Earthquakes

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Earthquakes

  1. 1. Yasmina Pardo González 1º Baccalaureate Earthquakes
  2. 2. *INDEX* <ul><li>What are earthquakes? </li></ul><ul><li>Richter’s scale & measuring earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic waves </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>What information can give us the Earthquakes? </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Lorca’s Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Fukushima’s Earthquake </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are earthquakes? <ul><li>Eartquakes are ground vibrations caused by the abrupt release of energy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Richter’s scale & measuring earthquakes <ul><li>Earthquakes are recorded by a &quot;Seismograph“ it draws graphs called “Seismograms” and represents the propagating waves . </li></ul>The Richter’s scale is a scale that designs a number to earthquakes for quantify the energy released. Total destruction 8 or more Cause serious damages 7.0 – 7.9 Cause several damages 6.1 – 6.9 Causing damage to buildings 5.5 – 6.0 Cause minor damage 3.5 – 5.4 Don’t feel 3.5 or less Efects Magnitude
  5. 5. <ul><li>Seismic waves are waves that moves into the ground and </li></ul><ul><li>destroys the lithosphere. Exist three types of seismic </li></ul><ul><li>waves, they are: </li></ul><ul><li>P waves: they are longitudinal waves, they go through all types of materials, do not very dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>S waves: they are transverse waves, they go through liquid materials, they are a bit dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial waves: they are most dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>there is two types: </li></ul><ul><li>- Rayleigh waves (R) </li></ul><ul><li>- Love waves (L) </li></ul>Seismic waves http://www.ua.es/ursua/ondas.htm
  6. 6. Efects of earthquakes <ul><li>Some efects that cause </li></ul><ul><li>an earthquake are: </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of homes </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of infrastructure (roads, bridges ...) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil damage </li></ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur aftershocks from the earthquake </li></ul>
  7. 8. What information can give us the earthquakes? <ul><li>Wave speed fluctuates, the changes in wave’s velocity are called discontinuities </li></ul><ul><li>Speed depends on the composition of materials, and the physical condition of these materials </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinuities are used to  differentiate the layers in which Earth is divided. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Earthquakes in the World 8.5 11/11/1922 Chile 8.7 04/02/1965 Alaska 8.7 06/11/1958 Kuriles islands 8.8 09/03/1957 Alaska 8.8 31/01/1906 Ecuador 8.8 27/02/2010 Chile 9.0 28/12/2004 Indonesia 9.0 04/11/1952 Rusia 9.2 28/03/1964 Alaska 9.5 22/05/1960 Chile MAGNITUDE DATE COUNTRY
  9. 10. Lorca’s Earthquake <ul><li>It was happened 11 th may 2011, Lorca, Murcia (Spain). </li></ul><ul><li>It had a magnitude of 5.1 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquake was also felt in the provinces of Almería, Albacete, Granada, Jaén, Málaga, Alicante, Ciudad Real and places of Madrid. Multiple aftershocks occurred later. The Region of Murcia, is the most active seismic zone of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvn148YDQmc& feature = related </li></ul>
  10. 11. Fukushima’s Earthquake <ul><li>An earthquake shook Fukushima in 11 th March 2011. It caused a tsunami. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of the earthquake and tsunami, there was an explosion in nuclear reactors . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elmundo.es/especiales/2011/terremoto-japon/terremoto_tsunami.html </li></ul>
  11. 12. FUKUSHIMA'S TSUNAMI
  12. 13. LINKS <ul><li>http://www.lpi.tel.uva.es/~nacho/docencia/ ing_ond _1/trabajos_06_07/io3/ public_html /Ondas/ Ondas.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ua.es/ursua/ondas.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Biology & geology’s book </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elmundo.es/especiales/2011/terremoto-japon/terremoto_tsunami.html </li></ul><ul><li>Imágenes: http:// www.google.es / imghp?hl = es&tab = ii </li></ul><ul><li>www.youtube.com </li></ul>

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