Current practice : the four skills Dec. 22nd, 2011 Tianjin University of Science and Technology Bian Min
The 4 Skills Audiolingualism: speaking ★ other skills were used to reinforce What’s new? 1, One skill is not a reflection of another. 2, Variety is important. 3, Integration of skills. Reading Writing Listening Speaking
Listening 1, Recognition of sentence structures 2, Dictation × word-by-word dictation Focused dictation (writing down only items which have been selected in advance): Importance : Guided listening should come before speaking 1) indefinite article; plural form; prepositions 2)cloze ( combination of reading and listening) 3)sequence or order; past tense etc… Structures
Listening comprehension 1, Materials: authentic spoken language Cassette recorder vs. Written material read aloud 2, Teaching procedures: Stage one : Arousing student interest or motivation. Stage two : Play the recording straight through. Stage three : Listen for particular pieces of information. Stage four : Worksheet to be completed individually, in pairs or small groups. Stage five : A final play to check the worksheet. Meaning Function
Listening comprehension Meaning Function Summary : Material Guidance Motivation
Speaking Being able to use the sound system of English 1, To make the students sensitive to the differences between their own language and English by: 1) Speaking the native language with an English accent 2) Minimal pair sound exercises 3) A necessary explanation of the sound
Speaking Being able to use the sound system of English 2, To help the students learn intonation, or the tune and rhythm of English by: 1) Familiarizing students with the basic tunes 2) Reproducing the tune in their own speech ( singing “la-la-la”) 3) Simple marking system to indicate stress 4) Paying attention to the link between intonation and function
Speaking Being able to communicate freely How to encourage students to speak? (controlled —— semi-controlled —— freer practice) Stage one : Repeat a scripted dialogue separately or in pairs. Stage two : Make substitutions within the framework of the original dialogue. Stage three : Give students cues or prompts to perform(P132). Students need to decide on form & content) Stage four : Give students a role to play. (P133) Other communicative activities: Describe the difference activities Describe and arrange / Describe and draw Solve a problem through discussion
Speaking Being able to communicate freely Summary: To teach speaking skills, there is a progression from exercises which focus on sounds to activities which provide the student with choice and freedom for practicing communication.
Reading To recognize the relationship between the print on the page and the sounds of the language To help create reasons for wanting to read something and to organize the students’ thinking HOW read aloud to provide a model about the relationship between print and sound Teacher’s role Knowledge of the world, reasons for reading, attitudes Children’s ability to connect sound and symbol Determinant factors To recognize the significance of the message, understanding the intentions of the writer… “ Definition” Comprehension Decoding Two stages
Types of literature Non-fiction Narrative/Fiction Texts which describe arrangements of things Activities Written text Visual form T/F and multiple choice comprehension exercises Fruitful discussion and purposeful reading
Stage one : Arouse students’ interest and motivation. Stage two : Give students points to search. Stage three : Discuss answers, right or wrong. Stage four : Reproduce——writing How to conduct a reading lesson?