Kinesiology 406

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Kinesiology 406

  1. 1. Kinesiology 406 Motor control, motor learning and skilled performance
  2. 2. Useful information  Associate Professor, Dr. John Buchanan  Web page: http://bucksplace.tamu.edu  Syllabus  handouts by section  Articles  etc.
  3. 3. Useful information - Grading  Exams and quizzes  6 quizzes  3 major exams  1 comprehensive final  Questions:  MC, short-answer, Fill-in-the-blank, Essay, true-false, labeling-drawing graphs, Computations  Assignments:  Lab exercise: required  Class project  Experimental participation  3 experimental sessions and 1 write-up  Review paper  An 8 page review of literature on a specific topic, based on 4 articles
  4. 4. Chapter 1 The Classification of Motor Skills
  5. 5.  As a scientific discipline, the area of motor control … Motor control: definition
  6. 6.  As a scientific discipline, the area of motor learning … Motor learning: definition
  7. 7. Degrees of freedom: the problem of motor control? (the outflow side)  What can a muscle do?  How many muscles in the human body?  How many possible muscle activity patterns are there?  How many nerve cells in the brain?
  8. 8. Sensory-perceptual processes as part of the problem of motor control? (the inflow side)  What is the role of our sensory systems in controlling our actions and learning?  What does it mean to perceive something?  What does it mean to remember or recognize something?  Why is paying attention important for learning?
  9. 9. How can the problem be approached?  Physical mechanisms  Abstract processes  Theoretical (representing information)
  10. 10. Similarities and differences  Which of these two actions are the most similar and why?
  11. 11. 11 Basic Terminology  Voluntary control  Movements (and kinematics)  An action (or motor skill)
  12. 12. 12 Classifying actions based on muscles  Muscle size  Fine actions  Gross actions
  13. 13. 13 Classifying actions based on starting, stopping, and rhythm  General action type  Continuous  Discrete  Serial (sequential)
  14. 14. 14 Classifying actions within the environment  Action initiation and context stability  Closed motor skills  Open motor skills
  15. 15. Chapter 2 The Measurement of Human Performance
  16. 16. 16 Experiment: Participants  Populations  Samples  Selecting a sample
  17. 17. 17 Experiment: manipulating, measuring, and baseline  Independent variable  Dependent variable  Control condition  Experimental condition
  18. 18. 18 Dependent variables: performance outcome (goal-action) measures  Temporal measures  Reaction time (RT):  Movement time (MT):  Spatial measures
  19. 19. 19 Dependent variables: performance production (movement) measures  Kinematics  Electromyography  Brain signals
  20. 20. 20 How do you record outcome and production measures?  Computers  Keypads  Joystick or mouse
  21. 21. How do you record kinematic production measures?  Computers and motion analysis system  Sampling the action over time
  22. 22. Viewing kinematic data  Stick figure representation of movements and actions
  23. 23. 23 Plotting kinematic data: time series and angle-angle plot extension flexion Flex Elbow extend FlexWristextend Wrist angle Elbow angle 60 deg
  24. 24. 24 Displacement and velocity 30 cm 0 Vel(cm/s) Time (sec) 0 1.75.5 Vel. = Speed. =
  25. 25. 25 Displacement and EMGS Targets 1 sec Degree EMG(mV) 0 100 200 300 Small Targets -20 -10 0 10 20 Biceps Degree EMG(mV) 0 100 200 300 -20 -10 0 10 20 Triceps near far  How is muscle activity related to limb movement?
  26. 26. 26 Analyzing performance and outcome measures: mean = (x)/n  Arithmetic mean: elbow-wrist flexion-extension task (x)/n = (x)/n =  Why is the mean important? elbow (flx-ext) 59 59 60 61 60 61 59 61 wrist (flx-ext) 57 58 62 63 64 66 54 61
  27. 27. 27 Computing errors for outcome and performance measures  The task has a specific goal and the participant receives a score.  Constant error (CE)  Absolute error (AE)  Variable error (VE)
  28. 28. 28 Constant error (CE): directional bias  Goal: elbow-wrist flexion-extension task – 60 degrees of rotation Elbow Deg. Error 1) 59 2) 59 3) 60 4) 61 5) 60 6) 61 7) 59 8) 61 Wrist Deg. Error 1) 57 2) 58 3) 62 4) 63 5) 64 6) 66 7) 54 8) 61 start: CE = end: CE = Mean CE = Mean CE =
  29. 29. 29 Absolute error (AE): accuracy start: AE = end: AE = Mean AE = Mean AE =  Goal: elbow-wrist flexion-extension task – 60 degrees of rotation Elbow Deg. Error 1) 59 2) 59 3) 60 4) 61 5) 60 6) 61 7) 59 8) 61 Wrist Deg. Error 1) 57 2) 58 3) 62 4) 63 5) 64 6) 66 7) 54 8) 61
  30. 30. 30 Variable error (VE): consistency Wrist angle data MnCE score (Mn-sc) (Mn-sc)2 (Summed)/n sqrt 3.375  x/n = VE =  Goal: elbow-wrist flexion-extension task – 60 degrees of rotation
  31. 31. 31 Analyzing performance and outcome measures: mean (x)/n  Arithmetic mean: simple reaction time (RT) scores RT (sec.) .500 .450 .525 .475 .370 .600 .510 .490 RT (sec.) .210 .215 .225 .205 .202 .222 .217 .208
  32. 32. Constant error (CE): directional bias  Goal: learn to complete an action in a specific time, MT=1.5 secs Start of practice MT Error 1) 1.2 sec 2) 1.9 sec 3) 1.3 sec 4) 1.1 sec 5) 1.1 sec End of practice MT Error 1) 1.6 sec 2) 1.7 sec 3) 1.7 sec 4) 1.6 sec 5) 1.8 sec start: ce = end: ce = Mean CE = Mean CE =
  33. 33. End of practice MT Error 1) 1.6 sec 2) 1.7 sec 3) 1.7 sec 4) 1.6 sec 5) 1.8 sec Start of practice MT Error 1) 1.2 sec 2) 1.9 sec 3) 1.3 sec 4) 1.1 sec 5) 1.1 sec Absolute error (AE): accuracy start: ae = end: ae = Mean AE = Mean AE =  Goal: learn to complete a movement in a specific time, MT=1.5 secs
  34. 34. Variable error (VE): consistency Start of Practice data CE MnCE score (Mn-sc) (Mn-sc)2 (Summed)/n sqrt  VE =  Goal: learn to complete a movement in specific time, MT=1.5 secs
  35. 35. Root mean square error (RMSE) tracking task T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 10 0 20
  36. 36. 36 Root mean square error 10 targets 1) 9 2) 20 3) 9 4) 18 5) 8 6) 16 7) 7 8) 14 9) 6.5 10) 6 10 scores 1) 9.1 2) 22 3) 4 4) 20 5) 5 6) 18 7) 6.5 8) 19 9) 5.5 10) 5 RMSE 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) RMSE = T1 T2 T3
  37. 37. 37 Brain recordings and imaging  EEG  fMRI  PET
  38. 38. 38 fMRI: functional MRI - BOLD  Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) deep surface
  39. 39. 39 Kandel, Schwartz, Jessel (1991). Principles of Neuroscience, Figure 22-5, pp .315 top - nose Figure 2C radioactive tracer – sugar (surface and deep structures) Level of tracer in neurons Positron emission tomography: PET scan - rCBF
  40. 40. 40 Kandel, Schwartz, Jesse (1991). Principles of Neuroscience, Figure 22-6, pp .316 PET scan and visual stimuli
  41. 41. Chapter 4 Neuromotor Basis of Motor Control
  42. 42. 42 Types and Functions of Neurons  Three types of functional neurons  Where does an action start and where does it end?
  43. 43. 43 lateral view Cerebral hemispheres Left right dorsal view
  44. 44. eye face lips jaw tongue swallow brow neck thumb fingers hand wrist elbow arm shoulder trunk hip knee toes 44 pharynx tongue jaw gums teeth lips face nose eye thumb fingers hand forearm elbow armhead neck trunk hip leg toes Somatotopic maps: commands to muscles and body sensation to cortex Penfield and Rasmussen (1950)
  45. 45. 45 Electroencephalography (EEG): movement preparation
  46. 46. 46 Motor cortex to muscles  Crossing over of control signals Left-H. Right-H.  Connectivity and surface area
  47. 47. 47 Motor planning and sequencing areas
  48. 48. 48 B. A. C. Anatomy and function: MRI and PET
  49. 49. 49 Continuous and discrete actions  Schaal et al. (2004). Right wrist flexion-extension motion  4 actions (Fig. 1A and 1B) ext flx ext flx ext flx ext flx
  50. 50. 50 Continuous and discrete actions: brain activity patterns Schaal et al. (2004). Figure 2C  Bilateral activity  Unilateral (contra-) activity
  51. 51. 51 Subcortical structures Basal ganglia – 4 components
  52. 52. Caudate Basal Ganglia pathways Putamen Globus Pallidus Substantia nigra
  53. 53. 53 spinal cord Brain stem and cerebellum
  54. 54. 54 Cerebellum and timing  Ivry et al., (2002). Spencer et al., (2003).  Discrete tapping  Continuous motion
  55. 55. 55 Dorsal Ventral Spinal cord: sensory-motor information flow
  56. 56. 56 Alpha (a) motor neuron  Input  Conduction  output
  57. 57. 57 Muscle fibers and motor neurons
  58. 58. Alpha(a)-Gamma () co-activation A) Alpha MN activates: A B B) Gamma MN co-activated:
  59. 59. 59 Features of the motor unit  420,000:  252,000,000:  Average ratio  Force output
  60. 60. 30-50% Time (sec) 1 2 3 4 5 Force production: The size principle and motor unit activation
  61. 61. 61 Spinal circuitry and Final common path  Reflexes  Interneurons
  62. 62. 62 100 Time in msecs Muscle tension Patellar tendon struck Knee Jerk Muscle efferent Muscle spindle afferent 0 Stretch reflex: mono-synaptic Sensory cell Motor neurons ext ext
  63. 63. 63 Inter-neurons and information divergence Painful stimuli
  64. 64. sensory input Crossed-extensor reflex: divergence Extensors inhibited Flexors excited Extensors excited Flexors inhibited + excitation - inhibition inter- neuron Motor neurons Sensory cell axon extflx
  65. 65. 65 + - + Descending Signal Information feedback: inhibition
  66. 66. 66 a motor neuron Final common path: information convergence
  67. 67. 67 Hierarchy of the Motor System  Strategy (planning)  PMC, SMA, basal ganglia  Tactics (setting parameter for execution)  MC, cerebellum, basal ganglia  Execution  Brain stem and spinal cord
  68. 68. Chapter 9 Attention as a limited capacity resource
  69. 69. 69 Two main aspects of attention  Splitting attention  Focusing of attention
  70. 70. 70 Information processing model  3 stage model of cognitive motor processes CNS
  71. 71. 71 Splitting attention  Dual task paradigm SP RS RP SP RS RP
  72. 72. 72 Splitting attention: a simple motor task  Force output and attention (Leob, 1886)  The dual task  Variables  Finding
  73. 73. Splitting attention: Gait and Parkinson’s disease  O’Shea et al. (2002)  Primary task  Secondary task
  74. 74. Splitting attention: Gait and Parkinson’s disease Walking speed Stride length Controls PDs Controls PDs Motor (coins) Cognitive (count) o Look at the standing task that was also done with this experiment.
  75. 75. 75 Splitting attention: a clinical setting  Geurts and Mulder (1994) – relearning  What is an appropriate Dual task?  Variables  8 weeks of rehabilitation therapy
  76. 76. 76 CoP (sway) and attention CoPVelocity 2 weeks 8 weeks
  77. 77. 77 Cell phone and driving Why talking and driving don’t mix!  Reaction time  Red lights  Cell phone – bigger impact than!  Brain activity
  78. 78. 78 Central-resource capacity: Flexible allocation (Kahneman 1973)  Rules of allocation  Cognitive effort
  79. 79. 79 Multiple-resource theories (Wickens 1992)
  80. 80. 80 Arousal, attention and performance  Levels of arousal  low, optimal, high arousal Performance low poor high best
  81. 81. 81 Focusing Attention  Width  Direction  Switching  Automaticity – skill level
  82. 82. 82 Neural basis of attention  Reticular activation system (red lines)  Emerges from the reticular formation in brainstem
  83. 83. 83 Visual selective attention
  84. 84. Visual selective attention  Shank and Haywood (1987)  Kato and Fukuda (2002)
  85. 85. 85 85 Chapter 10 Memory components, forgetting, and strategies
  86. 86. 86 Principles of human remembering and forgetting  What are the functional roles of memory?  How are memories encoded, stored, and recalled based on these functional roles?  Comparison of verbal and motor memory
  87. 87. 87 Multiple memory model  Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)  Baddeley (1986, 1995) Working Memory Long-term memory
  88. 88. 88 Working memory (WM) static characteristics  Duration  Capacity  Action example - Ille and Cadopi (1999)
  89. 89. 89 Increasing WM capacity: subjective organization (chunking)  Starkes et al (1987)  Who remembers the most (produces the most) under a given condition?  Why do the experts remember more in the structured condition?
  90. 90. 90 Long-term memory (LTM) characteristics  Functional LTM systems  Knowledge  Capacity and Duration
  91. 91. 91 Neural aspects of LTM memory formation  H.M. (1950’s) suffered from epilepsy 
  92. 92. Mirror Tracing Mirror Hand blocked from view  Mirror tracing  Retention tests
  93. 93. 93 Remembering and forgetting  Encoding  Retrieval  Forgetting
  94. 94. 94 sliding handle Encoding: Categorization of actions  Magill and Lee (1987)  Free recall:
  95. 95. 95 Encoding: verbal cues and actions  Shea (1977) - lever positioning task – without vision  3 verbal cues labels 3 12 2 111 10  Recall interval
  96. 96. 96 Verbal cues as mnemonics for movements 5 sec 60 sec AE(deg) Retention interval (sec) 5 6 7 8 9
  97. 97. 97 Proactive interference: WM  Location and distance Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Experimental group Control group
  98. 98. 98 Retroactive interference: WM Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Experimental group Control group
  99. 99. 99 Retroactive interference: motor task  Stelmach and Kelso (1970) A
  100. 100. 100 Interfering with motor consolidation  Muellbacher et al (2002) – TMS study  Task:  Goal  Issue:
  101. 101. 101 TMS immediately after practice  Hypothesis:  Experimental group  Control group  3 Practice sessions P3P2 1.0 2.5 0.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 P1 1.0 2.5 0.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 NormalizedAcceleration Motor cortex Occ. cortex Pre-frontal rTMS1 rTMS2
  102. 102. 102 TMS long delay after practice  Hypothesis:  Experimental group  Control group  1 Practice session rTMS 1.0 2.5 0.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 NormalizedAcceleration 1.0 2.5 0.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 P2P1 6-hrrest
  103. 103. 103 Attention, memory, and learning  Foerde et al. (2006).  Dual task paradigm – shape sorting task  fMRI data
  104. 104. 104 Neuro-anatomical regions and memory  No-distraction:  Secondary task  Multitasking
  105. 105. Material for Test #1 Chapters 1, 2, 4, 9, and 10

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