Establishment of individuality
of a person
Identity may be required in:


The living



The dead


Recently dead



Putrefied / decomposed bodies



Mutilated b...
LIVING


Computerized national identity card



Photographs – Front & profile



Permanent identification marks – moles...
IDENTITY MAY HAVE TO BE DETERMINED IN:
1. Mass disasters
2. Where C.N.I.C. Not available
3. Traffic accidents
4. Abscondin...
DETERMINATION OF PERSONAL IDENTITY


3rd party identification



Subjective methods



Objective identification
Parameters of Identification


Age, sex, stature , weight



Physical characters

Facial features


Eyes, nose, lips, c...
Personal Identity
Methods of Identification
1.

CNIC – Particulars / Photograph / Finger Prints/ Iris examination

2.

Fin...




3rd Party Verification Of Identity By Relatives /
Friends
Subjective :
Physical characters
 Facial features
 Heigh...
Subjective identification:
 Body as a whole:




Facial features:




Age, sex, stature , weight

Eyes, nose, lips, c...










stature = 12.67 + 2.09 x (femur length
+ sum of lumbar vertebrae)
• stature = 48.63 + 2.32 x (tibia len...
Estimation of stature (length /height)


Entire skeleton length +1½for soft tissues



Tip middle finger to tip middle ...
Stature from long bone
Length of bone x Multiplication Factor
Bone
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Femur
Tibia
Fibula

M.F
5.0
6.3
6.0...
Objective methods


Morphological data – height – weight – peculiarities



Belongings


Non biological – clothes and s...
ANTHROPOMETRY


Anthropometry – Bertillon – after age 21 the
individual ceases to grow in size – measurement of
various p...
Dactylography – Finger printing – Galton System


Ridges on finger tips make patterns peculiar to each
individual – Purki...


What comes out of the muzzle?


Flame – burning / singeing of hair – few inches (the gases heated
up to 5200oF)



Pr...
Firearm Wound Complex


Wounding elements




Non wounding elements
Soot, powder grains and grease
TANDEM BULLETS
When ...
Firearm Wound Complex has four parts
1. Entry wound
2. Track of the wound –also grazing & gutter wounds

3. Place of resti...
Entry Wound Complex – Depends upon:


Type of bullet – low / high velocity



Angle of fire – direction of fire – circul...
Entry Wound (Rifled Weapons) may be:


Firm contact wound



Loose contact wound



Short range



Medium range



Lo...
Entry Wound

Firm Contact Loose Contact Short Range Medium Range Long Range
Firm Contact


In bony areas:


Muzzle imprint



Explosive appearance of wound – stellate (Arranged in a
radiating pat...


Firm contact on the non bony areas:


Muzzle imprint – may not be obvious



Entry wound circular / oval equal to dia...


Loose Contact


Entry wound with searing



Soot deposited around the wound – light zone near

the wound and dense de...


Short Range – 3 to 6 inches


Wound – round / oval



Soot deposition and powder grains around
the wound – Removed by...


Medium Range – 12 to 18 inches


Wound



Tattooing (powder tattooing) – driving in of powder

grains into the skin –...


Long Range


Wound – round / oval, inverted margins



Collar of abrasion round / oval – due to
spinning of the bulle...
Track of the wound – Direction


From entry wound to place of resting of bullet or
exit



Grazing wound



Gutter woun...
Exit Wound


Great variations in appearance



Larger diameter than entry wound with averted margins



Shored exit – s...
Age of Bruise
Color changes – due to changes in released
Haemoglobin
1. Red-fresh
2. Bluish – bluish purple / bluish black...


Shotgun use cartridges having cylindrical body and

metallic base – having anvil


The cartridge holds primer – paper ...
Types of Wads:


Plastic hard disc



Hard board



Paper wad



Piston wad – felt or mono wad cup of plastic
holding ...


Wounding elements of shotgun are:



Shots – defect – cutting effect





Flame – searing / burning
Wad – abrasion ...
Firm Contact
 On bony areas






Large explosive wound of entry – wad inside
Searing of wound edges
Soot inside the...


Loose contact





Entry wound – wad inside
Soot deposition around the wound

Short Range


Single wound



Wad in...


Medium Range – Up to 3 feet


Single wound



Piston wad inside the wound



Tattooing


Long Range – Dispersion – pallets number / mono wad
 3 feet
 Single wound-wad inside
 Tattooing
 6 feet
 Large wou...
Shaheen Pak Cartridges:


Velocity of shots – 30 m /sec



Spread of shots – 70 cm diameter at 35 meters
Exit Wound


Pallets rarely exit – may be lying under the skin



Billiard ball effect


The pallets arranged in groups...


The 1st pallets round on one side and flattened on the
opposite side



The 2nd round of pallets flattened on both sid...
Medicolegal Importance of Firearm Injuries


Weapon – rifled / smooth bore – low velocity /
high velocity – recovery of p...
Angle of fire / Direction


Shape of wound



Track – dissection / X-Rays



Join entry & exit (mind ricocheting)
Nature of injuries

Suicidal


Scene (locus) / selective sites / contact / direction

/ number / soot soiling – hand / we...
Accidental


Front of body / usually medium range / directed
from below upwards / weapon available

Self inflicted / Fabr...
Cause of Death


W H O certification of cause of death


Cause directly leading to death



Antecedent causes



Contr...
Number of Wounds


Exact number of wounds with characteristics


Shape / margins / searing



Odd and even rule



One...
Recovery of Projectile


From lodging site – soft / rubber clad forceps


X-Ray may be used for detection of bullet



...
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI  by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students
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Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students

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Identity of an individual from FMlE,along with FAI by Dr Yaseen Mohammad for 3rd year MBBS Students

  1. 1. Establishment of individuality of a person
  2. 2. Identity may be required in:  The living  The dead  Recently dead  Putrefied / decomposed bodies  Mutilated bodies  Remains – soft tissues / skeletal remains
  3. 3. LIVING  Computerized national identity card  Photographs – Front & profile  Permanent identification marks – moles / scars / tatoos / birth marks  Signature / thumb impression  Identification by examination of Ires
  4. 4. IDENTITY MAY HAVE TO BE DETERMINED IN: 1. Mass disasters 2. Where C.N.I.C. Not available 3. Traffic accidents 4. Absconding soldiers 5. Mixed up babies in maternity ward 6. Lost memory patient 7. Wanted criminals 8. Impersonation
  5. 5. DETERMINATION OF PERSONAL IDENTITY  3rd party identification  Subjective methods  Objective identification
  6. 6. Parameters of Identification  Age, sex, stature , weight  Physical characters Facial features  Eyes, nose, lips, chin, cheek, teeth, Iris – color and pattern  Secondary – sexual characters  Acquired characters e.g. scars, tatoos, fibroids etc.  Congenital characters e.g. moles  Gait, voice  Professional stigmas – water carriers, cleaners, photographers etc.  Belongings – watch, glasses, wallet
  7. 7. Personal Identity Methods of Identification 1. CNIC – Particulars / Photograph / Finger Prints/ Iris examination 2. Finger Printing – Including Poroscopy 3. Serology – DNA / Blood Grouping 4. Cytology 5. Osteology 6. Radiology 7. Examination of hair 8. Autopsy / Post Mortem examination
  8. 8.   3rd Party Verification Of Identity By Relatives / Friends Subjective : Physical characters  Facial features  Height and weight  Belongings 
  9. 9. Subjective identification:  Body as a whole:   Facial features:   Age, sex, stature , weight Eyes, nose, lips, chin, cheek, teeth, Iris – color and pattern Anatomical features Primary shape of body  Secondary – sexual characters  Changes associated with degeneration – arcus-senalis, cataract, osteoarthritic changes – Teeth – eruption / morphology / wear and tear 
  10. 10.          stature = 12.67 + 2.09 x (femur length + sum of lumbar vertebrae) • stature = 48.63 + 2.32 x (tibia length + sum of lumbar vertebrae Adjustments to Stature • Stature lost with increasing age • Bone shrinkage • Reported vs. Measured stature • Age of individual
  11. 11. Estimation of stature (length /height)  Entire skeleton length +1½for soft tissues  Tip middle finger to tip middle finger  Length of arm x 2 + 13½ (Clavicle + Sternum)
  12. 12. Stature from long bone Length of bone x Multiplication Factor Bone Humerus Radius Ulna Femur Tibia Fibula M.F 5.0 6.3 6.0 3.6 4.2 4.4
  13. 13. Objective methods  Morphological data – height – weight – peculiarities  Belongings  Non biological – clothes and stains , Watch, glasses, cell phone, visiting cards etc.  Biological – hair, nails, bones [resist putrefaction]  Stains – blood / semen / saliva.
  14. 14. ANTHROPOMETRY  Anthropometry – Bertillon – after age 21 the individual ceases to grow in size – measurement of various parts of body remain unchanged – 14 measurements are to be taken:  Length and Breadth of Head, Length of Fingers, Size of Feet and Toes Etc – Similarity Chances 1:286 – Tedious Process – Replaced By:
  15. 15. Dactylography – Finger printing – Galton System  Ridges on finger tips make patterns peculiar to each individual – Purkinje, Henry Faulds, Frances Galton, Edward Henry – Chances of similarity 1:64000 million Contd.
  16. 16.  What comes out of the muzzle?  Flame – burning / singeing of hair – few inches (the gases heated up to 5200oF)  Projectile – entry wound (bullets are never “red hot” – 69oC – 110oC)  Cone of compressed gases – tearing of skin & tissues  Soot – blackening in & around the wound  Powder grains – deposition in & around the wound – tattooing  Wad – In case of shot gun
  17. 17. Firearm Wound Complex  Wounding elements   Non wounding elements Soot, powder grains and grease TANDEM BULLETS When the first bullet fails to leave the barrel, and is ejected by the subsequently fired bullets; the bullets are ejected one before the other and are known as tandem bullets.     Flame, projectile, hot gases, wad
  18. 18. Firearm Wound Complex has four parts 1. Entry wound 2. Track of the wound –also grazing & gutter wounds 3. Place of resting of projectile 4. Exit wound
  19. 19. Entry Wound Complex – Depends upon:  Type of bullet – low / high velocity  Angle of fire – direction of fire – circular / oval  Tail wag effects – distance  Explosive effects – Distance of the muzzle from the target
  20. 20. Entry Wound (Rifled Weapons) may be:  Firm contact wound  Loose contact wound  Short range  Medium range  Long range
  21. 21. Entry Wound Firm Contact Loose Contact Short Range Medium Range Long Range
  22. 22. Firm Contact  In bony areas:  Muzzle imprint  Explosive appearance of wound – stellate (Arranged in a radiating pattern like that of a star.)appearance – due to discharge of compressed gases  Searing of wound margins  Soot, gases (red cherry appearance), powder grains inside the wound – may be deposited on the underlying bone
  23. 23.  Firm contact on the non bony areas:  Muzzle imprint – may not be obvious  Entry wound circular / oval equal to diameter of the muzzle  Searing of edges of wound  Soot and powder grains inside the wound
  24. 24.  Loose Contact  Entry wound with searing  Soot deposited around the wound – light zone near the wound and dense deposition at the periphery of the light zone (corona)  Hair burned (singeing) – blown away by gases
  25. 25.  Short Range – 3 to 6 inches  Wound – round / oval  Soot deposition and powder grains around the wound – Removed by wiping  Singeing / clubbing of hair
  26. 26.  Medium Range – 12 to 18 inches  Wound  Tattooing (powder tattooing) – driving in of powder grains into the skin – reddish brown – orange red punctate lesions surrounding the entry wound  Cannot be cleaned with wiping
  27. 27.  Long Range  Wound – round / oval, inverted margins  Collar of abrasion round / oval – due to spinning of the bullet
  28. 28. Track of the wound – Direction  From entry wound to place of resting of bullet or exit  Grazing wound  Gutter wounds
  29. 29. Exit Wound  Great variations in appearance  Larger diameter than entry wound with averted margins  Shored exit – skin supported-abrasion collar may be seen  Pellets / shots rarely make exit
  30. 30. Age of Bruise Color changes – due to changes in released Haemoglobin 1. Red-fresh 2. Bluish – bluish purple / bluish black – deoxygenated (few hrs to 48 hrs)     Brownish  Haemosiderin  4 – 5 days Greenish  Haemotidin  5 – 7 days Yellowish  Bilirubin  7 – 10 days Normal color  10 – 15 days
  31. 31.  Shotgun use cartridges having cylindrical body and metallic base – having anvil  The cartridge holds primer – paper wad – propellant mass – piston wad / mono wad – shots – terminal wad  Shots may be contained in a plastic cup / mono wad  Obturation achieved by wad  Dispersion of shots depends on the type of wad, size of pellets & choking
  32. 32. Types of Wads:  Plastic hard disc  Hard board  Paper wad  Piston wad – felt or mono wad cup of plastic holding shots – petals of wad crumpled down to hold shots – petals open & leaves strike the skin producing patterned abrasions
  33. 33.  Wounding elements of shotgun are:   Shots – defect – cutting effect   Flame – searing / burning Wad – abrasion / laceration Non wounding elements include:  Smoke / soot  Powder grains
  34. 34. Firm Contact  On bony areas      Large explosive wound of entry – wad inside Searing of wound edges Soot inside the wound Bursting fractures of skull as exit wound On soft tissues Entry wound of the size of muzzle – wad inside  Searing of wound edges  Soot inside the wound 
  35. 35.  Loose contact    Entry wound – wad inside Soot deposition around the wound Short Range  Single wound  Wad inside / abrasion – laceration near the wound  Powder grains
  36. 36.  Medium Range – Up to 3 feet  Single wound  Piston wad inside the wound  Tattooing
  37. 37.  Long Range – Dispersion – pallets number / mono wad  3 feet  Single wound-wad inside  Tattooing  6 feet  Large wound with one or two satellite pallet wounds  Wad injury may be present  9 feet  Spread of pallets with a central hole  12 feet  Pallets making separate injuries  Beyond 12 feet  Spread of pallets  Range – spread of pallets in inches = distance in meters (depending on chocking)
  38. 38. Shaheen Pak Cartridges:  Velocity of shots – 30 m /sec  Spread of shots – 70 cm diameter at 35 meters
  39. 39. Exit Wound  Pallets rarely exit – may be lying under the skin  Billiard ball effect  The pallets arranged in groups come out in the same group pattern  The 1st group of pallets hitting the target – retarded by loss of velocity – hit on the back by the 2nd group of pallets & consequently hit by the 3rd group
  40. 40.  The 1st pallets round on one side and flattened on the opposite side  The 2nd round of pallets flattened on both sides  The 3rd row flattened on front side and round on the back
  41. 41. Medicolegal Importance of Firearm Injuries  Weapon – rifled / smooth bore – low velocity / high velocity – recovery of projectile / wad  Range / distance – wound complex – never commit on accurate range
  42. 42. Angle of fire / Direction  Shape of wound  Track – dissection / X-Rays  Join entry & exit (mind ricocheting)
  43. 43. Nature of injuries Suicidal  Scene (locus) / selective sites / contact / direction / number / soot soiling – hand / weapon available Homicidal  Vulnerable / any site / any range / direction / varying number / weapon absent (present ?)
  44. 44. Accidental  Front of body / usually medium range / directed from below upwards / weapon available Self inflicted / Fabricated  Selective / easily accessible – non vulnerable site / range contact – short / direction right to left above downwards / cloth defect not corresponding
  45. 45. Cause of Death  W H O certification of cause of death  Cause directly leading to death  Antecedent causes  Contributing causes
  46. 46. Number of Wounds  Exact number of wounds with characteristics  Shape / margins / searing  Odd and even rule  One bullet producing multiple entries / exits
  47. 47. Recovery of Projectile  From lodging site – soft / rubber clad forceps  X-Ray may be used for detection of bullet  Recovery of wad in shotgun injuries &  Representative samples of pallets / shots

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