COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 1
Handout 7 Learning/Memory and Language
Nature of learning (synaptic plasticity)
Definition:
a. Per...
COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 2
Hippocampus
What is it?
Functions:
- _______________ of memory (STM  LTM)
- acts as the “pointer”...
COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 3
b. Is it unique to humans?
c. Are language and thought interrelated?
d. Universal language?
Birdso...
COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 4
 You inject ______________ into one hemisphere of the brain. It puts that one hemisphere
to sleep...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Handout 7 2010 - Welcome to my website

250 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
250
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Handout 7 2010 - Welcome to my website

  1. 1. COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 1 Handout 7 Learning/Memory and Language Nature of learning (synaptic plasticity) Definition: a. Perceptual: b. Motor: c. Stimulus-response: Examples: Classical/Pavlovian conditioning a. b. present _______ (unconditioned stimulus), dog _______________(unconditioned response) c. turn on light (__________ stimulus) before presenting food d. dog salivates to light (___________ response) Instrumental/Operant learning a. you study b. you get an A c. reward will increase/decrease probability of studying again d. Relational: the relationships among individual stimuli (_________, ____________,______________) Nature of memory Definition: Common Model of Memory processes Squire’s taxonomy of memory Short-Term Memory Sensory Memory Long-Term Memory Sight Sound Taste Touch Smell Attention Ela boration and Orga nization Retriev al Rehear sal Lost Lost
  2. 2. COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 2 Hippocampus What is it? Functions: - _______________ of memory (STM  LTM) - acts as the “pointer” and as “links” sensory info together - ____________and ___________memory (taxidriver studies showed that hippocampal volume correlated with the experience) - detection of __________stimuli - ______________ (even as adult): growth of new neurons Malfunctions: - Severe anterograde amnesia: - Mild retrograde amnesia: - Problems navigating space - Seizures - most common origin is in the ___________________ - why? Because it is a ____________________ circuit - Susceptible to _______________________ disease (first symptom of disease is the loss of STM) - Hippocampus and depression - smaller hippocampus in clinically depressed individuals due increased levels of ________________ (stress hormone) Neuroanatomy - __________________ circuit Place cells - Definition: Activity Dependent Synaptic Plasticity - increased/decreased strengthening is how associations are made - neuroanatomical changes - - - - longer lasting change = Language Methods of communications: What is the importance of communication? a. Allows for _________________ __________________ b. Allows for ______________________________________________ Language acquisition a. Is language genetic or is it learned? a. Chomsky:
  3. 3. COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 3 b. Is it unique to humans? c. Are language and thought interrelated? d. Universal language? Birdsong - The anatomy of birdsong (bird “language”) is similar to that in human systems. They have a _____________ ____________________. - Acquisition of birdsong suggests that there is a _________________ for developing language. Birds that aren’t exposed to their species’ birdsong will not be able to detect it in the future. - _____________________occurs every Spring when they learn different versions of songs Non-human primates (our close relative) - There have been many efforts to teach speech/symbols/language to apes - Their system is highly dynamic or static? - Vocalizations are __________________ meaning “AH”= snake and will always mean snake (AH is a made up vocalization) - Slight lateralization - There is a limit to what they can learn!! Adult monkeys know the same amount of words as a _______________. - There is debate whether or not they have the ability to learn language o Savage-Rumbaugh believes: o Pinker believes: What is language? a. Includes ____________________ (phonetics,morphology, syntax, semantics) b. ________________ (letters) c. Ability to represent __________________ situations d. Ability to articulate something new e. Intention to communicate f. Infinite system of communication Why is language important? a. Humans are the only species to use language with ________________ (rules governing word order) and __________________ properties a. The dog bit the man vs. The man bit the dog i. Different order of words changes meaning completely b. Language comprehension is ___________ and______________ (something we take for granted) a. __________ task:shows it takes a lot longer to state the color of the words rather than the word itself c. Language production is _______________ and involves _______________ systems a. Alex the parrot could learn new sounds and manipulate words into a distinct order Lateralization Left hemisphere responsibilities Right hemisphere responsibilities Language Disorders - General knowledge o Language disorders can be caused by many things o Language disorders most commonly result from damage to the__________________ hemisphere o To test language dominance: use ____________________ test
  4. 4. COGS 17 Handout 7 pg. 4  You inject ______________ into one hemisphere of the brain. It puts that one hemisphere to sleep and if language is affected you’ll know that that side of the brain is responsible for language - Types o Paraphasia: o Neologism: o Non-fluent speech: o Agraphia: o Alexia: Aphasias Broca’s Where: Symptoms: Wernicke’s Where: Symptoms: - Global aphasia: - Damage to ____________ _____________ (fibers that connect Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas) causes inability to repeat spoken words Language pathways 1. Repeating a spoken word a. A1  _______________  _________________ ______________  ________________ 2. Repeating a written word a. V1  __________________________ ________________ __________________ Sign languages Do they work the same way? Other languages - Evidence suggests all languages rely on same or different? circuits - Kids learn languages way easier than adults Dyslexia - Problem ______________,more common in ____________ who are ________________ - Switch ____________________ around (telephone becomes enohpelet) - Acquired dyslexia = _______________ - Deep dyslexia = William’s Syndrome - Genetic disorder (chromosome__________) - Extremely good at ________________but can’t do ______________,tend to be highly _________ - Almost a mirror image of an ______________child - This suggests that you can dissociate _______________from _______________; they are independent processes

×