• Cognitive disorders affects memory, orientation, attention
and judgment due to primary or secondary abnormalities
of the central nervous system (CNS).
• Neurocognitive diseases develop mostly in later stage of
• Cognitive patient’s may suffer with psychiatric symptoms
like depression, anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, and
• Delirium, dementia, and amnestic disorder are some of
the major cognitive disorders.
• Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome also known as
acute confusional state.
• It is a temporary mental state which may cause
confusion, anxiety, incoherent speech, and
• Delirium may cause change in cognition e.g memory
deficit, disorientation, language disturbance.
• Males are at higher risk to suffer with delirium.
• Toxins, surgery, head injury, shock or infections in brain
by bacteria, viral, etc. may be the major cause of the
• The term dementia is derived from the Latin word
demens (“de” :private, “mens”: mind, intelligence,
• It causes long term loss of ability to think and represent
decline from a previous level of functioning.
• This is more common in females.
• May be caused by Alzheimer’s, HIV, Head trauma,
Parkinson’s disease, Pick’s disease, Huntington’s
• It is a deficit memory caused by damage in brain or
• This may be caused by head trauma, traumatic events,
use of heavy alcohol or physical deficiencies.
• Q-What is neurogenesis?
• A- neurogenesis is the formation of neurons in the womb.
• Q- Neuron numbers can be increased by taking coffee?
• A-well this is hypothetical question researchers are still
working on it.
• Q-Does coffee prevents risk of Alzheimer’s Diseases?
• A- Yes, consuming coffee regularly reduces risk of
• Q-How drugs gives us sensation of pleasure?
• A-Due to release of an neurotransmitter “Dopamine” you
get sensation of pleasure.
• Q-What proteins are formed during Alzheimer’s?
• A-Researchers are still working on it, basically it is beta
amyloid and tau protein.
• Q-How do we feel sleepy?
• A-It is due to release of an neurotransmitter “Melatonin”