Catedra 5 -_diseño_de_bienes_y_servicios


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Catedra 5 -_diseño_de_bienes_y_servicios

  2. 2. Proceso general ... Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 2
  3. 3. Matriz de diseño del producto El lado derecho de la matriz permite; • Definir las características del producto que contribuyen a cumplir con las necesidades. • Asegurar que cada necesidad prioritaria sea satisfecha al menos por una característica del producto. • Asegurar que cada característica contribuye a satisfacer por lo menos a una necesidad importante de los clientes. • Las medidas de las características del producto se pueden derivar de una manera técnica de la medidas de las necesidades. • Ej. El cliente requiere que el asiento de un auto sea cómodo, esto se traduce en parámetros específicos de las dimensiones y estructura. Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 3
  4. 4. Matriz de diseño del producto Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 4
  5. 5. Proceso general ... Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 5
  6. 6. Matriz de diseño del proceso Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 6
  7. 7. Matriz de diseño del procesoEJEMPLO: Matriz de diseño delproceso de un servicio decuidado del césped. Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 7
  8. 8. Proceso general ... Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 8
  9. 9. controles del proceso• El control se centra en cosas especificas, se denominan <sujetos del control>. Estos son una mezcla de;• Características del producto (ej. diámetro interior alojamiento). Los controles del producto están asociados con la decisión ¿está el producto conforme con las especificaciones o las metas?• Características del proceso (ej. Temperatura del horno de fusión). Los procesos de control están asociados con la decisión ¿deberá el proceso seguir o parar? Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 9
  10. 10. controles del procesoMatriz de control Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 10
  11. 11. QFD – INDUSTRIA SERVICIOS Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 11
  12. 12. QFD – INDUSTRIA SERVICIOS Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 12
  14. 14. Dell Computer Company “How can we make the process of buying a computer better?”Sell custom-built PCs directly to consumerBuild computers rapidly, at low cost, andonly when orderedIntegrate the Web into every aspect of itsbusinessFocus research on software designed tomake installation and configuration of itsPCs fast and simple Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 14
  15. 15. QUE ENTENDEMOS POR PROCESO EFFECTIVENESS OF PROCESS = Ability to achieve desired results Input Interrelated or interacting OutputRequirements Specified activities and control Requirements Satisfied (Includes resources) methods (Result of a process) Monitoring and Measuring EFFICIENCY OF PROCESS = Results achieved vs. resources used Procesos: Es cualquier parte de la organización que toma input y los transforma en output Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 15
  16. 16. ENFOQUE DE PROCESOS Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 16
  17. 17. ENFOQUE DE SISTEMAS Outputs from Outputs from other processes other processesInputs Outputs Outputsto A from D PROCESS A Inputs to B from B Inputs to D PROCESS B PROCESS D Outputs from A Outputs Inputs to C from C PROCESS C Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 17
  18. 18. PROCESOS DE NEGOCIOS• IBM Corporation was among the first American companies to see the benefits of identifying and managing business processes. Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 18
  19. 19. IDENTIFICACION DE PROCESOS Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 19
  20. 20. DOCUMENTACION DE PROCESOS Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 20
  21. 21. MAPEO DE PROCESOS Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 21
  22. 22. MAPEO – IDEF0The IDEFØ FunctionModeling method isdesigned to model thedecisions, actions, andactivities of anorganization or system.IDEFØ is not only themost widely used, butalso the most fieldproven functionmodeling method foranalyzing andcommunicating thefunctional perspective ofa system. EffectiveIDEFØ models assist inorganizing systemanalysis and promotingeffective communicationbetween the analyst Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 22and the customer.
  23. 23. MAPEO – IDEF0 Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 23
  24. 24. Process, Volume, and Variety Volume Low Repetitive High Volume Process VolumeHigh Varietyone or few Process Focus Mass Customizationunits per run, projects, job shops (difficult to achieve,high variety (machine, print, but huge rewards)(allows carpentry) Dell Computer Co.customization) Standard RegisterChanges inModulesmodest runs,standardized Repetitivemodules (autos, motorcycles) Harley DavidsonChanges inAttributes Product Focus(such as grade, Poor Strategy (commercialquality, size, (Both fixed baked goods,thickness, etc.) and variable steel, glass)long runs only costs are Alvarez Celedón, ICI Víctor Nucor Steel 24 high)
  25. 25. Few High Low Multiple Major Volume, Volume Products, Products, High One of a Low Higher Standard- Kind Volume Volume ization I. Commercial Flexibility (High) Job Printer Unit Cost (High) Shop French Restaurant II. Heavy Batch Equipment Coffee Shop III. Automobile Assembly Assembly Line Burger King IV. Sugar Continuous Refinery Flexibility (Low) Flow Unit Cost (Low)Source: Modified from Robert Hayes and Steven Wheelwright, Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competing through Manufacturing (NewYork: John Wiley & Sons, 1984). p. 209. 13
  26. 26. Process StrategiesFour basic strategies Process focus Repetitive focus Product focus Mass customizationWithin these basic strategies there aremany ways they may be implemented Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 26
  27. 27. Process FocusFacilities are organized around specificactivities or processesGeneral purpose equipment and skilledpersonnelHigh degree of product flexibilityTypically high costs and low equipmentutilizationProduct flows may vary considerablymaking planning and scheduling achallenge Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 27
  28. 28. Process Focus Print Shop High Many varietyinputs of outputs Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 28
  29. 29. Repetitive FocusFacilities often organized asassembly linesCharacterized by modules with partsand assemblies made previouslyModules may be combined for manyoutput optionsLess flexibility than process-focusedfacilities but more efficient Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 29
  30. 30. Repetitive Focus Automobile Assembly Line Raw Modulesmaterials combined and for manymodule output inputs options Few modules Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 30
  31. 31. Process Flow Diagram Frame tube Frame-building Frame Hot-paint bending work cells machining frame painting THE ASSEMBLY LINE TESTING Engines and Incoming parts 28 tests transmissions From Milwaukee on a JIT arrival Air cleaners Oil tank work cell schedule Fluids and mufflers Shocks and forks Fuel tank work cell Handlebars Wheel work cell Fender work cell Roller testing CratingFigure 7.3 Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 31
  32. 32. Product FocusFacilities are organized by productHigh volume but low variety ofproductsLong, continuous production runsenable efficient processesTypically high fixed cost but lowvariable costGenerally less skilled labor Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 32
  33. 33. Product Focus Bottling Plant Output variation Many in size,inputs shape, and packaging Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 33
  34. 34. Product Focus D A Scrap Nucor Steel Plant steelContinuous caster B C Electric Ladle of molten steel furnace Continuous cast steel sheared into 24-ton slabs Hot tunnel furnace - 300 ft E F Hot mill for finishing, cooling, and coiling H G I Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 34
  35. 35. Comparison of Processes Process Repetitive Product Focus Mass Focus Focus (High-volume, Customization(Low volume, (Modular) low-variety) (High-volume, high variety) high-variety)Small quantity, Long runs, Large quantity, Large quantity,large variety of standardized small variety of large variety ofproducts product made products products from modulesGeneral Special Special Rapidpurpose equipment aids purpose changeover onequipment in use of equipment flexible assembly line equipment Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 35
  36. 36. Comparison of Processes Process Repetitive Product Focus Mass Focus Focus (High-volume, Customization(Low volume, (Modular) low-variety) (High-volume, high variety) high-variety)Operators are Employees are Operators are Flexiblebroadly skilled modestly less broadly operators are trained skilled trained for the necessary customizationMany job Repetition Few work Custom ordersinstructions as reduces orders and job require manyeach job training and instructions job instructionschanges changes in job because jobs instructions standardized Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 36
  37. 37. Comparison of Processes Process Repetitive Product Focus Mass Focus Focus (High-volume, Customization(Low volume, (Modular) low-variety) (High-volume, high variety) high-variety)Raw material JIT Raw material Raw materialinventories procurement inventories are inventories arehigh techniques low low usedWork-in- JIT inventory Work-in- Work-in-process is high techniques process process used inventory is low inventory driven down by JIT, lean production Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI Table 7.2 37
  38. 38. Comparison of Processes Process Repetitive Product Focus Mass Focus Focus (High-volume, Customization(Low volume, (Modular) low-variety) (High-volume, high variety) high-variety)Units move Movement is Swift Goods moveslowly through measured in movement of swiftly throughthe plant hours and days unit through the the facility facility is typicalFinished goods Finished goods Finished goods Finished goodsmade to order made to made to often made to frequent forecast and order forecast stored Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI Table 7.2 38
  39. 39. Comparison of Processes Process Repetitive Product Focus Mass Focus Focus (High-volume, Customization(Low volume, (Modular) low-variety) (High-volume, high variety) high-variety)Scheduling is Scheduling Relatively Sophisticatedcomplex, based on simple schedulingtrade-offs building scheduling, required tobetween various models establishing accommodateinventory, from modules output rate to custom ordersavailability, to forecasts meet forecastscustomerservice Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI Table 7.2 39
  40. 40. Comparison of Processes Process Repetitive Product Focus Mass Focus Focus (High-volume, Customization(Low volume, (Modular) low-variety) (High-volume, high variety) high-variety)Fixed costs Fixed costs Fixed costs Fixed costslow, variable dependent on high, variable high, variablecosts high flexibility of the costs low costs must be facility lowCosting Costs usually High fixed costs High fixed costsestimated known due to mean costs and dynamicbefore job, not extensive dependent on variable costsknown until experience utilization of make costing aafter job is capacity challengecomplete Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI Table 7.2 40
  41. 41. Mass CustomizationThe rapid, low-cost production ofgoods and service to satisfyincreasingly unique customerdesiresCombines the flexibility of aprocess focus with the efficiencyof a product focus Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 41
  42. 42. Mass CustomizationTable 7.1 Number of Choices Early 21st Item Early 1970s CenturyVehicle models 140 260Vehicle types 18 1,212Bicycle types 8 19Software titles 0 300,000Web sites 0 46,412,165Movie releases 267 458New book titles 40,530 77,446Houston TV channels 5 185Breakfast cereals 160 340Items (SKUs) in 14,000 150,000 supermarkets Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 42
  43. 43. Mass Customization Repetitive Focus Modular design Flexible equipment Modular techniques Mass Customization Effective Rapid scheduling throughput techniques techniques Process-Focused Product-Focused High variety, low volume Low variety, high volumeLow utilization (5% to 25%) High utilization (70% to 90%)General-purpose equipment Specialized equipment Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 43
  44. 44. Crossover Charts Variable costs Variable Variable $ costs $ costs $ Fixed costs Fixed costs Fixed costs Low volume, high variety Repetitive High volume, low variety Process A Process B Process C st $ t co os t t al cos lc To T otal ta To 400,000 300,000 200,000 Fixed cost Fixed cost Fixed cost Process A Process B Process CFigure 7.6 (2,857) V1 V2 (6,666) Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 44 Volume
  45. 45. Changing ProcessesDifficult and expensiveMay mean starting overProcess strategy determinestransformation strategy for anextended periodImportant to get it right Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 45
  46. 46. Process Analysis and Design Flow Diagrams - Shows the movement of materials Time-Function Mapping - Shows flows and time frame Value Stream Mapping - Shows flows and time and value added beyond the immediate organization Process Charts - Uses symbols to show key activities Service Blueprinting - focuses on customer/provider interaction Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 46
  47. 47. Time-Function Mapping Order Receive Customer product product Process Sales order Production Wait control Plant A Print Warehouse Wait Wait Wait Plant B Extrude Transport Move Move 12 days 13 days 1 day 4 days 1 day 10 days 1 day 0 day 1 dayFigure 7.7 Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 47 52 days
  48. 48. Process Chart Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 48 Figure 7.8
  49. 49. Service BlueprintFocuses on the customer andprovider interactionDefines three levels of interactionEach level has differentmanagement issuesIdentifies potential failure points Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 49
  50. 50. Service Blueprint Personal Greeting Service Diagnosis Perform Service Friendly CloseLevel Customer arrives #1 for service Customer departs Customer pays bill Determine Notify Warm greeting specifics customer and obtain No and recommend service request an alternative Standard provider request CanLevel service be #2 done and does No Direct customer customer to waiting room approve? Notify customer the car is ready Yes Yes PerformLevel required work #3 Potential failure point Prepare invoiceFigure 7.9 Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 50
  51. 51. Process Analysis ToolsFlowcharts provide a view of thebig pictureTime-function mapping adds rigorand a time elementValue stream analysis extends tocustomers and suppliersProcess charts show detailService blueprint focuses oncustomer interaction Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 51
  52. 52. Service Process Matrix Degree of Customization Low High Mass Service Professional Service Private banking Commercial banking High General- Full-service purpose law firms Degree of Labor stockbroker Boutiques Retailing Service Factory Law clinics Service Shop Limited-service Specialized stockbroker hospitals Warehouse and Fast food Fine-dining catalog stores restaurants Hospitals Low restaurants Airlines No frillsFigure 7.10 airlines Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 52
  53. 53. Service Process MatrixMass Service and Professional Service Labor involvement is high Selection and training highly important Focus on human resources Personalized servicesService Factory and Service Shop Automation of standardized services Low labor intensity responds well to process technology and scheduling Tight control required to maintain standards Víctor Alvarez Celedón, ICI 53