new ideas. The southwest interior facade of the Cour Carree of the Louvre in Paris was designed by Lescot and covered with exterior carvings by Jean Goujon. Architecture continued to thrive in the reigns of Henry II and Henry III.
  19. 19. Château de Chenonceau