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Андрей Бремзен - как экономисты спасают жизни с помощью математики

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Андрей Бремзен - как экономисты спасают жизни с помощью математики

  1. 1. How Economists Save Lives Andrei Bremzen, New Economic School February 15, 2014
  2. 2. What Is Economics? n  n  n  n  n  Many believe it is boring Compared to other social sciences (history, psychology, etc.) That those who study economics do so exclusively for earning prospects That economics is all about accounting, securities trading, business planning… BUT THIS IS BIASED AND MISLEADING!
  3. 3. What is Economics? n  n  n  n  In fact, economists do much more than that In (academic) economics there is beautiful and fancy math, intriguing history, even quantum physics, and more Not least, huge potential for self realization, including serving people with your talent Including by directly saving people’s lives
  4. 4. What is Market Design? n  n  n  n  Relatively new field Builds on progress in mathematics (mostly game theory) to design rules to trade items never traded before Trading may or may not involve money! Because of liquidity or repugnancy constraints monetary exchange may not work
  5. 5. Theory: two-sided matchings n  n  n  n  n  n  Gale-Shapley (1962) paper Deferred acceptance algorithm Outcome in the core Unique for two sidedness With desirable strategic properties What is better: to be a man or a woman?
  6. 6. Application: Kidney Exchange n  n  n  n  n  n  n  First successful transplant 1954 Need blood and tissue types to match 95-98% success rate First three-pair exchange: 2003 NEPKE, founded 2005 (nepke.org) Six-pair exchange: 2008 60 people in Non-directed chain: 2011
  7. 7. Alvin Roth at a Hospital
  8. 8. Conclusions n  n  n  n  Buying and selling donor organs is illegal (why?), and we do not advocate this. But there is still scope for trading to mutual advantage Economists help design markets, even under unusual constraints ECONOMICS IS FUN!
  9. 9. References n  n  n  Nobel.se for releases on 2012 Nobel in economics (to Lloyd Shapley and Al Roth) Marketdesigner.blogspot.com for Al’s blog Gregmankiw.blogspot.com for blogging on economics an links to other resources

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