PRESENTATION OF INSTRUMENTALCONDITIONINGBYGROUP ABCGROUP MEMBER:AHMAD ALIYASIR NAEEMMOHSIN ALINABEEL KHALIDMUHAMMAD USMAN
 Experiments oninstrumentalconditioning areconducted byAmericanPsycologist B.FSkinner.
 Experiments oninstrumentalconditioning areconducted byAmericanPsycologist B.FSkinner. He was Born onMarch 20, 1904in Pe...
INTRUMENTAL CONDITIONINGIntruemntal conditioning is anotherterm of operant conditioning.
INTRUMENTAL CONDITIONINGIntruemntal conditioning is anotherterm of operant conditioning.In Intrumental Conditioning,rein...
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box.
EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food.
EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this ope...
EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this ope...
EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this ope...
EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this ope...
NEXTMohsin Ali
CONTINUE…
CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible.
CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible. The pigeon explored the skinnerbox and p...
CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible. The pigeon explored the skinnerbox and p...
CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible. The pigeon explored the skinnerbox and p...
CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours.
CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours. He saw that the pigeon learnsto discrim...
CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours. He saw that the pigeon learnsto discrim...
CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours. He saw that the pigeon learnsto discrim...
CONTINUE… It proves that positivereinforcement (food)strengthens the CR (conditionresponse) and negativereinforcement (el...
CONTINUE… It proves that positivereinforcement (food)strengthens the CR (conditionresponse) and negativereinforcement (el...
CONTINUE… It proves that positivereinforcement (food)strengthens the CR (conditionresponse) and negativereinforcement (el...
NEXTyasir Naeem
REINFORCEMENT & TYPESReinforcement is any event that strengthens orincreases the behavior it follows.
REINFORCEMENT & TYPESReinforcement is any event that strengthens orincreases the behavior it follows.There are Four types ...
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENTA positive reinforcement adds astimulus to increase or maintain the frequencyof a behavior. The incr...
EXAMPLE: Food Money Water
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENTBehavior that terminates the negativereinforcement likely to increase or bemaintained in frequency.T...
EXAMPLE:The pigeon when pecking on redlight, get shock, does not peck it again.
NEXTNabeel Khalid
POSITIVE PUNISHMENTPositive punishment occurs when abehavior (response) is followed by a stimulus.
EXAMPLESuch as introducing a shock or loudnoise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
NEGATIVE PUNISHMENTNegative punishment occurs when abehavior (response) is followed by the removal ofa stimulus.
EXAMPLESuch as taking away a childs toyfollowing an undesired behavior, resulting in adecrease in that behavior.
NEXTMuhammad Usman
DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow possible learningwithout reinforcement.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalCond...
DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow possible learningwithout reinforcement. The subjects showpossible even withoutreinfor...
DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow latent learningwithout reinforcement. Emotions of fear areacquired or learned onthe p...
DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow latent learningwithout reinforcement. Emotions of fear areacquired or learned onthe p...
DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Extinction occur whenconsistantreinforcement stops.Cl...
DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innateor unlea...
DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innateor unlea...
DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innate orunlea...
DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innate orunlea...
Prensentation of psychology
Prensentation of psychology
Prensentation of psychology
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Prensentation of psychology

  1. 1. PRESENTATION OF INSTRUMENTALCONDITIONINGBYGROUP ABCGROUP MEMBER:AHMAD ALIYASIR NAEEMMOHSIN ALINABEEL KHALIDMUHAMMAD USMAN
  2. 2.  Experiments oninstrumentalconditioning areconducted byAmericanPsycologist B.FSkinner.
  3. 3.  Experiments oninstrumentalconditioning areconducted byAmericanPsycologist B.FSkinner. He was Born onMarch 20, 1904in PennsylvaniaUnited State andDied on August18, 1990 inMassachusettsUnited State.
  4. 4. INTRUMENTAL CONDITIONINGIntruemntal conditioning is anotherterm of operant conditioning.
  5. 5. INTRUMENTAL CONDITIONINGIntruemntal conditioning is anotherterm of operant conditioning.In Intrumental Conditioning,reinforcement or punishment are usedto either increase or decrease theprobability that a behaviour will occuragain in the future.
  6. 6. EXAMPLE
  7. 7. EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box.
  8. 8. EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food.
  9. 9. EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this operation, itincidently pressed the lever andfound the food. It tried again andagain.
  10. 10. EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this operation, itincidently pressed the lever andfound the food. It tried again andagain. At last it lerned that food isattained by pressing the lever.
  11. 11. EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this operation, itincidently pressed the lever andfound the food. It tried again andagain. At last it lerned that food isattained by pressing the lever. FooD was a reinforce for the ratto press the lever.
  12. 12. EXAMPLE Skinner put a hungry rat in theSkinner Box. The hungry rat ran here andthere in search of food. During this operation, itincidently pressed the lever andfound the food. It tried again andagain. At last it learned that food isattained by pressing the lever. Food was a reinforce for the ratto press the lever. The act of pressing lever andgetting food was a conditionedresponse in InstrumentalConditioning.
  13. 13. NEXTMohsin Ali
  14. 14. CONTINUE…
  15. 15. CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible.
  16. 16. CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible. The pigeon explored the skinnerbox and pecked here and there.
  17. 17. CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible. The pigeon explored the skinnerbox and pecked here and there. Suddenly it pecked on the blackdot on the white card and foodwas delivered. It pecked formany times, but it got only whenit pecked on the black dot.
  18. 18. CONTINUE… A hungry Pigeon was closed inthe Skinner Box and food wasnot visible. The pigeon explored the skinnerbox and pecked here and there. Suddenly it pecked on the blackdot on the white card and foodwas delivered. It pecked formany times, but it got only whenit pecked on the black dot. After many repeated trails, itlearned that the pecking on theblack dot, give food. Pecking on black dot andreceiving food conditionedreponse.
  19. 19. CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours.
  20. 20. CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours. He saw that the pigeon learnsto discriminate betweendifferent colours of light.
  21. 21. CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours. He saw that the pigeon learnsto discriminate betweendifferent colours of light. If it sees that pecking on greenand red light gives an shockand pecking on yellow lightdoes not give anything.
  22. 22. CONTINUE… Skinner inserted many keys forpecking in different illuminatedcolours. He saw that the pigeon learnsto discriminate betweendifferent colours of light. If it sees that pecking on greenand red light gives an shockand pecking on yellow lightdoes not give anything. The number of pecking ongreen light will be highest andthe last on red light.
  23. 23. CONTINUE… It proves that positivereinforcement (food)strengthens the CR (conditionresponse) and negativereinforcement (electric block)weakens the CR.
  24. 24. CONTINUE… It proves that positivereinforcement (food)strengthens the CR (conditionresponse) and negativereinforcement (electric block)weakens the CR. In Intrumental conditioning ofSkinner, the animals learnedthe operation of an instrument.
  25. 25. CONTINUE… It proves that positivereinforcement (food)strengthens the CR (conditionresponse) and negativereinforcement (electric block)weakens the CR. In Instrumental conditioning ofSkinner, the animals learnedthe operation of an instrument. Food or the reward, a positivereinforcement was conditionedwith the correct use ofoperation of the instrument.
  26. 26. NEXTyasir Naeem
  27. 27. REINFORCEMENT & TYPESReinforcement is any event that strengthens orincreases the behavior it follows.
  28. 28. REINFORCEMENT & TYPESReinforcement is any event that strengthens orincreases the behavior it follows.There are Four types of reinforcement: Primary Reinforcement Secondary Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative Punishment
  29. 29. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENTA positive reinforcement adds astimulus to increase or maintain the frequencyof a behavior. The increase in behavior isindependent of whether the organism finds thepositive reinforcement "pleasant" or not.
  30. 30. EXAMPLE: Food Money Water
  31. 31. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENTBehavior that terminates the negativereinforcement likely to increase or bemaintained in frequency.The negative reinforcement ispresent before the behavior.
  32. 32. EXAMPLE:The pigeon when pecking on redlight, get shock, does not peck it again.
  33. 33. NEXTNabeel Khalid
  34. 34. POSITIVE PUNISHMENTPositive punishment occurs when abehavior (response) is followed by a stimulus.
  35. 35. EXAMPLESuch as introducing a shock or loudnoise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
  36. 36. NEGATIVE PUNISHMENTNegative punishment occurs when abehavior (response) is followed by the removal ofa stimulus.
  37. 37. EXAMPLESuch as taking away a childs toyfollowing an undesired behavior, resulting in adecrease in that behavior.
  38. 38. NEXTMuhammad Usman
  39. 39. DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow possible learningwithout reinforcement.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  40. 40. DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow possible learningwithout reinforcement. The subjects showpossible even withoutreinforcement.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  41. 41. DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow latent learningwithout reinforcement. Emotions of fear areacquired or learned onthe presentation ofloud noises associatedto harmless animals. The subjects showlatent even withoutreinforcement.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  42. 42. DIFFERENCES The subject do notshow latent learningwithout reinforcement. Emotions of fear areacquired or learned onthe presentation ofloud noises associatedto harmless animals. The subjects showlatent even withoutreinforcement. Behavior is shaped andstrengthened byrewarding desiredbehavior and weekendor diminished bypunishment.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  43. 43. DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  44. 44. DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Extinction occur whenconsistantreinforcement stops.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  45. 45. DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innateor unlearned responseto some is called therespondant behavior. Extinction occur whenconsistantreinforcement stops.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  46. 46. DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innateor unlearned responseto some is called therespondant behavior. Extinction occur whenconsistantreinforcement stops. Behavior is learnedthat operates on theenvironment, producingconsequence is calledthe operant behavior.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  47. 47. DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innate orunlearned response tosome is called therespondant behavior. The controlling stimulusi.e, bell comes before theresponse of salivation. Extinction occur whenconsistantreinforcement stops. Behavior is learnedthat operates on theenvironment, producingconsequence is calledthe operant behavior.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning
  48. 48. DIFFERENCES Extinction occurs whenCS is repeatedlypresented alone. Behavior that occurs asan automatic or innate orunlearned response tosome is called therespondant behavior. The controlling stimulusi.e, bell comes before theresponse of salivation. Extinction occur whenconsistant reinforcementstops. Behavior is learned thatoperates on theenvironment, producingconsequence is calledthe operant behavior. The controlling stimulus areinforce comes after theresponse i.e food afterpressing lever.Classical Conditioning Operant/InstrumentalConditioning

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