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Improvement in food crops


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Improvement in food crops

  2. 2. CONTENT • Need for increasing food production • Improvement in crop yield • Improvement in countries 2
  3. 3. Our country is second in population in the world with 125 crores . For such a huge population we will require 241 million tonnes of grain production per annum to feed our people .Therefore it is necessary to increase the production of plants.This resulted in a variety of “revolutions” which made India self – reliant .These revolutions include green revolution , blue revolution , white revolution and yellow revolution. Introduction
  4. 4. • Kharif Crop : • These crop grow during rainy season - • [ June to October] .They are also known as summer season crops .Few examples of kharif crops are – Garlic ,lady finger, black gram, green gram, plum ,peach etc. • Rabi Crop: • These crops are grown during November to April . Rabi crops are known as winter crops . • Some examples of rabi crops are – cabbage , cauliflower , carrot , radish , beans etc. Crop Season
  5. 5. • The plant breeding means production of new varieties or stains by a programme of artificial selection spanning several generations of the organism concerned . • Plant breeding is a science as well as art of improving genetic make up of plant in relation to their economic use . Plant Breeding for High Yielding Crops
  6. 6. The art of recognising valuable traits and incorporating them into future generation is very important in plant breeding . Breeder search for individual plants that exhibit desirable traits . The two most desirable qualities of food plants are high yield and natural resistance to disease Crop Improvement for high yield
  7. 7. 7 Need for increasing food production Our population is more than one billion and it is still growing. We will need more than a billion tones of grain every year to feed this growing population. Since the area of land for cultivation is limited, it is necessary to increase the production efficiency of crops. The production efficiency of crops can be increased by adopting scientific management practices to improve crop yield, undertaking mixed farming.
  8. 8. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 USA India Brazil Canada Argentina Food production increase 2012 2000 8 Food production increased in 2012
  9. 9. 9 Improvement in crop yield :- Crop yield can be improved by three main activities. :- i) Crop variety improvement ii) Crop production improvement iii) Crop protection management
  10. 10. Crop variety improvement :- • Crop variety improvement is done by selecting good varieties of crops. • Another way of improving crop variety is by introducing a gene to obtain the desired characteristic. This produces genetically modified crops. 10
  11. 11. Crop production management :- Crop production management includes i) Nutrient management ii) Irrigation iii) Cropping management 11
  12. 12. Nutrient management :- • Plants get nutrients from air, water and soil. There are sixteen nutrients required by plants for their proper growth. Air supplies oxygen and carbon dioxide, water supplies hydrogen and the remaining thirteen nutrients are obtained from the soil. • The other seven are required in small quantities and are called micro nutrients. Soil can be enriched by supplying nutrients in the form of manures and fertilizers. 12
  13. 13. Manures :-manures are natural fertilizers . They are bulky sources of organic matter which supply nutrients in small quantities , and organic matter in large quantities. Manure enrich the soil with nutrients , they add organic matter , the organic matter in manures provides food for the soil organism . Types of manure :- Farmyard Manure [FYM] Compost: Prepared from farm and town refuse such as vegetables and animal refuse Manure & Fertilizers
  14. 14. • Fertilizers provide plant nutrients , commercially manufactured using chemicals. Fertilizers supply Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium [NPK] .They are used for the vegetative growth. Fertilizers are divided into following group :- • 1] Nitrogenous fertilizers • 2] Phosphatic fertilizers • 3] Potassic fertilizers • 4] Complex fertilizers Manure & Fertilizers
  15. 15. Irrigation :- • The supply of water to the crops is called irrigation. Water is necessary for the proper growth of plants and helps to increase crop yield. • Different kinds if irrigation systems are used to supply water to agricultural land. They are wells, canals, rivers, tanks etc. 15
  16. 16. Crop protection management:- • Crops in the field are damaged by weeds, insect pests . Weeds are unwanted plants which grow in the field. Insect pests cause damage to the root, stem and leaves. They can reduce crop yield. Storage of grains :- • The factors responsible for the damage and loss of grains are like bacteria, fungi, insects etc. Before storage, the grains are cleaned and dried in sunlight to remove moisture and the storage places are fumigated to kill pests. 16
  17. 17. Thanks