2001;19:721-723Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
Beat Kipfer, Didier Lardinois, Jürgen Triller and Thierry Carrel
neurofibromatosis
...
Case report
Embolization of a ruptured intercostal artery aneurysm
in type I neuro®bromatosis
Beat Kipfera,*, Didier Lardi...
without any pathological ®ndings. However, there was a
spot of contrast medium surrounded by a capsule in the
hematothorax...
[6] Riccardi V. Neuro®bromatosis: phenotype, natural history, and
pathogenesis. The Johns Hopkins University Press 1992:12...
2001;19:721-723Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
Beat Kipfer, Didier Lardinois, Jürgen Triller and Thierry Carrel
neurofibromatosis
...
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pII: S1010-7940(01)00644-3

  1. 1. 2001;19:721-723Eur J Cardiothorac Surg Beat Kipfer, Didier Lardinois, Jürgen Triller and Thierry Carrel neurofibromatosis Embolization of a ruptured intercostal artery aneurysm in type I This information is current as of December 1, 2010 http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/5/721 located on the World Wide Web at: The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is ISSN: 1010-7940. European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved. Print for Cardio-thoracic Surgery and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Copyright © 2001 by The European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery is the official Journal of the European Association by on December 1, 2010ejcts.ctsnetjournals.orgDownloaded from
  2. 2. Case report Embolization of a ruptured intercostal artery aneurysm in type I neuro®bromatosis Beat Kipfera,*, Didier Lardinoisb , JuÈrgen Trillerc , Thierry Carrela a Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital, Freiburgstrasse 10, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland b Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital, Freiburgstrasse 10, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland c Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Freiburgstrasse 10, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland Received 19 September 2000; received in revised form 31 January 2001; accepted 21 February 2001 Abstract We present the case of a female with history of a ruptured lumbar aneurysm years ago. She was known to have neuro®bromatosis type I with the typical clinical signs. The patient was transferred to us with a hematothorax and an aortic lesion was suspected on the outside CT scan. Reevaluation of the investigation raised suspicion of a ruptured intercostal artery aneurysm, which was consequently demonstrated on angiography. The aneurysm was embolized and the patient recovered uneventful. We will discuss the optimal therapy for vessel lesions in neuro®bromatosis type I. q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Neuro®bromatosis; Intercostal artery aneurysm; Embolization 1. Introduction Neuro®bromatosis is an autosomal dominant disease with eight distinct subtypes [1]. Type I and type II are the most common subtypes. The gene responsible for neuro®bromatosis type I (NF I) is located near the centro- mere in the long arm of chromosome 17. The incidence of this common genetic disorder is 1 in 2500±3000. The char- acteristic ®ndings are multiple cafeÂ-au-lait spots (six or more lesions), auxillary freckling or Crowe's sign, numer- ous ®bromas and Lisch nodules or hamartomas [2]. Lisch nodules are the most common clinical feature, seen in 94% of children older than 6 years, and 97±100% of post puber- tal patients with peripheral neuro®bromatosis. Characteris- tic dermal ®bromas and subcutaneous neuro®bromas generally appear in late childhood or adolescence. The neuro®bromas are hamartous in nature and of multicellular origin, composed mostly of Schwann cells, but also containing ®broblasts, mast cells and macrophages. In addition to these cutaneous signs, pheochromocytomas, intracranial tumors, Schwann cell tumors and syringomye- lia are seen frequently. Children and young adults with neuro®bromatosis may present vascular lesions predomi- nantly in the abdominal aorta, the renal arteries, the inter- nal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries [3]. In this age group, neuro®bromatosis is the most common genetically determined renovascular disorder resulting from ®bromus- cular dysplasia of the media [4]. Arterial lesions may include compression due to an extrinsic tumour, intramural thickening and saccular or fusiform aneurysm due to vascular dysplasia. We report a case of a ruptured intercostal artery aneur- ysm with hematothorax treated successfully with emboli- zation. 2. Case presentation A 42-year-old female presenting with the phenotype of NF I was operated 6 years ago in another hospital because of a ruptured lumbar artery aneurysm. Surgery consisted in replacement of the infrarenal aorta with a PTFE graft after local repair had to be abandoned because of excessive bleeding. The patient recovered well and had gained full activity; no further investigation was performed. Recently, she was admitted to an outside hospital complaining of chest pain since several days and an unexplained loss of consciousness. Chest X-ray revealed a right hematothorax. Computed tomography (CT) scan raised the suspicion of an aortic lesion. The patient was transferred in stable hemodynamic condition but with a hemoglobin value of 90 g/l. Reviewing the outside CT scan, the thoracic aorta was European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 19 (2001) 721±723 1010-7940/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S1010-7940(01)00644-3 www.elsevier.com/locate/ejcts * Corresponding author. Tel.: 141-31-6328332; fax: 141-31-6322919. E-mail address: beat.kipfer@insel.ch (B. Kipfer). by on December 1, 2010ejcts.ctsnetjournals.orgDownloaded from
  3. 3. without any pathological ®ndings. However, there was a spot of contrast medium surrounded by a capsule in the hematothorax on the right side (Fig. 1). Because of the previous history of a lumbar aneurysm, an aortography was performed: this investigation demonstrated a ruptured aneurysm of an intercostal artery (Fig. 2). In view of the previous dif®culties in aneurismal repair, an endovascular procedure was selected. The aneurysm was successfully embolized with several ®bered platinum coils (Vortexw ®bered platinium coil-18, Boston Scienti®c/Target, Galway, Ireland) which allowed to block the arterial feeding from both sides. A chest drainage was placed in the right pleural cavity after the intervention. However, several days after initial bleeding, the hematothorax was already organized. Because of impaired oxygenation, the patient underwent two days later successful thoracoscopic evacuation and decortication. During this intervention, the embolized aneurysm was identi®ed. The patient was discharged without complications but she denied to have any further investigations. 3. Discussion The typical arterial lesions encountered in neuro®broma- tosis type I are compression of a major vessel due to an intramural tumour and saccular or fusiform aneurysm due to vascular dysplasia. In large arteries, the main pathology is due to proliferation of intramuscular Schwann cells followed by secondary ®brosis whereas in smaller arteries, mesodermal dysplasia with stenosis, post-stenotic dilatation or aneurismal degeneration may be the main pathogenetic mechanism [2]. The variety of the underlying pathologic process is responsible for the different clinical presentations of the vascular lesions, the most frequent one being stenosis of the renal artery [5]. It has been suggested that all patients with type I neuro- ®bromatosis have some degree of vasculopathy and post- mortem examinations frequently show arterial thickening, stenosis and aneurysms [6]. Since the majority of these lesions may be clinically silent, vascular involvement in type I neuro®bromatosis has been underestimated in the past and is frequently diagnosed in emergency situations. Previous reports have emphasized that the treatment of such lesions may be surgical resection or endovascular occlusion of the vessel since reconstructive procedures are hazardous due to the fragility of the vascular wall [7± 9]. In the present case contrast CT scan immediately allowed to suspect a bleeding artery in the right pleural cavity and angiographies precisely de®ned the vessel which was embolized successfully during the same proce- dure: this allowed immediate endovascular treatment once diagnosis was established. In conclusion, patients with type I neuro®bromatosis not rarely suffer from potentially dangerous vascular lesions and should be investigated by CT ± scan or angiographies even in the absence of symptoms. Aneurismal lesions may be best treated by endovascular occlusion since surgical reconstruction may be challenging because of the fragility of the vascular wall. References [1] Xu G, O'Connell P, Viskochil D. The neuro®bromatosis type I gene encodes a protein related to GAP. Cell 1990;62:599±608. [2] Riccardi V. Von Recklinghausen neuro®bromatosis. N Engl J Med 1981;305:1617±1627. [3] Sharma A. Renal artery aneurysm, hypertension and neuro®bromato- sis. J R Soc Med 1991;84(6):373±374. [4] Huppman J, Gahton V, Bowers V, Mills J. Neuro®bromatosis and arterial aneurysms. Am Surg 1996;62(4):311±314. [5] Riccardi V. Neuro®bromatosis: past, present, and future. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1283±1285. B. Kipfer et al. / European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 19 (2001) 721±723722 Fig. 1. Thoracic CT-scan revealing the spot of contrast medium suggesting an aneurysm. Fig. 2. Selective angiography demonstrating the intercostal aneurysm (arrow). by on December 1, 2010ejcts.ctsnetjournals.orgDownloaded from
  4. 4. [6] Riccardi V. Neuro®bromatosis: phenotype, natural history, and pathogenesis. The Johns Hopkins University Press 1992:124± 127. [7] Saitoh S, Matsuda S. Aneurysm of the major vessels in neuro®broma- tosis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1998;117(1/2):110±113. [8] Teitelbaum G, Hurvitz R, Esrig B. Hemothorax in type I neuro®bro- matosis. Ann Thorac Surg 1998;66(2):569±571. [9] Hassen-Khodja R, Declemy S, Batt M, Castanet J, Perrin C, Ortonne J. Visceral artery aneurysms in Von Recklinghausen's neuro®bromatosis. J Vasc Surg 1997;25(3):572±575. B. Kipfer et al. / European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 19 (2001) 721±723 723 by on December 1, 2010ejcts.ctsnetjournals.orgDownloaded from
  5. 5. 2001;19:721-723Eur J Cardiothorac Surg Beat Kipfer, Didier Lardinois, Jürgen Triller and Thierry Carrel neurofibromatosis Embolization of a ruptured intercostal artery aneurysm in type I This information is current as of December 1, 2010 & Services Updated Information http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/5/721 including high-resolution figures, can be found at: References http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/5/721#BIBL This article cites 7 articles, 1 of which you can access for free at: Citations s http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/5/721#otherarticle This article has been cited by 3 HighWire-hosted articles: Subspecialty Collections http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/collection/chest_wall Chest wall following collection(s): This article, along with others on similar topics, appears in the Permissions & Licensing http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/misc/Permissions.shtml or in its entirety can be found online at: Information about reproducing this article in parts (figures, tables) Reprints http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/misc/reprints.shtml Information about ordering reprints can be found online: by on December 1, 2010ejcts.ctsnetjournals.orgDownloaded from

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