Holocaust Art - PowerPoint


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Looking at the Holocaust - via Art. Through the eyes of Samuel Bak, Josef Elgurt, Olere. The Boy of Ghetto - Emblem of Suffering. Interpreting Art.

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Holocaust Art - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Emblem of SufferingWarsaw Ghetto Boy Photograph 1943
  2. 2. The above photo is one of the most iconic images of the Holocaust. Whilst the identity of the GermanSS man pointing the machine gun is known, that of the little boy is not, although some of the otherpeople captured in this photograph have been identified.The photo was included in the infamous “Stroop Report – The Warsaw Ghetto no longer exists.”
  3. 3. “We need not restrict ourselves to the artist’s conscious intentions, but we must also be carefulnot to try to make a painting express anything we wish it to. The evidence for our reaction must liewithin the painting itself.”Professor Lawrence L. Langer“A painting is a visual text. In literature we are faced with a written text, in most cases drafted infamiliar words because we speak the language (assuming that the work is in English) that appearson the page. The characters we meet in literature are usually recognizable human beings eventhough we cant see them, and we can understand their dialogue because we have often heardspeech like theirs before.Looking at a painting requires a different set of expectations. An author can describe a landscapeor the setting for a scene, but an artist tries to reproduce a version of it so that we can see it withour own eyes. This raises issues unique to painting, questions of color, shape, texture, size (since anartist is limited by dimensions of his canvas), the relation of one group of figures or objects toanother, all finally coalescing into what we call the style of the work. .”Professor Lawrence L. LangerIcon of Loss - Audio tour led by Bernie Pucker - Part IIcon of Loss - Audio tour led by Bernie Pucker - Part IISamuel Bak: Painted In Words
  4. 4. 1. The Boy in the Photo There are four possible identities for the little boy held at gunpoint. 1.1. Artur Dab Siemiatek This was advanced as early as 1950, but documentation was first found in 1977 - 78. One source was responsible for making the claim, a woman named Jadwiga Piesecka, who was a resident of Warsaw. According to a statement she signed on 24 January 1977, the boy in the photograph was named Artur Siemiatek born in Lowicz in 1935. He was the son of Leon Siemiatek and Sara Dab, and the grandson of the signatory’s brother, Josef Dab. A similar attestation was signed the following year in Paris by Jadwiga Piesecka’s husband, Henryk Piasecki, dated 28 December 1978. 1.2. Tsvi Nussbaum In 1982, a 47 year old ear, nose, and throat specialist in Rockland County, New York, came forward with the statement that in 1943, at the age of seven, he had been arrested in Warsaw and ordered to raise his hands by an SS man standing in front of him and aiming a gun at him. Although he could not recall that a photograph was taken, Dr. Nussbaum believed that he might be the child in the picture. Tsvi Nussbaum expressed uncertainty that he was the boy in the photo, whilst others say that it is him. There are indeed two specific factors that weigh heavily against him being that boy. The first is that although he was arrested in Warsaw, he had never set foot in the ghetto. The second is the date he was arrested. Tsvi Nussbaum clearly remembers that he was arrested on 13 July 1943. This was nearly two months after the "Stroop Report" is thought to have been completed and sent to Himmler and Krüger. In the early 1930’s Nussbaum’s parents emigrated from Poland to Palestine, where Tsvi was born in 1935. When conflict broke out between the Jews and Arabs in Palestine, the Nussbaum family returned to Poland, settling in Sandomierz in 1939. By 1942 Tsvi Nussbaum’s parents had been murdered by the Nazis, and he was brought from Sandomiercz to live with an aunt and uncle, in hiding, in the Aryan section of Warsaw. They looked after him for six months, but were caught in a Gestapo trap. The Nussbaums joined hundreds of other desperate Jews at the Hotel Polski and were put on the Palestine list. On 13 July 1943, trucks came to take them away, not to Palestine, but to the KZ Bergen Belsen. At the concentration camp they were housed together in a special barrack, given better food and not forced to work.
  5. 5. If the boy in the photo is Tsvi Nussbaum, then the picture would have to have been taken at the Hotel Polski, andnot within the Warsaw Ghetto, where all of the photos from the "Stroop Report" are generally thought to havebeen taken.Dr. Lucjan Dobroszycki was quoted in a New York Times article, expressing doubts about whether Tsvi Nussbaumis the boy in the photo, for the reasons set out below:"The scene," he noted, "is on a street, not in the courtyard in which the Hotel Polski roundup took place. Some ofthe Jews are wearing armbands that they surely would have shed while in the Aryan quarter of Warsaw. TheGerman soldiers would not have needed combat uniforms at the hotel. The heavy clothing worn by most of theJews suggests that the photograph was taken in May – the date General Stroop put on the report – rather thanJuly. Moreover every other photograph in the "Stroop Report" was taken in the Warsaw Ghetto."Tsvi Nussbaum commented:"I am not claiming anything – there’s no reward. I didn’t ask for this honour. I think it’s me, but I can’t honestlyswear to it. A million and a half Jewish children were told to raise their hands.“Finally, with the help of someone trained in photo-comparison, Dr. K.R. Burns, a forensic anthropologist at theUniversity of Georgia, compared the famous photo, with a passport photo of Tsvi Nussbaum taken in 1945, andstated the following:"Having examined the two photographs, although the mouth, nose and cheek are consistent, there is oneimportant disparity; the ear lobes on the 1943 boy appear to be attached, whereas the earlobes of the 1945 boyare not attached. This generic trait cannot change with age and the difference indicates the pictures are not of thesame boy."The entrance of the former Hotel Polski at 29 Dluga Street has been compared to the 1943 photo, but it is difficultto see whether it is the same building.
  6. 6. 1.3. Levi Zelinwarger Avrahim Zelinwarger, aged 95, contacted the Ghetto Fighters House in Israel in late 1999. He informed the museum that the boy in the photograph was his son Levi. As a result of that contact, the following information now accompanies the well known photograph, in the GFH archives: According to the testimony of Abraham Zelinwarger of Haifa, the boy is his son Levi, 1932 - ? and he suggests that the photograph was taken in the ghetto on Kupiecka Street, near Nalewki Street. The father, a ladies hairdresser by profession, worked at forced labour clearing rubble and damage at a burned out gas installation in Warsaw, and escaped to Soviet territory at the beginning of 1940. Avrahim Zelinwarger was telephoned by Richard Raskin, who was then told that the woman next to the boy is the boy’s mother, Chana Zelinwarger. Avrahim Zelinwarger believed that his wife, his 11 year old son Levi, and his 9 year old daughter Irina, all perished in a concentration camp in 1943.1.4. An anonymous Survivor A London business man contacted The Jewish Chronicle in 1978, claiming that he was the little boy, not Artur Siemiatek. The man who contacted the paper asked that his name be withheld. In his statement he claimed the photograph was taken in 1941, and that he remembered he was not wearing any socks at the time; both claims are without doubt incorrect so far as the photograph under discussion are concerned.
  7. 7. 2. Other Jews Identified in the Photograph Hanka Lamet Matylda Lamet Goldfinger Leo Kartuzinsky Golda StavarowskiIn a Yad Vashem page of testimony, number 90,540 completed in 1994, the little girl at the far left of the photographwas identified as Hanka Lamet by her aunt, Esther Grosbard-Lamet, a resident of Miami Beach (Florida). The samedocument lists 1937 and Warsaw, as the year and place of the little girl’s birth while the place and circumstances ofher death are listed as "Majdanek - taken to Gas Chambers".The USHMM (The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) website also indicates that the woman standing tothe left of the little girl is her mother Matylda Lamet Goldfinger.The boy carrying the white sack near the rear of the group shown in the photograph, was identified as LeoKartuzinsky by his sister, Hana Ichengrin, according to an email from Yad Vashem received by Richard Raskin.According to USHMM, the woman at the back right was identified as Golda Stavarowski by hergranddaughter Golda Shulkes, residing in Victoria (Australia).
  8. 8. 3. The SS Man: Josef Blösche The one person in the photograph whose identity has been established beyond any doubt is the SD soldier aiming his sub-machine gun in the direction of the little boy. He was SS-Rottenführer Josef Blösche, a most feared predator, who was often teamed up with SS-Untersturmführer Karl– Georg Brandt, and SS Oberscharführer Heinrich Klaustermeyer, to terrorize the occupants of the ghetto on hunting expeditions, randomly killing whomever they chose. Blösche was born in Friedland (former "Sudetenland") in 1912, and after joining the SS, saw service in Platerow as a guard patrolling the River Bug. In May 1941 he was transferred to the SS post at Siedlce. Following service in an Einsatzgruppen unit in Baranowitchi, he was transferred to the Warsaw Security Police, where he took part in the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in April 1943 and the Polish national uprising in August 1944. Upon arrest Blösche made the following statement: "I have looked at the given photocopy. Concerning the person in the SS uniform, standing in the foreground of a group of SS members and holding a sub-machine gun in firing position and wearing a steel helmet with motorcycle goggles, this is me. The picture shows that I, as a member of the Gestapo office in the Warsaw Ghetto, together with a group of SS members, am driving a large number of Jewish citizens out from a house. The group of Jewish citizens is comprised predominantly of children, women and old people, driven out of a house through a gateway, with their arms raised. The Jewish citizens were then led to the so-called Umschlagplatz, from which they were transported to the extermination camp Treblinka." Signed Josef Blösche
  9. 9. Blösche provided another statement at a subsequent interrogation: "I now recall a shooting of Jewish citizens in the Warsaw Ghetto. This took place at a time when there was no transportation to the extermination camp Treblinka. Brandt gave each of us at the SD office in the ghetto a small box of pistol ammunition. Beside me there were Rührenschopf, Klaustermeyer, and other Gestapo members, whose names I do not know any longer today. Brandt led us into the middle of the ghetto. I can no longer remember the exact time, I know the shooting took place in a courtyard, which one entered from the street through a gateway. Beyond that I still know that during the shooting, a truck carrying Jewish citizens drove by. At that moment, I was standing at the entrance to the courtyard. How many Gestapo members were there I can no longer say exactly, it could have been 15 to 25.“ Signed Josef Blösche, Berlin, 25 April 1967 For his dedication and zeal during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Blösche was awarded the Cross of War Merit 2nd Class with Swords. During his trial in Erfurt in April 1969, Blösche was found guilty of war crimes, including the participation in the shooting of more than 1,000 Jews in the courtyard of a building complex on the morning of 19 April 1943. He was executed by a shot to the neck in Leipzig on 29 July 1969. Blösche was 57 years old. Sources: Richard Raskin. A Child at Gunpoint. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2004 Helge Grabitz and Wolfgang Scheffler. Letzte Spuren. Berlin: Edition Hentrich, 1988 WDR TV Documentary (by H. Schwan). The SS-Man Josef Blösche. 2003 © ARC 2006
  10. 10. The Sowers by Thomas Hart Benton, 1942.One of a series of eight paintings in which Benton portrayed the barbarity of fascism.
  11. 11. Threesome (1944)by Felix Nussbaum (1904-1944)Oil/Canvas, 100x80cmIn Threesome, painted in January 1944,Nussbaum portrays himself as a pious Jewin hiding with his wife Felka and his sonJaqui.The triangular composition is reminiscentof renaissance sacral art. The painteridentifies himself fully with the religion towhich he was thrown back as a result ofthe persecution by National Socialism,whereas his wife merely endures thesituation.Felix Nussbaum describes here in one ofhis last pictures the situation of all thosepersecuted which lies somewherebetween fear of death and vague hope.
  12. 12. Self-Portrait with JewishIdentity Card (1943)by Felix Nussbaum (1904-1944) Self-Portrait (1940) by Felix Nussbaum (1904-1944) Oil/Canvas
  13. 13. Studies for Death Triumphant (1944) pencil, gouache and watercolor on paperTriumph des Todes (Death Triumphant) (1944)by Felix NussbaumHis last painting dated Tuesday, April 18, 1944, Death Triumphant, is extensively prepared for withnumerous sketches of various skeletal figures, each beautifully draped, playing or holding musicalinstruments. These drawings are arguably some of the most moving and devastating images offutility ever produced. The dead mock the living with mankinds pathetic culture, music played withno one left to listen. The quest for life is snuffed out in the whirlwind of anti-Semitic hate.
  14. 14. Camp Synogue (1941) by Felix Nussbaum Oil on plywoodFour men wrapped in prayer shawls stand praying near a desolate shack. The make- shift synagogue at Saint Cyprien concentration camp,was located in the French Pyrenees where Nussbaum was held as a prisoner. To the right, a man stands alone. The lone man may beNussbaum himself, who was ambivalent about his Jewish identity, like many young men of his time. Arrested for being Jewish, Nussbaummoved back hesitantly to his Jewish heritage. A gray gloomy sky fills the background, and a black cloud blocks the sun for the MorningPrayer, while ravens hover overhead. In the foreground are scattered a shoe, an empty tin can, a bone, and some barbed wire, all of whichare symbols of the harsh conditions at the camp. Nussbaum managed to escape, and lived in hiding in Brussels until he was caught in1944 and sent to Auschwitz, where he died.The painting was given to Pope Benedict XVI on the occasion of his visit to Yad Vashem during his pilgrimage to the Holy Land, on May 07,2009 in Jerusalem.
  15. 15. The Food of the Dead for the Living by David Olère. 102x76 cm,A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York.Olère collects food, abandoned near the undressing rooms of crematorium III atBirkenau, so he can throw it over the fence to the prisoners at the womens camp.
  16. 16. Priest and Rabbiby David Olère.162x131 cmA Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York.In the background left, the SS Moll throws womeninto the burning pit close to crematorium V. Onthe right, four prisoners carry a barrel of souppast a crematorium (II or III). Arrival of a Convoy by David Olère. 65x50 cm, A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York. A new convoy arrives in the background as inmates struggle with a cart carrying away cadavers from a previous convoy.
  17. 17. Punished in the Bunker by David Olère 46x61 cm, Yad Vashem Art Museum, Israel. The cell was so narrow that Olère was unable to sit, stretch or lie down for the 48 hours of his punishment.Gassingby David Olère 131x162 cm,A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York.The container in the lower right is labeled Zyklon B.Although Olère spent most of his time doing art for the SSand translating BBC radio broadcasts, he was, from timeto time, called upon to help empty the gas chambers.
  18. 18. The Experimental Injection by David Olère. 1945,92x72 cm,A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York.The infamous Dr. Mengele administers an injection as terrified prisoners look on.
  19. 19. Remembering the Holocaust, By Aba Bayefsky oil on canvas His personal reflections on what he saw half a lifetime ago were the inspiration for a series of works collectively entitled Epilogue, completed between 1988 and 1994. This series consists of 22 drawings, 17 watercolours, and 2 conté drawings which reflect on the nature of the Holocaust.Unable to Workby David Olère. 131x162 cm,A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York.Inability to work was often an immediate deathsentence. In the background of this painting,smoke rises from the crematorium to form theSS insignia.
  20. 20. In Memory of the Holocaustby Josef Elgurt, 1994, sepia-drawing (71 x 46 cm).Elgurt was born in Kishinev, Moldova. He was imprisoned in Nazi ghettos in Moldova,Ukraine, and Romania. The original is on permanent loan to the Jewish Museum ofRiga.
  21. 21. Self-Portraitby Samuel Bak.131x162 cm,is one of the chillingpieces in the film "AsSeen Through TheseEyes," whichdocuments Jewish andGypsy artists who werespared during theHolocaust, but wererequired to paint fortheir Nazi captors.(Courtesy of MenemshaFilms )
  22. 22. Interpreting Samuel Bak’s Self-PortraitProfessor Lawrence LangerBaks "Self Portrait" is a portrait of the artist as a young boy, though the experiences he has gone through havehastened his journey toward maturity. Among the many crimes the Germans committed against the Jewish future wasthe murder of more than a million helpless children. This painting is a vivid reminder of the dilemma that is a vexing ifparadoxical birthright of that crime: no ones survival can be detached from the loss of someone else. The boy sits in asack as if emerging from a cocoon of death, though only those aware of the artists personal ordeal will be able tograsp the visual allusion, which seems allegorical but is not. Sent with his wife and son from the Vilna ghetto to alabor camp nearby, Baks father first saw his wife escape to a secure hiding place, then hid his son in a sack which hedropped unobserved from a ground floor window of the warehouse where he was working. Through a pre-arrangedplan the maid of a relative who was raised and living as a Christian in the city picked up the ten-year-old boy and tookhim to a safe haven. The memory of that moment helps turn his expression inward in the portrait, making himvirtually oblivious to his external surroundings.The content of this painting thus violates our expectation of what its title usually intends. The boy who grew up inpre-war Vilna with an intact family is not the same as the one who survived the catastrophe of the Holocaustremembering a ruined community that included the murder of his father and four grandparents. That event hasshattered the notion of a unified self. Unlike traditional self-portraits, the center of Baks picture is dominated not bythe face of a living boy but by the replica of a dead one, taken from one of the most famous photographs to emergefrom the disaster. That photo depicts a frightened child, hands raised, being removed by Germans at gun pointtogether with other Jews from what must have been a hidden bunker in the Warsaw ghetto. His is a "counter-portrait," though the two likenesses are really inseparable, since the fate of the boy who was Bak is intimately linkedto the doom of the victim--it might easily have been the young Baks doom too--whose image is imprinted on a crudeassemblage of wooden panels. With his hands raised and one bloody palm pierced by a nail, the patched fragments ofa Jewish star on his breast and a cross not far from it, the boy need only extend his arms to assume a cruciformgesture, and indeed Bak has called this image a kind of Jewish crucifixion. There is a certain amount of irony to thisimplication, since the Jews enjoyed neither salvation nor resurrection from their suffering. The atrocity of theHolocaust unleashed present ambiguities, not future meanings, and the living boy holds in his hand only apaintbrush, an instrument that will led him into the future through art rather than belief.
  23. 23. This is not to say, however, that Bak is immune to the Jewish origins of his subject. By the boy feet lies a scroll, imageof a damaged Torah, the source of Jewish law. Before him lie strewn blank pages of parchment, awaiting inscriptionsthat will restore the law and at the same time rewrite its history to include the disaster of the Holocaust. The pebblesand small stones that lie on them recall the Jewish custom of placing such tokens on the gravestones of familymembers when visiting the cemetery as signs of respect for the dead and in indication that they have not beenforgotten. In the distance a city in flames and twin smokestacks pouring smoke are further reminders of theannihilation that the boy has survived.As a counterbalance to this devastation on the other side of the painting looms a giant blank canvas on an easel, aharbinger of the future challenge that the boy artist will confront as he tries to find visual representations for the pastnow locked in internal memory. Specific hints of that challenge are embodied in the various cutouts of the boy withhis hands raised, suggesting that any future "portraiture" of the disaster will require multiple versions, just as the "SelfPortrait" we have been examining could not be confined to a single face.This portrait of a boy vividly aware of the fate of his family as well as the entire Jewish community may profitably becompared with "The Family," whose members have been touched by the threat of violence but are not yet consciousof its details. Similarly, "Beyond the Trees" sweeps away the natural camouflage that protects us from confronting theworst and exposes us to the imagery of death that lies at the heart of what we call the Holocaust. The absence ofhuman figures shifts much of the responsibility for interpreting the scene before us to the viewer, who cannot sharethis dilemma with the people being portrayed. And finally, the purely symbolic chess painting which banishesconcrete historical reference from the scene and substitutes chess pieces for people demands a different kind ofresponse, since it raises the issue of conflict to a more sophisticated level of discourse. Here both artist and viewerenter into a more complex dialogue about meaning and intention, inviting the imagination to take risks while at thesame time accepting limits to the adventure of interpretation. Source
  24. 24. Othyoth (letters) [Samuel Bak]The Tablets of the Law, a crucial image in this series, nowemerge in regal but crumbling splendor. The executionersof the Holocaust have violated one of its central tenets:"Thou shaltl not murder." In that universe ofdestruction, the Ten Commandments have lost theircoherence. Its letters fly from their mooring, floatingfreely above the barren terrain below. A goldenaleph,, glowing with celestial radiance, crowns thepainting but nothing is truly whole. The letters aredetached from their original sequence, while the solitaryaleph, , reminds us that half of the divine name, "El," , ismissing.The source of the discordant visual force of thesedisintegrating ethical imperatives is implicit in thelanguage of Exodus itself, which with uncanny portentforecasts through its imagery the unforeseen fate of theJewish people at the hands of the Germans:Now Mount Sinai smoked all over, since YHWH had comedown upon it in fire; its smoke went up like a furnace, andall of the mountain trembled exceedingly. (Exodus 19:18)Bak refuses to discard the tradition of law that has sustained theJewish people throughout its many ordeals; but he knows that theunholy fires of Auschwitz and the other death camps have consumedmore than the bodies of their victims. An entire structure of beliefmust be scrutinized anew, as if the stable iconography that once helda community together had to be redesigned to include the volatileshock of mass murder.
  25. 25. Above and Below[Samuel Bak]Samuel Bak on the apparent theme ofChess, they need to be understood in theglaring light of political realities.Above and Below presents pawns withwings on a landscape divided by a fragmentof a chessboard. The metal wings wouldencumber the pawns flight yet the bluepawn hovers above; the white winged pawnis earth bound. Life and Death; Tikkun andDestruction and Evil; Hope and Despair.These contrasting interpretations come tomind.How do we negotiate through thesememories of a past and pretend to knowhow to respond when confronted by a mostuncertain future. If the past is to be ourteacher, we must ask what have we ashumankind learned? Can we live on earthtogether in peace? Can we dream togetherof a universe where our actions will producereconciliation and respect, or will we becursed to repeat – on an even grander scale– the travesties of our predecessors?
  26. 26. Ghetto [Samuel Bak]In Ghetto neither eye nor imagination has anyway of escape. The horizon has disappearedfrom this landscape without vistas; all signs ofnature have vanished, too. Holocaust historydoes not proclaim its message; we mustevacuate what we can from the ruins. Sheets ofslate have moved aside as if from a tomb, toreveal a star-shaped scar leading into an obscuretunnel lined with the facades of crumblingstructures—the former ghetto. Like forlornDantes without benefit of Virgil, we are forced topursue the fate of European Jewry into thethreatening depths below the inert stonesurface, following a narrow corridor betweenlifeless brick walls. But our obligation is clear:memory and commemoration allow no otherroute. Even the pale yellow cloth from Stars ofDavid once worn on victims breasts pointstoward the ominous entry-way, as if all energy inthe painting were focused on this journey intothe heart of holocaust darkness.And what awaits us at the end? Tiny glimmers ofreddish light, like the eyes of demons, or theopenings of twin crematorium ovens, beckonfrom the abyss, an unholy glow that evokes forus the fate of a people. We have the choice ofmoving the slabs of stone back in place andburying them forever, or accepting the strenuousduty of mining the evidence of their demise andkeeping it steady in consciousness for our ownand future generations.
  27. 27. Knowledgeable [Samuel Bak]Knowledgeable portrays a limited number of chess pieces – two knights, the queen, the king, numerouspawns. The surface resembles the chessboard, albeit incomplete, and it is placed on top of an assembly ofbooks with selected dice. Are these books histories of wars past? Or battles to come? The dice represent agame of chance and refer to life and survival in the midst of war as a game of odds. The chess pieces arenot in proper position for a game of chess but do reflect the disarray that comes with real war.
  28. 28. Destinies [Samuel Bak]The tree in Destinies, supported by crude crutches, is a morewretched than its predecessor in Family Tree. Also resemblingStars of David, its leaves have begun their mutation into anothersubstance, a process common to many of the paintings in thisseries. Some of them have taken on a metallic sheen, echoingthe literal meaning of Magen David—shield or defender of David.This is a wounded tree, maimed by an unequal conflict whosesource alert viewers should be well aware of. The remains of abrick wall suffice to remind us of the nature of that violentencounter.The trunk has been sheared from its base, but the stump itselfhas also been ripped from its native moorings. Torn from thewomb of nature, its roots reach out like tiny claws in search ofmore fertile earth to grasp as its home. A strange portablestructure occupies the foreground of the painting, ready to rollsomewhere, but with no one to convey it, and nowhere toconvey it to. As in Family Tree, a single thin limb sprouts from thestump, its leaves, too, mirroring a slim hope for a transplantedfuture.A pink shimmer lights the clouds that frame the scene, thoughone is never sure, here as elsewhere, whether the origin of lightis a radiant sun above or sinister flames from below. The greenhills, golden leaves, and rich blue sky of Family Tree create a farmore vivid impression. Both tree images prompt us to recall thetwin sagas of the Jewish people, their beginning in the tale ofcreation and their near doom in the story of the Holocaustdestruction. We know the "whences," but at the pluralized titleDestinies implies, the mystery of the "whithers" remains to besolved.
  29. 29. Ancient Memory by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  30. 30. In Memoriam by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  31. 31. Icon of LossRecent Paintings by Samuel Bak
  32. 32. Against the Wall by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  33. 33. Alive by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  34. 34. Identification by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  35. 35. Collective by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  36. 36. De Profundis by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  37. 37. Cumulative Data by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  38. 38. Carrying a Cross Crossed Out IIby Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  39. 39. Unknown In Their Own Imageby Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  40. 40. Walled In The Cup was Fullby Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  41. 41. From Ashes Signal of Identityby Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  42. 42. Targeted With a Blue Threadby Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas
  43. 43. The Family Treeby Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas Felix Nussbaum at work (1904-1944) Hide and Dream by Samuel Bak Oil/Canvas The former Hotel Polski 29 Dluga Street
  44. 44. Resource 1: A Holocaust Art ExhibitResource 2: The Warsaw Ghetto BoyResource 3: Othyoth (Letters)Resource 4: GhettoResource 5: DestiniesResource 6: Felix Nussbaum Haus – Life and WorksResource 7: Felix Nussbaum – Catalogue RaisonnéResource 8: Felix Nussbaum 1904-1944Resource 9: Felix Nussbaum WorksResource 10: Bak speaks about himselfResource 11: Chess in the Art of Samuel BakResource: 12: Interpreting a Painting [Samuel Bak’s]Resource: 13: The Arduous Road – 60 years of Creativity