ISSUESIN ORGANIZATIONSLack ofCoordinationCoordinatingthework programOften inanorganizationthatonceestablished, orwithinan ...
Conflict within an organizationIn an organization, conflict is common thing and something that should be addressed, if thi...
sabotage between individuals or departments, hate to individuals or department, often achange in the employee or the emplo...
consultation and collaboration, both parties can see their stance on the matter giving rise tothe conflict and identify th...
discussion towards brainstorming. The Chairman will initiate discussions with the things thatcause conflict. The purpose o...
organization. Problems often arise in an organization and in demand by the members to gothrough and finish it. Complex pro...
· Organizing; organize activities· Coordinating; coordinating activities· Commanding; activity briefing· Controlling; surv...
together produce the desired framework for the problem.The third problem consists of:a) Looking at the company as a system...
feel involved in the problem, gather information, and use information.1. Sensing troubleManagers can be divided into three...
E. Covera. ConclusionThe conclusion that can be drawn from the discussion paper in the Systems Approachto Solve Problems a...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Critical thinking esaimen


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Critical thinking esaimen

  1. 1. ISSUESIN ORGANIZATIONSLack ofCoordinationCoordinatingthework programOften inanorganizationthatonceestablished, orwithinan organizationcan be saidwhenthereisaverygoodprogram of workonce,ifthere is nocoordinationsooftencausesmisunderstandings,which can certainlylead tochaoticimplementation aprogram.Thechaosmayoccurwhen theperson in chargedid notknow theinterrestrictionsjob, whichoftencan onlybe obtainedthroughcoordination amongresponsible. This canleadtooverlapbecausesomecommitteedo, insometasks, whilevacancies inothertasksCoordination betweenHeadWorse yet, poor coordinationcanlead topoor communicationas well. Poor communicationbetweentheleadership ofaprogrammayresult infuture programs. Sooftenhappenswrongandmisunderstandthem.Thoughthe leadersbesidesdealingin the implementation ofthe work programis supposed tohaveculturalties, whilegood communicationbetween them.RecruitmentFor some periods of the organization, and for a variety of problems trainer organization isperceived differently, because of the level of interest of interest in the organization that isdifferent for example.However, the statement "the success of a period is a measure of success when post future butwhen it can produce (the cadres) who is more successful period".Then we can say in an organization is in a period when it can be said as the heyday, but it hasno meaning when the organization collapsed after it disbanded due to weakness or even lackof an even tau cadre successor.Maintain a trainerThistrainer, is closely linked to the development of the organization. When an organization torecruit volunteers with great interest, allowing the organization to reach a broad community,and it is a resource that cannot be underestimated.After successfully recruiting volunteers with a huge interest, if it cannot empower, in order todefend its cadres so often these cadres will experience natural selection. Therefore, efforts tomaintain a trainer often more important.
  2. 2. Conflict within an organizationIn an organization, conflict is common thing and something that should be addressed, if thisphenomenon can be reduced, the robustness of an organization will increase and thus canachieve a desired goal towards excellence. Conflict can be friction and conflict between thetwo sides due to differences in values, wants, and feelings stand in order to meet your needsand goals. It is a common phenomenon when there is interaction between two or more peopleand always occur from time to time. Various efforts have been made to address the negativeeffects of conflict and one of the popular approaches is the counseling approach.Causes of Conflict.In an organization of employment, conflicts occur not only between workers and employers,or between one department to another department often occur even interpersonal conflict andinternal conflict. Among the causes of conflict are:1. Obstacles to achieve a goal by one or more parties is a major cause of conflict within anorganization or between individuals. For example, the desire of a person or a department toorganize a seminar or event for personal gain or obstructed by other organizations for somereason can result in conflict.2. Lack of resources such as financial, physical labor and limited to equitable distribution toall parties. Referring to the example above, the barrier to hold a seminar or a particular eventmay be due to the provision of financial or limited manpower.3. Lack of coordination between two or more parties as dependency information to the otherparty to an end. For example, the goal of the personnel of an organization to make newrecruitment was stopped because there is no complete information on the manpower needs ofthe department heads of the other parts. It should be able to interpersonal conflict due tojealousy or cmburu with the success of others.4. Policies and service structure adopted by an organization. Conflicts may occur in terms ofsalary structure. For example, too much salary difference between employment or salarystructure similar in staffing structure but different workload. Similarly, the policy of anorganization is too concerned with profits without considering the comfort of work andwelfare of workers.Signs of Conflict existence.Signs of the easiest to determine the existence of a conflict between two or more parties is theavailability of complaints by any party.Other signs that indicate a conflict in an organization is a mutual workers blame each other,
  3. 3. sabotage between individuals or departments, hate to individuals or department, often achange in the employee or the employee is transferred and the low performance of theorganization.Effect of ConflictConflict between two or more individuals and parties may have an impact on the partiesinvolved. This effect can be divided into two positive (constructive) and negative effects(distruktif). For positive impact, the conflict can cause racing attitude to achieve a goal. Byhaving this attitude results or performance of the work will increase.Apart from that conflict can also realize individual or the organization of vulnerability and inthe event they think positive, efforts to improve it will be done and this can increasecooperation and harmony at work. Next it promotes constructive changes. In addition, theconflict also encourage someone to consider the source of the problem in more detail,increase the motivation to solve problems and understand the emotional and behavioral self-sendiridan others in order to create an adjustment or balance.Conflict can also produce negative effects. Can lead to attitude hatred, depression, hostility,mutual distrust, blame game, lack of cooperation, sabotage and so on. This would certainly beable to disrupt the harmony of interpersonal relationships and if it happens in an organization,it would hamper efforts to achieve overall organizational goals. By the parties as a counselorin the organization must play a role to prevent the conflict from occurring and to restore thesituation where there is conflict of negative effects.Conflict ResolutionCounselor or certain superiors in an organization needs to know and master certain strategiesor methods to resolve a conflict, particularly that produce negative effects. Among thestrategies or techniques to be mastered by a counselor or a certain superiors are:1. Separating the physical conflict. These measures will reduce promiscuity and this willreduce the tension between them. This move has more disadvantages than advantages. It notonly can cause a lack of social interaction and cause no cooperation but also show negativeattitude that management does not want to improve the situation. However, this step is a goodstep if it is for a while and serious forms of conflict as there is an opportunity to meet theneeds of both parties.2. Diffusion method or consolidation to a greater awareness to the parties to a conflict.Through this technique counselor will solve the little things that cause conflict and let the bigthings. It aims to defuse the conflict or steal time to allow both parties are aware of theirmistakes and strive to improve the cause of the larger conflict. Disadvantages of this strategyis a great source of conflict if left unchecked will cause it to be the focus and cause a worsesituation.3. Bring the parties to a conflict to work towards melaui negotiations. This is the best step for
  4. 4. consultation and collaboration, both parties can see their stance on the matter giving rise tothe conflict and identify the most suitable option to resolve. This despite the best strategy, butit is difficult to bring conflicting parties to the negotiating table if the values are significantlydifferent and stand or cause too much conflict.4. Solution through compromise. Through this strategy the conflicting parties will tolerateand are willing to make sacrifices through negotiations. For example, employers will raisewages demanded by workers and employees are guaranteed to improve the quality andquantity of production. This strategy is appropriate only if the requesting party and thebalance of power or influence. This means that should the parties request or otherwise do nothave the power, the solution is difficult to achieve.5. Strategy discussions by delegates. Through this technique the conflicting parties will sendtheir representatives to the negotiating table. This will improve communication and interksiand prone confrontation. Through this consultative discussion on the causes of conflict andbargaining will occur. Usually this strategy is used by trade unions to demand somethingfrom the employer as salary increases and comfort of the workplace.6. Methods of competition. By this method one of the conflicting parties will try to meet thegoal and ignore the will of his opponents. Through this strategy of confrontation, argue thatthe pressure will be done until one side loses lainmenyerah. This technique is usually used bythe employer of an organization and in situations where the influence or power between thetwo sides balanced.7. Adaptation methods. Through this method of letting the opponent do the solutionsaccording to his will. Usually this is done because the method is aware of errors andmistakes, realize that the influence or power of his opponent too large, concerned withharmony or immediate solutions and has a goal to collect something bigger in the future.8. Brain squeeze technique (introduced by Dr.. Alex Osborn). Through this technique theparties involved will come together and each member will jointly thinking and ideas towardsthe solution of a conflict. Each member free to make their own ideas and only later criticized.Usually this method is suitable for improving an organizations policies. Collected ideas anddiscussed until only ideas are selected.9. Checklist technique. Through this technique the parties concerned will list the things andthe need to impacts of each problem. Diprolehi items that will be compared with the realproblems that cause conflict and delivered to the subject or the parties concerned to determinethe solution. Drawback of this technique is a lot of wasted time, thinking that no detailsrelating to the real problems that cause conflict.10. Gordon techniques, through this technique in a group discussion chaired by someone. Thechairman intentionally did not understand the problems that led to the conflict and bring the
  5. 5. discussion towards brainstorming. The Chairman will initiate discussions with the things thatcause conflict. The purpose of this technique is to get ideas but only to resolve the conflict.Frequently the problem and the solution to Problem Solving in OrganizationsA. BackgroundOrganization is a means to reach our objectives, which is a container activities of thepeople who work together in an attempt to achieve the goal. The existence of an organizationis influenced by several aspects such as the unification of the vision and mission and goalsare the same as the embodiment of the existence of a group of people to the community.Organization or management company should be able to manage to win thecompetition in the era of the all competitive in order to survive to grow and develop inaccordance with the companys goals. Every company, whether engaged in the production,services and industry, in general, have a goal to make a profit.In order to reach that goal, the company needs an effective management system thatwill support the companys operations running continuously and the level of effectiveness ofemployees also need to be considered. The company has several parts in general, which ispart of the marketing, finance, production, human resources, and administration. Each ofthese sections carry out different activities but relate to each other. Levels of corporateactivity undertaken will change from a period to the next.Management of these changes require coordination within a company and create acontainer which is a tool of communication between parts of the organizational structure. Atthe organizational structure there is a line relationship between managers and employees whohave a relationship line between the duties, authority, and responsibility.Coordination is needed to obtain unity of action in achieving corporate goals.Without coordination, the people or the existing functions will further pursue its own interestsat the cost of the companys goals.Coordination between sections according to the companys activities will be onecontributing factor to the smooth and successful implementation of the companys activitiesto achieve the goals set.B. ProblemsOn paper I am writing this right time to discuss the problems that often arise in the
  6. 6. organization. Problems often arise in an organization and in demand by the members to gothrough and finish it. Complex problems frequently occur in companies that ultimatelyindirectly requires a manager to make a decision.At this time a systematic approach to problem solving has been created consisting ofthree types of business:- Preparation- Definitions- SolutionIn preparing for solving the problem, the manager looked at the company as asystem to understand the corporate environment and identify sub-systems within thecompany.In define problems, managers move from system to subsystem level and analyzingthe bagiansistem according to a certain order. In solving the problems managers identifyalternative solutions, mengevaluaasinya, you select the best, apply it, and make a follow-upto ensure that the solution is running as it should.C. Basis TheoryOrganization is: The business people must be coordinated, composed of a numberof sub-systems are interconnected and interdependent, working together on the basis of thedivision of labor, role, and authority and has the objective to be achieved.Here are some characteristics / attributes of Organization:1. Organization is a social institution that consists of a set of people with different patterns ofinteraction established.2. Organization developed to achieve certain goals by the organization because it is a socialcreation that requires rules and cooperation.3. Organization consciously and deliberately structured coordinated activities differentiatedaccording to a logical pattern. Coordination of the parts are interdependent tasks require theassignment of authority and communication.4. Organization is a social instrument has limitations that can be identified and the relativeexistence has a relatively permanent basis.Classical organization theory to clarify the management task consists of:1. Technical; produce and organize activities.2. Commercial; activities of buying materials and selling products.3. Financial; spending activities.4. Security; activity to maintain security.5. Accountancy; accounting activities.6. Managerial; perform management functions consisting of:· Planning; planning activities
  7. 7. · Organizing; organize activities· Coordinating; coordinating activities· Commanding; activity briefing· Controlling; surveillance activitiesThe variables considered in the scientific management:1. The importance of the role of managers2. Utilization and labor appointment3.Employee welfare responsibilities4. Climate conduciveInterpersonal Theory of HumanThe approach taken is a psychological approach to subordinates, ie by knowing theindividual behavior of subordinates as a group of human relationships to support the level oflabor productivity. So there is a recommendation for managers that the organization is asocial system and should pay attention to social and psychological needs of employees inorder to get higher productivity.Quantitative Flow TheoryFocus management decisions are based on calculations that can be accounted forscholarship. This approach is known as management science pendkatan usual start it by thefollowing steps:1. Formulate the problem2. To model arithmetic3. Get a settlement from the model4. Reviewing the results of the model and fashion5. Establish control over the results6. Conduct implementationD. Discussion of IssuesIn solving the problem we are holding on to the three types of business to be done bythe business manager of the preparation, definition of business, and business solutions /solutions.- Enterprises preparation, preparing managers to solve the problem by providing orientationsystem.- Business definition, includes identifying the problem to be solved and then understand it.- Enterprise solutions, including identifying alternative solutions, evaluate them, choose theone that seems best, to implement the solution and make follow-ups to ensure that theproblem was solved. Computer-based information systems or CBIS can be used as systemsupport (support systems) when applying a systems approach.1. Preparation of businessThree preparatory steps do not have to be implemented sequentially, because all three
  8. 8. together produce the desired framework for the problem.The third problem consists of:a) Looking at the company as a systemb) Know the system environmentc) Identify subsystems company2. Definition of businessDefinition of business includes first realized that a problem exists or will exist (problemidentification) and then simply learn to find solutions (understanding the problem). Definitionof business includes two steps:a) Moving from system level to subsystemb) Analyze the parts of the system in a certain order sustu3. Solving effortsSolving efforts include consideration of viable alternatives (feasible), the selection ofthe best alternative, and its application.With this fact, we define the problem as a condition that has the potential to causetremendous harm or produce a tremendous advantage. So solving the problem means actionto respond to the pressing problems or capitalize on opportunities due to poor profits. Theimportance of problem solving is not based on the amount of time spent, but in consequencethe decision was the selection of a strategy or action.Decision making is the act of choosing a strategy or action that managers believewill provide the best solution to the problem. One key to solving the problem is to identifythe various alternative decisions. Solution to a problem must utilize the system to meet itsgoals, as reflected in the performance standards system. This standard describes the expectedstate, what is to be achieved by the system.The next manager must have the updated information, the information that describesthe current situation, what is being achieved by the system. If the current state and theexpected state of the same, there is no problem and the manager does not take action. If thesetwo conditions are different, some are the cause and the problem should be solved.The difference between the current state and the expected state describing thesolution criteria (criterion solution), or what is required to change the current state to theexpected state. After various alternatives, identified information system can be used toevaluate each alternative.This evaluation should take into account a variety of constraints (constraints) thatmay be, both inter and external / environmental.1. Internal constraints may be a limited resource, such as a lack of raw materials, workingcapital, lack of qualified human resources, and others - others.2. Environmental constraints may be pressure from various environmental elements, such asgovernments or competitors to act in a certain way. Symptom is a condition produced by theproblem. Very often managers see the symptoms of the problem. Symptoms attract theattention of managers through the feedback loop. However, symptoms are not entirelyrevealed, that a problem is the cause of a problem, or the cause of an opportunity.Each manager has a unique style of problem solving. Their style affects how they
  9. 9. feel involved in the problem, gather information, and use information.1. Sensing troubleManagers can be divided into three basic categories in terms of style sense problems(problem solving styles) they are, that is how they deal with the problem.• avoidance problem (problem avoider)The manager took a positive attitude and assume that all is fine. He tried to block thepossibility of a problem by ignoring or avoiding her all the planning information.• Troubleshooter (problem solver)This manager also did not stop him looking for trouble. If there is a problem, the problem issolved.• Search Problem (problem seeker)The manager enjoys problem solving and look for it.2. Gather informationThe manager can show one of two styles of gathering information (information-gatheringstyles) or attitudes towards the total volume of information available to them.• Regular Style (preceptive style)This type of manager following the management by exception and filter out anything that isnot related to the area of interest.• Receive Style (receptive style)This type of manager would like to see it all, and then determine whether the information isworth to him or anyone else in the organization.3. Using the informationManagers also tend to prefer one of two styles use information (information-using styles),namely the ways to use information to solve a problem.• Style Semantics (systematic style)Managers pay particular attention to follow a predetermined method, eg systems approach.• Intuitive Style (intuitive style)Managers do not prefer a particular method but adapt its approach to the situation.Three phases of problem solving that is:1. IntelligenceIntelligence is awareness of a problem or opportunity. In this case, the decision-makers seeking internal and external business environment, examining the decisions thatneed to be made, and the problems that need to be solved, or opportunities that need to beconsidered.Active intelligence means awareness for changes in the environment that demanded certainactions.2. DesigningIn the design phase, the decision-makers to formulate a problem and analyzing anumber of alternative solutions.3. ElectionIn the selection phase, the decision maker select solutions to problems oropportunities that characterized the intelligence phase. This election was followed from theprevious analysis in the design phase and strengthen it through the information obtained inthe selection phase.
  10. 10. E. Covera. ConclusionThe conclusion that can be drawn from the discussion paper in the Systems Approachto Solve Problems and Make Decisions are as follows:1. Systematic problem solving process stems from John Dewey, a professor of philosophy atColumbia University who identifies three series of judgments involved in solving a problemthat is adequately controversy:• Recognize controversy• Considering alternative claims• Establish assessment2. Problem solving implies action to respond to the pressing problems or capitalize onopportunities due to poor profits.3. Decision making is the act of choosing a strategy or action that managers believe willprovide the best solution to the problem.4. Each manager has a unique style of problem solving. Their style affects how they feelinvolved in the problem, gather information, and use information.b. SuggestionIt is better if we are in establishing a truly oriented groups in the plan and taken intoconsideration in order to achieve and fulfill the vision and mission of the company in theorganization. Hopefully, in the case of problems of the above papers can provide shade andinspiration to us so that we can get better at making the organization and the organization andhopefully this paper can be useful as a reference to provide solutions in terms of problemsolving and decision making.