Filipino Psychology Concepts and Methods Robert E. Javier Jr., PhD Associate Professor Department of PsychologyDe La Salle University - Manila
What is Filipino Psychology? It is an Indigenous Psychology The scientific study of the ethnicity, society and culture of a people and the application to psychological practice of indigenous knowledge rooted in the people’s ethnic heritage and consciousness. Virgilio G. Enriquez (1994). Pagbabangong-Dangal: Indigenous Psychology & Cultural Empowerment. Akademya ng Kultura at Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Lungsod ng Quezon.
Distinctions among the forms of Psychology in the Philippines Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas Psychology in the Philippines Sikolohiya ng mga Pilipino Psychology of Filipinos Sikolohiyang Pilipino Filipino Psychology Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas Psychology in the Philippines refers to a series of events related to the field of psychology in the Philippines. (e.g. number of degree programs and journals, the amount of research conducted) ang pinakamalaki o kabuuang anyo ng sikolohiya sa kontekstong Pilipino.
Sikolohiya ng mga Pilipino Psychology of Filipinos refers to any theories or knowledge of Filipino nature regardless of source, Western or local palasak na anyo sapagkat pinakakaraniwan o madaling makita.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino Filipino Psychology refers to a psychology based on the Filipino’s true thoughts, feelings, behaviors and must derive from indigenous Filipino sources, language, and methods. nilalayong anyo, sikolohiyang bunga ng karanasan, kaisipan at oryentasyong Pilipino
Limits of Western Concepts & Methods Issue Applicability of the Western theories and principles taught as well as the research concepts and methods used in the Philippine setting. Timothy Church (1985) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
Limits of Western Concepts & Methods The limits of Western social research methods in rural Philippines: The need for innovation Gloria D. Feliciano (1965) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at Gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
Limits of Western Concepts & Methods The limits of applicability of Western concepts, values and methods in the social sciences to the concrete realities of Asian societies. Augusto C. Espiritu (1968) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) (1990) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino from a movement to an academic discipline Principal emphasis in psychology Identity and national consciousness Social awareness and involvement Psychology of language and culture Applications & bases of Filipino psychology (health practices, agriculture, art, religion) Virgilio G. Enriquez (1992). From colonial to liberation psychology: The Philippine experience. University of the Philippines Press. QC
Primary areas of protests of Sikolohiyang Pilipino It is against a psychology that perpetuates the colonial status of the Filipino mind a psychology used for the exploitation of the masses the imposition of psychologies developed in foreign countries
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino On psychological practice conceptualization of psychological practice in a Philippine context (industriya vs. kabuhayan; klinika vs. kalusugan) concerned with folk practices, indigenous techniques of healing, popular religio-political movements
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino On Science – Humanism issue utilizes scientific methodology in the study of psychological phenomena concerned not only with the universal validity of psychological science but also in utilizing such for the purpose of serving the interest of all mankind, affording protection to the disadvantaged
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino On Mentalism - Behaviorism issue uses both phenomenological & behavioristic concepts, but lesser emphasis on individual experience and greater emphasis on the collective experience attaches greater importance to kamalayan, subsidiary importance to ulirat
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino On Analysis – Wholeness Issue methodologically leans on the side of analysis but interprets the result of analysis with a bias for wholeness (social context, political implications, cultural meaning of the study)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino is a ‘taong-bahay’ Metaphor Sikolohiyang Pilipino can be explained through a metaphor: (a characteristic way of clarifying concepts) – difference between tao sa bahay (person in the house) and taong-bahay (house person).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino is a call for the exercise of care in the adoption of foreign theories… “uncritical rejection is just as dangerous as uncritical acceptance of Western theories” for example: psychological problems are the same anywhere however, the sources of such problems differ greatly
Lines of filiations in Philippine psychological thought Academic-scientific psychology: Western Academic-philosophical psychology: Clergy Ethnic psychology: Indigenous psychology Psycho-medical system: Religion - cohesive element and explanation. Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila.
Psychology: the Western tradition Academic-scientific psychology: Wilhelm Wundt, the German tradition University of the Philippines (1908) and other American traditional schools Academic-philosophical psychology: Thomistic philosophy and psychology University of Santo Tomas (1611)
Ethnic psychology Native psychological thought Indigenous psychology: kinagisnan and katutubong sikolohiya. Psychology of Filipinos - perceived ethnic traits, as observed by foreigners or as felt and expressed by Filipinos. The practice of psychology by Filipinos – techniques of enculturation, socialization.
Psychology: the Filipino traditionEthnic psychology Kinagisnang sikolohiya the subconscious psychology imbedded in the native language, art, music, culture and religion (one has been born into; unaware). e.g. kaluluwa at ginhawa Zeus A. Salazar (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
Psychology: the Filipino traditionEthnic psychology Katutubong sikolohiya psychology worked out by Filipinos with indigenous elements as basis (innate to the Filipino) e.g. Kartilya of the Katipunan, Jose Rizal, Hermano Pule, Isabelo de los Reyes. Katutubong sikolohiya and Kinagisnang sikolohiya constitute Katutubong sikolohiya
Psychology: the Filipino traditionEthnic psychology Psychology of Filipinos- based on mainly Western system of thought e.g. Spanish: Pigafetta’s quite objective observation of the Filipinos in the Visayas (impressed by them); American: Worcester’s view of the Filipinos as distinct ethnic groups different from one another as Christian and non-Christian (pagans and Moros).
Psychology: the Filipino traditionEthnic psychology Practice of psychology by Filipinos: a. indigenous techniques of enculturation/ socialization, e.g. myths for social control, or as affected by Christianity or Islam. b. proto-clinical practice, e.g. tagapayo, manghuhula, ancient techniques of group therapy that are still present (alternating chants during wakes, poetry, consensus).
Psychology: the Filipino tradition Ethnic psychology Psycho-medical system: religion as cohesive element and explanation. (1565) Babaylan or Catalonan techniques of healing; disease theory, causation, therapy. (1650) Messianic movements (1730) Herbolaryo (1900) Espiritista
Filipino psychological knowledge Filipino Language use as a tool for identifying/rediscovering indigenous concepts e.g. study of diwa (psyche), refers to the wealth of ideas implied by the philosophical concept of “essence”
Filipino Language“Enriquez does his theorizing in Filipino anddoes his writing in Pilipino; merely as a heuristicdevice, a discovery procedure… returning to the‘deep structure’ of the language… Enriquezworked in an area where Filipinos are mostadept, where the language has a rich vocabularyof feeling and sentiment.”Andrew B. Gonzales (1982) in Indigenous Psychology: A book of readings.V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
Language, a Heuristic Tool Methods: Ethnography, Language Analysis, Semantics, Introspection Language provided the instrument to refine the tools of research so as to discover categories and subcategories which would be lost to a Western English-speaking researcher…
Filipino, the Philippine lingua francaThe issue of national language has long beenresolved by the Filipino masses through theiruse and propagation of a language based on theManila lingua franca, Manila being the seat ofgovernment, the business hub, melting pot,center of history.Virgilio G. Enriquez & Elizabeth P. Marcelino (1984). Neo-colonial politicsand language struggle in the Philippines. Akademya ng SikolohiyangPilipino: Quezon City.
Language & Knowledge System of communication summing-up our lived experiences Social interaction expressing our thoughts and feelings Spoken language from bodily gestures to linguistic acts specialized speech apparatus primary medium of communication
Thinking & Language Interdependence of knowledge & language, i.e. the thinking process cannot work independently of language Language is not a neutral system of signs nor is it value-free, i.e. it is partisan to the values, perspectives, and rules of cognition of a particular class or society
Language, history, and socio-economic-cultural life Specific historical features and socio-economic- cultural conditions shape the thinking and language of a people, giving distinctive meanings and value judgments to their words. Indigenous language, genuine vehicle of the innermost thoughts and intimate feelings of a people bound by a common historical heritage and a specific socio-economic-cultural environment.
Psychological concepts and human behavior The formation of psychological concepts is the more important stage in the entire process of understanding human behavior. These concepts lay the foundation for the formation of indigenous psychological theories and models of analysis that correspond more fully to the realities of the life and culture of a society.
Development of technical terminology in Filipino Psychology System of affixation in the Filipino language a resource for terminology development The meaning changes because of the use of affixes (suffixes, prefixes, infixes, postfixes) paki, mang, mapa, ika, ipang, ma, ka, maka Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
Development of technical terminology in Filipino Psychology Direct borrowing (saling-angkat) perception (L) persepsyon psicologia (S) sikolohiya Surface assimilation (saling-paimbabaw) reinforcement - reimporsment Grammatical translation (saling-panggramatika) social interaction – interaksyong sosyal
Development of technical terminology in Filipino Psychology Loan translation (saling-hiram) defense mechanism mekanismong pananggalang Word invention (salitang likha) masturbation – mag-isang pagpaparaos Abbreviated words (salitang daglat) STM short term memory PUP Panukat ng Ugali at Pagkatao
Development of technical terminology in Filipino Psychology Parallel translation (salitang-tapat) relationship = pakikisalamuha Indigenous-concept oriented translation (salitang taal) kapwa: hindi ibang-tao, ibang-tao Amalgamated translation (salitang sanib) mahay (Cebuano), nagmamahay
Development of technical terminology in Filipino Psychology Categorization of words and concepts Foreign concepts (konseptong banyaga) home for the aged Superficial assimilation (paimbabaw na asimilasyon) reinforcement – gantimpala, ‘may napala’ Labeling (pagbibinyag) utang-na-loob - reciprocity hiya - shame pakikisama - comradeship
Development of technical terminology in Filipino Psychology Categorization of words and concepts Semantic indigenization (pag-aandukha) paniniyansing, tambayan (stand by) Semantic delimitation (pagtatakda) gunita – recall, alaala – memory personality is personalidad not pagkatao Indigenous concepts (katutubong konsepto) saling-pusa (informal member) pagka-pikon (to be peeved)
Kapwa, a core concept in Filipino Psychology The Filipino language provides a conceptual distinction in several levels and modes of social interaction (antas ng pagtutunguhan). Eight behaviorally recognizable levels under two general categories in Filipino were identified (ibang-tao; hindi ibang-tao). Carmen E. Santiago and Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
Kapwa, the shared inner self Kapwa (English: both, fellow being, others) others is used in opposition to the ‘self’ implies the recognition of the ‘self’ ‘self’ as a separate identity Kapwa in Filipino a recognition of shared identity an inner self shared with others the ‘ako’ (ego) and the ‘iba sa akin’ (others) are one and the same in kapwa psychology
Kapwa, a core concept in Filipino Psychology Pakikitungo, pakikipagkapwa are mutually replaceable in taxonomic analysis, either covers the entire lexical domain. Pakikipagkapwa, more theoretically fertile concept when analyzed semantically; much deeper and profound in its implications as it means accepting and dealing with the other person as an equal.
Pakikiramdam: the pivotal aspect of kapwa refers to heightened awareness, sensitivity ‘feeling for another’ a kind of emotional a priori an active process involving great care and deliberation manifested in ‘hesitation to react, inattention to subtle cues, and non-verbal behavior in mental role-playing Rita H. Mataragnon (1987) in From colonial to liberation psychology: The Philippine Experience. Virgilio G. Enriquez (Ed) (1992) UP Press.
Pakikiramdam: the pivotal aspect of kapwa Pakiramdam is necessarily tied to the operation of all Filipino surface values: pakikisama, hiya, utang na loob The improvisatory character of pakikiramdam is operative in bahala na lakas ng loob, pakikibaka The centrality of pakiramdam in behavioral and interpersonal domains: biro-lambing-tampo.
The Development of Sikolohiyang Pilipino Knowledge Major goals of Sikolohiyang Pilipino pagsasakatutubo (indigenization) pagka-agham (science) pagka-Pilipino (Filipino identity) Mario San Buenaventura (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
The Development of Sikolohiyang Pilipino Knowledge The project of Sikolohiyang Pilipino development of indigenous psychological concepts utilization of indigenous research methods creation of authentic and appropriate social scientific psychology Steven Rood (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
Research Approaches Experimental - adherence to predetermined set of procedures Survey – conform to an informal agreement with respondents Participatory – negotiate issues jointly as they arise Indigenous – seek to enhance awareness as one-with-the-other
Indigenous Research Cross-Indigenous Psychology fuses the modern and the traditional i.e. using scientific methods and ensuring that they are culturally appropriate. Sikolohiyang Pilipino utilizes and borrows concepts from both the modern and traditional cultural systems.
Approaches in the development & utilization of indigenous viewpoints Indigenization from within basis: the indigenous direction: outwards culture-as-source Indigenization from without basis: the exogenous direction: inwards culture-as-target
Indigenization from without Content indigenization translation of imported materials Theoretic indigenization Indigenization as strategy Culture assimilation indigenous versions of imported systems
Indigenization from within Identification of indigenous concepts, methods, theories Semantic elaboration Indigenous codification re-codification Systematization/explication of implied theoretical frameworks Application/use
Using the culture as source Indigenization from within necessarily implies the need for cultural revalidation a demand for concepts and methods which are culturally appropriate, scientifically valid
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Language ethnolingguistic groups, multilingual people Leisure laro, laruan, palaro (patintero, sipa, piko) Cuisine adobo, bistik, dinuguan at puto, halo-halo Law
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Religion belief in a supreme being (Batlaya) respect for nature (spirits dwell in nature) reverence for ancestry (bulol, anito, ninuno)
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Religion underscores the importance of establishing close interpersonal relations with one’s family, relatives and fellowmen (kapwa) highly-developed sense of values: courage, cleanliness, courtesy, control and the family
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Religion indigenous morality: profound concept of pagkamakatao babaylan (priestess), dambana (shrine) rituals and symbols for good (benevolent diwata) and evil (malevolent aswang)
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Manuscripts, memories, mummies lost bell of Balangica, baybayin (alibata), burial grounds in Sagada Misa, mesa, mamimista, mamimis kita Foreign words subsumed in the structure of the Filipino language
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Names: Sinag Liwayway (T), Dawani Paros (B), Janatyan Ahaddas (Y), Hamili Ayo (C), Sudi Amor (I) Literature: Francisco Balagtas, Ka Amado Theater and Film: Fernando Poe Jr. Tagalog movies shown in theaters from Batanes to Jolo
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Medicine lason vs. gamot, synthetic pesticides have gone semantic transformation- result of massive promotion during the Marcos’ Green Revolution project herbal medicine, medicinal plants, hilot, concepts attributing illness to displaced organs that have to be massaged back into its correct position
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Music and Arts: Sarong Banggi (B), Ati Cu Pung Singsing (P), Pamulinawen (I), Pobreng Alindahaw (C), Dandansoy (H), Salidumay (S); Kulilal Ensemble of Palawan, Kutyapi Artists of Maguindanao Rituals and Ceremonies: agimat (talisman), mutya (charm), gayuma (spell), anting-anting (amulet); bulong (whisper); sapi (spirit possession)
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Methods: doing diagnosis psychodiagnostician determine culturally-defined cause of affliction through patawas, pagbatbat/pag-usisa, pagpakot, pamulso. beliefs in sapi, matanda, nuno, dwende.
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Meanings: Hiyang – (compatible, suited) in indigenous medical practice, it means compatibility of the treatment and medicine with the individual. Lagnat laki (‘growing-up’ fever); Lugaw is perceived as ‘food for the sick’
Traditional Filipino indigenous psychology and culture Genetic diversity of indigenous plants e.g. varieties of rice grains nurtured through centuries by indigenous people Herbal knowledge e.g. pito-pito, herbal tea from seven leaves: bayabas, banaba, alagao, kulantro, mango, pandan – use to detoxify the body.
Philippine cultural studies Perspectival and Interpretive Models absolutist position - assumes the basic congruence of psychological phenomena across humankind relativist position – assumes differences across cultures, if not the uniqueness of each one
Philippine cultural studiespangkami (reactive relativist), assumes the utilityof an alien frame of referencepantayong pananaw (ethnocentric), assumes theabsolutist indigenous perspectiveuniversalist position implied by the kapwa andcross indigenous orientation of SikolohiyangPilipino
Philippine cultural studies Universalist position assumes that basic psychological processes are likely to be common features of human life everywhere, yet their manifestations are likely to be influenced by culture
Philippine cultural studies Emic approach (phonemic) the need to understand a culture from its own perspective (using natural taxonomies) Etic approach (phonetic) the discovery of psychological universal
Filipino intellectual tradition Philosophical traditions and paradigms of science as neither Eastern nor Western The West does not have a monopoly of scientific standards, in fact science evolved from Eastern intellectual traditions Filipino intellectual traditions: the Ma’aram, si Pilosopong Tasyo
Filipino intellectual tradition Filipino philosophy of science incorporates the demands of empirical validation from reliability and validity to affirmability and authenticity. Levels of validity & scientific standards katatagan (replicability, reliability) katapatan (multiple operationism, validity) patibay (certification) patotoo (affirmability, attestability) patunay (authenticity)
Filipino indigenous theories Filipino concepts and models of personality The five elements of the Ma’aram concept of pagkatawo (personhood): ginhawa (vital principle) buot (perception) isip (mind) dungan (sleep spirit) kalag (life spirit)
Filipino indigenous theories Filipino concepts and models of personality Three elements in Baltazar’s model: bait (sanity) muni (reflection) hatol (judgment)
Filipino indigenous theories Filipino concepts and models of personality The four elements in Covar’s concept of Filipino personhood: kaluluwa (spirit) budhi (conscience) katauhang panlabas, external appearance katauhang panloob (innermost being)
Filipino indigenous theories Filipino social interaction theory Levels and modes of social interaction rooted in Filipino collectivist culture which have been identified using ethnoscientific field methods. Kapwa, a core concept in Filipino social psychology. Pakikipagkapwa is accepting, dealing with the other person as an equal.
Filipino indigenous concepts Filipino concept of justice Tagalog, Ilongos, Cebuanos, Pampangos use a common word for justice, katarungan, derived from the Visayan root tarong means straight, upright, appropriate, correct, and for right, we use karapatan, whose root is dapat signifying fitting, appropriate, correct i.e. justice is related to right Jose W. Diokno (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
Research Models Models of data collection Self-orientation Experimenter-orientation Reactive-orientation Mutual-orientation Linda L. Viney (1988) in Pagbabangong-dangal: Indigenous psychology and cultural empowerment. Virgilo G. Enriquez (Ed.) 1994. Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino. Quezon City.
Research Models Models of data collection Self-orientation Model: the data collector and contributors relate to the other only to the extent of waiting until the other stops responding, e.g. laboratory-based studies of memory. Communication is not taking place between them through socially shared interpretations or common constructs.
Research Models Models of data collection Experimenter-orientation Model: the data collectors appear to influence while only the data contributors appear to be influenced, e.g. Asch’s person perception study; an imbalance of power in favor of data collectors who appear to define the experimental situation.
Research Models Models of data collection Reactive-orientation Model: the participants in the data collection are reacting to what is currently taking place between them, e.g. verbal conditioning research; yet the capacities of both data contributors and collectors to construe are assumed to be unimportant and are ignored.
Research Models Models of data collection Mutual-orientation Model: the data collector and contributor give something to, and gain something from the data collection, e.g. Piaget’s early research on conservation. Indigenous psychology research uses this model as the cultural researcher is a culture bearer himself.
Research ModelsResearcher-Researchee Relationship Model Scale of the Researcher Iskala ng Mananaliksik Scale of the Relationship or Interaction between the Researcher and the Researchee Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at Kalahok Carmen E. Santiago & Virgilio G. Enriquez (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia E. Pe-Pua (Ed.). UP Press.
Santiago-Enriquez Research ModelResearcher-Researchee Relationship Model Scale of the Researcher Iskala ng Mananaliksik These are methods used by the researcher in generating data that are tried and tested and are culturally sensitive and appropriate in doing research with Filipinos.
Santiago-Enriquez Research ModelResearcher-Researchee Relationship Model Scale of the Relationship or Interaction between the Researcher and the Researchee Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at Kalahok The level of interaction between the researcher and the researchee significantly determines the quality of data obtained.
Santiago-Enriquez Research ModelResearcher-Researchee Relationship Model Levels of Relationship There are eight levels of interaction which range from the relatively uninvolved civility of pakikitungo to the total sense of identification in pakikiisa. These eight levels of interaction can be divided into two categories: the ibang-tao (outsider) and the hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us).
Santiago-Enriquez Research ModelResearcher-Researchee Relationship Model Levels of Relationship Ibang-tao category (outsider) pakikitungo (amenities, civility) pakikisalimuha (interaction) pakikilahok (participation, joining) pakikibagay (conforming) pakikisama (adjusting, being along with)
Santiago-Enriquez Research ModelResearcher-Researchee Relationship Model Levels of Relationship Hindi ibang-tao category (one-of-us) pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust) pakikisangkot (active involvement) pakikiisa (full trust)
Filipino indigenous research methods Collective indigenous method partakes of the characteristics of: a community dialogue focused group discussion natural cluster interview group attestation puts premium on: cultural appropriateness an ordinary get-together
Filipino indigenous research methods Approaches & Techniques Pakapa-kapa (‘groping,’ a field method) Pagtatanong-tanong (asking questions) Pakikiramdam (shared sensitivities) Pakikialam (concerned interference) Pakikilahok (participation) Pakikisangkot (integral involvement) Pagdalaw-dalaw (casual but repeated visits)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Pakapa-kapa an approach characterized by groping, searching, probing into an unsystematized mass of social and cultural data to be able to obtain order, meaning, and directions for research. Carmen E. Santiago (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press Amaryllis T. Torres in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Pakapa-kapa implies an exploration into cultural, social or psychological data without the chains of overriding theoretical framework borrowed from observations outside the focus of investigation. can be related to unobtrusive techniques because the actual procedures for collecting information may range from observation, documentation, intervention, participation.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach interaction techniques, levels of relationship mula paninimbang hanggang malalimang pakikipagpalagayang-loob. Erlinda Nicdao-Henson (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). UP Press: QC. Josefina B. San Juan & Resurrecion Soriaga (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon & Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.) (1985) National Bookstore Inc.: Manila.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach Panunuluyan: ang kontekstong pisikal at teknolohikal. Pakikipagkapwa: ang batayang panlipunan ng pakikipanuluyan.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach Makataong pakikipag-ugnayan: pagdalaw, paninirahan, pananahanan, pakikisuno. Pakikibagay: pakikitulog at pakikikain. Pakikiramdam at paninimbang: paraan at batayan ng pakikipagpalagayang-loob.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach Pakikiramdam, paggamit ng damdamin, mata at pandinig upang maintindihan o mabasa ang ibig ipahiwatig ng kausap na ipinahahayag sa pamamagitan ng kilos, parinig at matalinhagang salita (talas ng pakiramdam).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach Pakikiramdam could serve as a personality disposition, as a situational behavior, as a coping mechanism; closely related to many general psychological concepts such as empathy and sensitivity. Rita Mataragnon (1982) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon and Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.) (1985). National Bookstore Inc.: Manila
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach Paninimbang: damdamin at isipan (sentido komon) ang pinaiiral dito at anuman ang namasid, nadama, o napakiramdaman ay aangkupan ng tugong-kilos, subalit iniisip ang kahalagahan at kabutihang maidudulot ng katugunang ito (pagtutumbas).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Panunuluyan approach Pamamaraan panimulang pagsasanay paglalakbay at pakikisuno paghimpil sa pook pagtingin-tingin sa maaaring panuluyan paghanap ng tulay pagdalaw sa pakikipanuluyan
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPanunuluyan approach Pagsasakatuparan pagbati at pagpapakilala pag-aayos ng mga dala-dalahan pakikipagpalagayan pagtulong-tulong pagpalit-palitang paggamit ng mga metodo paggawa ng pananaliksik pamamaalam at pasasalamat
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPanunuluyan approach Suliraning etikal pagsasabi ng layunin ng pananaliksik pagkasangkapan sa pagkakaibigan pagsasabi sa kinalabasan ng pananaliksik paghingi ng pahintulot pagtanaw ng utang na loob/pamemerwisyo pagbubunyag ng natuklasang katiwalian
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Pagtatanong-tanong Method Pagtatanong-tanong, Filipino word for “asking questions,” the repetition of ‘tanong’ to ‘tanong- tanong’ indicates seriousness of purpose, one is truly determined to get answers to ones questions. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (1989). International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 13, pp 147-163. Pergamon Press: USA
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPagtatanong-tanong MethodMajor Characteristics – Participatory in nature – Equality of status – Appropriate and adaptive – Integrated with other indigenous methods
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Pagtatanong-tanong Method Preparation: pagtatanong-tanong is part of everyday casual interaction, researcher must plan very well for certain conditions, consider convenience and comfort of informants, their language, norms, values, and background (history, within/between group differences, activities, policies).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesProcedure of pagtatanong-tanongGet to know the people, place, lifestyleGreet informants, give credentials (name the go- between)Go tell them the purpose of the studyGive an estimate of the expected length of the sessionGuide questions are used when necessaryGoodbye and thank you is not abrupt
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPrinciples of pagtatanong-tanongThe level of the relationship that exists betweenthe researcher and the informant significantlyinfluences the quality of data obtained(Santiago-Enriquez Model).The language of the respondent is used in theconduct of pagtatanong-tanong.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPrinciples of pagtatanong-tanongThe use of pakikiramdam as ‘feeling for another’(cultural sensitivity), through this the researcherknows when to ask or avoid questions, interpretsa ‘yes’ for a ‘no’.The equality of status is maintained, as it is adialogue (informant is a kausap or personspoken with) not an interview.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPrinciples of pagtatanong-tanongThe issue of reliability: consistency of responsecan be checked by repeating the question in adifferent way.The problem of investigator bias and datacontamination can be solved by having morethan one person do the pagtatanong-tanong.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPrinciples of pagtatanong-tanongRepeated sampling from as many informants aspossible can produce commonalities of lexicaldomain which can then constitute a ‘construct.’Familiarity with the language, values, culturalnorms, will optimize accuracy and relevance ofinterpretations.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPakikipagkwentuhan MethodKuwentuhan is an occasion for exchange ofinformation, ideas, insights, and opinions also itis a sharing of beliefs, thoughts, andexperiences.Roberto E. Javier Jr. (2004). Methodological Properties ofPakikipagkwentuhan. DLSU-URCO Research Project Report.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPakikipagkwentuhan MethodOral (pasalita)Written (pasulat)Transmitted (pasalin-salin) through timeRequest (paki – paghingi ng pahintulot)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesPakikipagkwentuhan MethodPakikipagkwentuhan is an informal, free, as wellas a social process of exchanging information,thoughts, and knowledge that is part of humandaily activities.Grace O. Oteza (1997). Pakikipagkwentuhan: Isang pamamaraan ng sama-samang pananaliksik, pagpapatotoo, at pagtulong sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino.PPRTH Occasional Papers Series 1997, No. 1.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniquesProcedure of pakikipagkwentuhan initially make visits (padalaw-dalaw) before living-in the community (panunuluyan) introduce yourself to the community invite yourself to community gatherings initiate a conversation when in a natural cluster invest time in story sharing sessions
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan may pakikipagkapwa sa kwentuhan may ‘paki’ ang kalahok sa kwento may pakinabang sa kwentuhan libangan linangan ng kaalaman lunas sa karamdaman
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan collective orientation (pananaliksik na sama-sama) contains the process of validation (pagpapatotoo) construction of social reality (pagbubuo) cluster as unit of analysis (pagsali sa likas na umpukan)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan with a topic to talk about but without a theme (may pakay pero walang paksa) worth or value of story produced from the kwentuhan session (kwenta ng kwento)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan Validity: trustworthiness not truth (mapagkakatiwalaan kaysa makatotohanan) Reliability: certification not consistency (process of pakikipagkwentuhan-indicator) (pagpapatotoo, pagpapatibay)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research approaches and techniques Ginabayang Talakayan Method collective discussion technique ‘sama-sama’ orientation Roberto Galvez