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INTRODUCTION OF
DESIGN OF
MACHINE ELEMENT
• Design is to formulate a plan satisfy a particular need and to
create something with physical reality.
• Realization of a concept or idea into a configuration.
• Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the
construction of an object, system or measurable human
interaction .
What is design????
• Machine is defined as a combination of resisting bodies with successfully
constrained relative motions which is used transform other forms of energy
into mechanical energy or transmit and modify available energy to do some
useful work.
• An apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts, each with a
definite function and together performing a particular task.
• Semi or fully automated device that magnifies human physical and/or
mental capabilities in performing one or more operations.
What is Machine???
• Machine is a combination of several machine elements
arranged to work together as a whole to accomplish specific
purpose.
• Machine Design involves designing the elements and arranging
them optimally to obtain some useful work.
• Machine design is the process of engineering design.
A machine is made up of mechanisms that work together to
satisfy the requirements of what the machine needs to
accomplish.
What is Machine Design???
Classification of Machine Design
Types of design
Adaptive
Design Development
design
New
Design
1) Adaptive Design:- The designer’s work is concerned with adaptation
of existing design. The designer only makes minor alternation or
modification in the existing designs of the product.
2) Development Design:- This type of design needs considerable
scientific training and design ability in order to modify the existing
design into a new idea by adopting a new material or different
method of manufacture. The designer starts from the existing design,
but final product may differ quite markedly from the original product.
3) New Design:- This type of design needs lots of research, technical
ability and creative thinking.
Types of Machine Design
Classification of Machine Design
Types of design
based on
method
Rational
Design Empirical
Design
Industrial
Design
1) Rational Design:- Based on determining the stresses and strains
of components and thereby deciding their dimensions. This type
of design depends upon mathematical formulae of principal of
mechanics.
2) Empirical Design:- This type of design depends upon empirical
formulae based on the practice and past experience .
Types of Design based on method
1) Industrial Design:- This type of design depends upon the
production aspects to manufacture any machine component
in the industry. Based on industrial considerations and norms viz.
market survey, external look, production facilities, low cost, use
of existing standard products
Types of Design based on method
 What device or mechanism to be used???
To decide the relative arrangement of the constituent
elements.
 Material
 Forces on the elements
 Size
 Shape and space requirements
 Weight of the product
Factors to be considered in
Machine Design
 The method of manufacturing the components and their
assembly.
 How will it operate.
 Reliability and safety aspects.
 Inspectibilty
 Maintenance
 Cost and aesthetics of the designed product.
Factors to be considered in
Machine Design
General procedure in Machine
Design
Need or Aim Synthesis (Mechanisms) Analysis of forces
Material SelectionDesign of Elements
Modification Detailed Drawing
Production
• Standardization is defined as obligatory (or compulsory) norms,
to which various characteristics of a product should comply (or
agree) with standard.
• The characteristics include materials, dimensions and shape of
the component, method of testing and method of marking,
packing and storing of the product.
• A standard is defined as a set of specifications for parts,
materials or processes. The objective of, a standard is to reduce
the variety and limit the number of items to a reasonable level.
Standardization
• On the other hand, a code is defined as a set of specifications
for the analysis, design, manufacture, testing and erection of the
product. The purpose of a code is to achieve a specified level
of safety.
• There are three types of standards used in design :-
 Company Standards: They are used in a particular company or
a group of sister concerns.
Standardization
 National standards:
– India - BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards),
– Germany - DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung),
– USA - AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) or SAE (Society of Automotive
Engineers),
– UK - BS (British Standards)
 International standards: These are prepared by the International
Standards Organization (ISO).
Standardization
 Standards for Materials, their chemical compositions, Mechanical
properties and Heat Treatment:
For example, Indian standard IS 210 specifies seven grades of grey cast iron
designated as FG 150, FG 200, FG 220, FG 260, FG 300, FG 350 and FG 400. The
number indicates ultimate tensile strength in N/mm2.
 Standards for Shapes and dimensions of commonly used Machine Elements:
The machine elements include bolts, screws and nuts, rivets, belts and chains, ball
and roller bearings, wire ropes, keys and splines, etc
For example, IS 2494 (Part 1) specifies dimensions and shape of the cross- section of
endless V-belts for power transmission.
The dimensions of the trapezoidal cross-section of the belt, viz. width, height and
included angle are specified in this standard
Standards are used in mechanical
engineering design
 Standards for Fits, Tolerances and Surface Finish of Component:
For example, selection of the type of fit for different applications is illustrated in IS
2709 on 'Guide for selection of fits'.
The tolerances or upper and lower limits for various sizes of holes and shafts are
specified in IS 919 on 'Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering'.
IS 10719 explains method for indicating surface texture on technical drawings.
 Standards for Tes ting of Products:
These standards, sometimes called 'codes', give procedures to test the products
such as pressure vessel, boiler, crane and wire rope, where safety of the
operator is an important consideration.
For example, IS 807 is a code of practice for design, manufacture, erection and
testing of cranes and hoists.
Standards are used in mechanical
engineering design
 Reductions in types and dimensions of identical components (inventory
control).
 Reduction in manufacturing facilities.
 Easy to replace (Interchangeability).
No need to design or test the elements.
 Improves quality and reliability.
 Improves reputation of the company which manufactures standard
components.
 Sometimes it ensures the safety.
 It results in overall cost reduction.
Benefits of Standardization
 With the acceptance of standardization, there is a need to keep the
standard sizes or dimensions of any component or product in discrete steps.
 The sizes should be spread over the wide range, at the same time these
should be spaced properly.
 For example, if shaft diameters are to be standardized between 10 mm and
25 mm, then sizes should be like : 10 mm, 12.5 mm, 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm and
not like : 10 mm, 11 mm, 13 mm, 18 mm, 25 mm.
 This led to the use of geometric series known as series of preferred numbers
or preferred series.
 Preferred series are series of numbers obtained by geometric progression
and rounded off.
Preferred Numbers
• There are five basic series with step ratios of:
5
10 ,
10
10 ,
20
10 ,
40
10 &
80
10
• These ratios are approximately equal to 1.58, 1.26, 1.12, 1.06 and 1.03.
• The five basic series of preferred numbers (known as preferred series)
are designated as: R5, R10, R20, R40, and R80.
• The examples of preferred number series are: standard shaft diameters,
power rating of coupling, center distances of standard gear boxes, etc.
Preferred Numbers
• The difference in two successive terms has a fixed percentage.
• It provides small steps for small quantities and large steps
for large quantities.
• The product range is covered with minimum number of
sizes without restricting the choice of the customers.
Advantages Preferred Numbers
• The difference in two successive terms has a fixed percentage.
• It provides small steps for small quantities and large steps
for large quantities.
• The product range is covered with minimum number of
sizes without restricting the choice of the customers.
Advantages Preferred Numbers
R5 R10 R20 R40
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
1.06
1.12 1.12
1.18
1.25 1.25 1.25
1.32
1.40 1.40
1.50
1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
1.70
1.80 1.80
1.90
2.00 2.00 2.00
2.12
2.24 2.24
2.36
2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
2.65
2.80 2.80
3.00
3.15 3.15 3.15
3.35
3.55 3.55
3.75
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
4.25
4.50 4.50
4.75
5.00 5.00 5.00
5.30
5.60 5.60
6.00
6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30
6.70
7.10 7.10
7.50
8.00 8.00 8.00
8.50
9.00 9.00
9.50
• In a present days of buyer's market, with a number of products available in
the market are having most of the parameters identical, the appearance of
product is often a major factor in attracting the customer.
• This is particularly true for consumer durables like: automobiles, domestic refrigerators,
television sets, etc.
• Aesthetics is defined as a set of principles of appreciation of beauty. It deals
with the appearance of the product.
• Appearance is an outward expression of quality of the product and is the first
communication of the product with the user.
• For any product, there exists a relationship between the functional requirement and
the appearance of a product.
Aesthetic Considerations
• The aesthetic quality contributes to the performance of the product, though
the extent of contribution varies from the product to product.
• The following guidelines may be used in aesthetic design (design for
appearance):
• The appearance should contribute to the performance of the product.
For example, the aerodynamic shape of the car will have a lesser air
resistance, resulting in the lesser fuel consumption.
• The appearance should reflect the function of the product.
For example, the aerodynamic shape of the car indicates the speed.
• The appearance should reflect the quality of the product.
For example, the robust and heavy appearance of the hydraulic press reflects its
strength and rigidity
Aesthetic Considerations
• The appearance should not be at too much of extra cost unless it is a prime
requirement.
• The appearance should be suitable to the environment in which the product is
used.
• The growing importance of the aesthetic considerations in product design has
given rise to a separate disciple known as industrial design.
• The job of an industrial designer is to create new shapes and forms for the
product which are aesthetically appealing
– Form (Shape)
There are five basic forms of the products, namely, step, taper, shear, streamline and sculpture
Aesthetic Considerations
 Step form:
The step form is a stepped structure having vertical accent
It is similar to the shape of a multistorey building.
 Taper form
The taper form consists of tapered blocks or tapered cylinders.
 Shear form
The shear form has a square outlook.
 Streamline form
The streamline form has a streamlined shape having a smooth flow as seen in automobile and
aeroplane structures
 Sculpture form
Aesthetic Considerations
Aesthetic Considerations
The sculpture and stream forms are suitable for mobile products like vehicles, while step
and shear forms are suitable for stationary products
• Colour
 Colour is one of the major contributors to the aesthetic appeal of the product.
 Many colours are linked with different moods and conditions.
 The selection of the colour should be compatible with the conventions.
 Morgan has suggested the colour code given in the following Table.
Aesthetic Considerations
Colour Meaning
Red Danger, Hazard, Hot
Orange Possible Danger
Yellow Caution
Green Safety
Blue Caution-Cold
Grey Dull
• Material and Surface Finish
 The material and surface finish of the product contribute significantly to
the appearance.
 The material like, stainless steel gives better appearance than the cast irons,
plain carbon steels or low alloy steels.
 The brass or bronze give richness to the appearance of the product.
 The products with better surface finish are always aesthetically pleasing.
 The surface coating processes like: spray painting, anodizing, electroplating,
etc. greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the product.
Aesthetic Considerations
• Ergonomics is defined as the scientific study of the man-machine-working
environment relationship and the application of anatomical, physiological
and psychological principles to solve the problems arising from this
relationship
• The word ergonomic is formed from two Greek word: ergo means work and
nomic mean natural laws.
• The final objective of the ergonomics is to make the machine fit for user rather
than to make the user adapt himself or herself to the machine.
• It aims at decreasing the physical and mental stresses to the user.
• Psychology - Experimental psychologists who study people at work to provide
data on such things as: Human sensory capacities, psychomotor
performance, Human decision making, Human error rates, Selection tests and
procedures, Learning and training.
Ergonomic Considerations
• Anthropometry - An applied branch of anthropology concerned with the
measurement of the physical features of people. Measures how tall we are,
how far we can reach, how wide our hips are, how our joints flex, and how
our bodies move.
• Applied Physiology - Concerns the vital processes such as cardiac function,
respiration, oxygen consumption, and electromyography activity, and the
responses of these vital processes to work, stress, and environmental
influences.
Ergonomic Considerations
Ergonomic Considerations
Man-Machine Closed Loop System
Ergonomic Considerations
• This man-machine closed loop system in influenced by the working environmental
factors such as: lighting, noise, temperature, humidity, air circulation, etc.
• Ergonomic Considerations in Design of Displays
• Ergonomic Considerations in Design of Controls
• Working Environment.
• Lighting
• Noise
• Temperature
• Humidity and air circulation
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design for manufacturing and assembly are simple guidelines
formulated to get the below benefits
• It simplifies the design
• It simplifies the production processes and decreases the product cost
• It improves product quality and reliability (because if the production
process is simplified, then there is less opportunity for errors).
• It decreases the assembly cost.
• It decreases the assembly time.
• It reduces time required to bring a new product into market.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design)
– Reduce the Part Counts
– Design engineers should try for product design that uses the minimum number
of parts
– Fewer parts result in lower costs
– It also makes assembly simpler and fewer chances of defects.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design)
– Use modular designs:
– Modularize multiple parts into single sub-assemblies
– Modular design reduces the number of parts being assembled at any
one time and also simplifies final assembly
– Field service becomes simple, fast and cheap because dismantling is
faster and requires fewer tools.
•
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design)
• Assemble in the open
• Design to allow assembly in open spaces, not confined spaces
• Assembly operation should be carried out in clear view. This is
important in manual assembly
•
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design)
• Design parts for simple assembly:
• Design parts with orienting features to make alignment easier
•
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Why casting????
• Complex parts which are difficult to machine, are made by the casting
process
• Almost any metal can be melted and cast. Most of the sand cast parts
are made of cast iron, aluminum alloys and brass
• The size of the sand casting can be as small as 10 g and as large as 200
x 103 kg
• Sand castings have irregular and grainy surfaces and machining is
required if the part is moving with respect to some other part or
structure
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Why casting????
• Cast components are stable, rigid and strong compared with
machined or forged parts.
• Typical examples of cast components are machine tool beds
and structures, cylinder blocks of internal combustion engines,
pumps and gear box housings.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Basic considerations of casting
• Always keep the stressed areas of the parts in compression
• Round all external corners
• Wherever possible, the section thickness throughout should be held
as uniform as compatible with overall design considerations
• Avoid concentration of metal at the junctions
• Avoid very thin sections
• The wall adjacent to the drilled hole should have a thickness
equivalent to the thickness of the main body
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Basic considerations of casting
• Oval-shaped holes are preferred with larger dimensions along the
direction of forces
• To facilitate easy removal, the pattern must have some draft
• Outside bosses should be omitted to facilitate a straight pattern
draft
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Always keep the stressed areas of the parts in compression
• Cast iron has more compressive strength than its tensile strength
• The castings should be placed in such a way that they are
subjected to compressive rather than tensile stresses.
•
(a) Incorrect (Part in tension) (b) Correct (Part in compression)
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Always keep the stressed areas of the parts in compression
• When tensile stresses are unavoidable, a clamping device such as
a tie rod or a bearing cap should be considered.
• The clamping device relieves the cast iron components from tensile
stresses
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Round all external corners
• It increases the endurance limit of the component and reduces the
formation of brittle chilled edges
• When the metal in the corner cools faster than the metal adjacent
to the corner, brittle chilled edges are formed
• Appropriate fillet radius reduces the stress concentration
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Wherever possible, the section thickness throughout should be held as
uniform as compatible with overall design considerations
• Abrupt changes in the cross-section result in high stress concentration
• If the thickness is to be varied at all, the change should be gradual
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Avoid concentration of metal at the junctions
• At the junction, there is a concentration of metal.
• Even after the metal on the surface solidifies, the central portion still
remains in the molten stage, with the result that a shrinkage cavity or
blowhole may appear at the center
• There are two ways to avoid the concentration of metal.
• One is to provide a cored opening in webs and ribs
• Alternatively, one can stagger the ribs and webs
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Avoid concentration of metal at the junctions
Cored Holes Staggered ribs
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Avoid very thin sections
• It depends upon the process of casting such as sand casting ,
permanent mold casting or die casting
– The wall adjacent to the drilled hole should have a thickness equivalent to the
thickness of the main body
• The inserted stud will not restore the strength of the original thickness.
•
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Oval-shaped holes are preferred with larger dimensions along the
direction of forces
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for casting
• Outside bosses should be omitted to facilitate a straight pattern draft
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Forging
• Why forging????
• A properly designed forging is not only sound with regard to strength but it also
helps reduce the forging forces, improves die life and simplifies die design
• Forged components are usually made of steels and non-ferrous metals.
• They can be as small as a gudgeon pin and as large as a crankshaft.
• Forged components are used under the following circumstances:
• Moving components requiring light weight to reduce inertia forces, e.g.
connecting rod of I. C. engines, Components subjected to excessive stresses, e.g.
aircraft structures, Small components that must be supported by other structures
or parts, e.g. hand tools and handles, Components requiring pressure tightness
where the part must be free from internal cracks, e.g. valve bodies, Components
whose failure would cause injury and expensive damage are forged for safety.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Forging
• Why forging????
• A properly designed forging is not only sound with regard to strength but it also
helps reduce the forging forces, improves die life and simplifies die design
• Forged components are usually made of steels and non-ferrous metals.
• They can be as small as a gudgeon pin and as large as a crankshaft.
• Forged components are used under the following circumstances:
• Moving components requiring light weight to reduce inertia forces, e.g.
connecting rod of I. C. engines, Components subjected to excessive stresses, e.g.
aircraft structures, Small components that must be supported by other structures
or parts, e.g. hand tools and handles, Components requiring pressure tightness
where the part must be free from internal cracks, e.g. valve bodies, Components
whose failure would cause injury and expensive damage are forged for safety.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Forging
While designing a forging, advantage should be taken of the direction of fibre lines
• There are no fibre lines in the cast component and the grains are scattered.
• In case of a component prepared by machining methods, such as turning
or milling, the original fibre lines of rolled stock are broken.
• It is only in case of forged parts that the fibre lines are arranged in a favorable
way to withstand stresses due to external load.
• While designing a forging, the profile is selected in such a way that fibre lines
are parallel to tensile forces and perpendicular to shear forces
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Forging
While designing a forging, advantage should be taken of the direction of fibre lines
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Forging
The forged component should be provided with an adequate draft
• The draft angle is provided for an easy removal of the part from the die
impressions
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Forging
• The parting line should be in one plane as far as possible and it should divide the
forging into two equal parts.
• When the parting line is broken, it results in unbalanced forging forces, which tends to displace
the two die halves.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Welding
• Why welding?????
• Welding is the most important method of joining the parts into a complex
assembly
• Select the Material with High Weldability
• In general, low carbon steel is more easily welded than high carbon steel.
• Higher carbon content tends to harden the welded joint, as a result of which the weld
is susceptible to cracks.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Welding
• Use Minimum Number of Welds
• Only the adjoining area of the joint is heated up, which has no freedom
to expand or contract.
• Uneven expansion and contraction in this adjoining area and parent metal
results in distortion.
• Since distortion always occurs in welding, the design should involve a
minimum number of welds and avoid over welding.
• It will not only reduce the distortion but also the cost
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Welding
• Use Standard Components
• The designer should specify standard sizes for plates, bars and rolled sections.
• Non-standard sections involve flame cutting of plates and additional welding.
• As far as possible, the designer should select plates of equal thickness for a
butt joint.
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Welding
• Select Proper Location for the Weld
• The welded joint should be located in an area where stresses and deflection are not critical.
• Also, it should be located at such a place that the welder and welding machine has
unobstructed access to that location.
• Prescribe Correct Sequence of Welding
• The designer should consider the sequence in which the parts should be
welded together for minimum distortion.
• This is particularly important for a complex job involving a number of welds.
• An incorrect sequence of welding causes distortion and sometimes cracks in
the weld metal due to stress concentration at some point in fabrication
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Welding
• Reduce edge preparation
• It is necessary to prepare bevel edges for the components prior to
welding operation.
• This preparatory work can be totally eliminated by making a slight change in
the arrangement of components.
(a) Incorrect (b) Correct
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
(DFMA)
• Design of components for Machining
• Why machining???
• Machined components are widely used in all industrial products.
• They are usually made from ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
• They are as small as a gear in a wristwatch and as large as huge turbine
housing.
• Metal-cutting operations: Turning, Milling, drilling, shaping, boring, reaming
etc.
• Surface finishing operations: Grinding, buffing etc.

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Introduction of design of machine element

  • 2. • Design is to formulate a plan satisfy a particular need and to create something with physical reality. • Realization of a concept or idea into a configuration. • Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction . What is design????
  • 3. • Machine is defined as a combination of resisting bodies with successfully constrained relative motions which is used transform other forms of energy into mechanical energy or transmit and modify available energy to do some useful work. • An apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts, each with a definite function and together performing a particular task. • Semi or fully automated device that magnifies human physical and/or mental capabilities in performing one or more operations. What is Machine???
  • 4. • Machine is a combination of several machine elements arranged to work together as a whole to accomplish specific purpose. • Machine Design involves designing the elements and arranging them optimally to obtain some useful work. • Machine design is the process of engineering design. A machine is made up of mechanisms that work together to satisfy the requirements of what the machine needs to accomplish. What is Machine Design???
  • 5. Classification of Machine Design Types of design Adaptive Design Development design New Design
  • 6. 1) Adaptive Design:- The designer’s work is concerned with adaptation of existing design. The designer only makes minor alternation or modification in the existing designs of the product. 2) Development Design:- This type of design needs considerable scientific training and design ability in order to modify the existing design into a new idea by adopting a new material or different method of manufacture. The designer starts from the existing design, but final product may differ quite markedly from the original product. 3) New Design:- This type of design needs lots of research, technical ability and creative thinking. Types of Machine Design
  • 7. Classification of Machine Design Types of design based on method Rational Design Empirical Design Industrial Design
  • 8. 1) Rational Design:- Based on determining the stresses and strains of components and thereby deciding their dimensions. This type of design depends upon mathematical formulae of principal of mechanics. 2) Empirical Design:- This type of design depends upon empirical formulae based on the practice and past experience . Types of Design based on method
  • 9. 1) Industrial Design:- This type of design depends upon the production aspects to manufacture any machine component in the industry. Based on industrial considerations and norms viz. market survey, external look, production facilities, low cost, use of existing standard products Types of Design based on method
  • 10.  What device or mechanism to be used??? To decide the relative arrangement of the constituent elements.  Material  Forces on the elements  Size  Shape and space requirements  Weight of the product Factors to be considered in Machine Design
  • 11.  The method of manufacturing the components and their assembly.  How will it operate.  Reliability and safety aspects.  Inspectibilty  Maintenance  Cost and aesthetics of the designed product. Factors to be considered in Machine Design
  • 12. General procedure in Machine Design Need or Aim Synthesis (Mechanisms) Analysis of forces Material SelectionDesign of Elements Modification Detailed Drawing Production
  • 13. • Standardization is defined as obligatory (or compulsory) norms, to which various characteristics of a product should comply (or agree) with standard. • The characteristics include materials, dimensions and shape of the component, method of testing and method of marking, packing and storing of the product. • A standard is defined as a set of specifications for parts, materials or processes. The objective of, a standard is to reduce the variety and limit the number of items to a reasonable level. Standardization
  • 14. • On the other hand, a code is defined as a set of specifications for the analysis, design, manufacture, testing and erection of the product. The purpose of a code is to achieve a specified level of safety. • There are three types of standards used in design :-  Company Standards: They are used in a particular company or a group of sister concerns. Standardization
  • 15.  National standards: – India - BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards), – Germany - DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung), – USA - AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) or SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), – UK - BS (British Standards)  International standards: These are prepared by the International Standards Organization (ISO). Standardization
  • 16.  Standards for Materials, their chemical compositions, Mechanical properties and Heat Treatment: For example, Indian standard IS 210 specifies seven grades of grey cast iron designated as FG 150, FG 200, FG 220, FG 260, FG 300, FG 350 and FG 400. The number indicates ultimate tensile strength in N/mm2.  Standards for Shapes and dimensions of commonly used Machine Elements: The machine elements include bolts, screws and nuts, rivets, belts and chains, ball and roller bearings, wire ropes, keys and splines, etc For example, IS 2494 (Part 1) specifies dimensions and shape of the cross- section of endless V-belts for power transmission. The dimensions of the trapezoidal cross-section of the belt, viz. width, height and included angle are specified in this standard Standards are used in mechanical engineering design
  • 17.  Standards for Fits, Tolerances and Surface Finish of Component: For example, selection of the type of fit for different applications is illustrated in IS 2709 on 'Guide for selection of fits'. The tolerances or upper and lower limits for various sizes of holes and shafts are specified in IS 919 on 'Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering'. IS 10719 explains method for indicating surface texture on technical drawings.  Standards for Tes ting of Products: These standards, sometimes called 'codes', give procedures to test the products such as pressure vessel, boiler, crane and wire rope, where safety of the operator is an important consideration. For example, IS 807 is a code of practice for design, manufacture, erection and testing of cranes and hoists. Standards are used in mechanical engineering design
  • 18.  Reductions in types and dimensions of identical components (inventory control).  Reduction in manufacturing facilities.  Easy to replace (Interchangeability). No need to design or test the elements.  Improves quality and reliability.  Improves reputation of the company which manufactures standard components.  Sometimes it ensures the safety.  It results in overall cost reduction. Benefits of Standardization
  • 19.  With the acceptance of standardization, there is a need to keep the standard sizes or dimensions of any component or product in discrete steps.  The sizes should be spread over the wide range, at the same time these should be spaced properly.  For example, if shaft diameters are to be standardized between 10 mm and 25 mm, then sizes should be like : 10 mm, 12.5 mm, 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm and not like : 10 mm, 11 mm, 13 mm, 18 mm, 25 mm.  This led to the use of geometric series known as series of preferred numbers or preferred series.  Preferred series are series of numbers obtained by geometric progression and rounded off. Preferred Numbers
  • 20. • There are five basic series with step ratios of: 5 10 , 10 10 , 20 10 , 40 10 & 80 10 • These ratios are approximately equal to 1.58, 1.26, 1.12, 1.06 and 1.03. • The five basic series of preferred numbers (known as preferred series) are designated as: R5, R10, R20, R40, and R80. • The examples of preferred number series are: standard shaft diameters, power rating of coupling, center distances of standard gear boxes, etc. Preferred Numbers
  • 21. • The difference in two successive terms has a fixed percentage. • It provides small steps for small quantities and large steps for large quantities. • The product range is covered with minimum number of sizes without restricting the choice of the customers. Advantages Preferred Numbers
  • 22. • The difference in two successive terms has a fixed percentage. • It provides small steps for small quantities and large steps for large quantities. • The product range is covered with minimum number of sizes without restricting the choice of the customers. Advantages Preferred Numbers
  • 23. R5 R10 R20 R40 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.06 1.12 1.12 1.18 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.32 1.40 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.12 2.24 2.24 2.36 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.65 2.80 2.80 3.00 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.35 3.55 3.55 3.75 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.25 4.50 4.50 4.75 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.30 5.60 5.60 6.00 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.70 7.10 7.10 7.50 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.00 9.50
  • 24. • In a present days of buyer's market, with a number of products available in the market are having most of the parameters identical, the appearance of product is often a major factor in attracting the customer. • This is particularly true for consumer durables like: automobiles, domestic refrigerators, television sets, etc. • Aesthetics is defined as a set of principles of appreciation of beauty. It deals with the appearance of the product. • Appearance is an outward expression of quality of the product and is the first communication of the product with the user. • For any product, there exists a relationship between the functional requirement and the appearance of a product. Aesthetic Considerations
  • 25. • The aesthetic quality contributes to the performance of the product, though the extent of contribution varies from the product to product. • The following guidelines may be used in aesthetic design (design for appearance): • The appearance should contribute to the performance of the product. For example, the aerodynamic shape of the car will have a lesser air resistance, resulting in the lesser fuel consumption. • The appearance should reflect the function of the product. For example, the aerodynamic shape of the car indicates the speed. • The appearance should reflect the quality of the product. For example, the robust and heavy appearance of the hydraulic press reflects its strength and rigidity Aesthetic Considerations
  • 26. • The appearance should not be at too much of extra cost unless it is a prime requirement. • The appearance should be suitable to the environment in which the product is used. • The growing importance of the aesthetic considerations in product design has given rise to a separate disciple known as industrial design. • The job of an industrial designer is to create new shapes and forms for the product which are aesthetically appealing – Form (Shape) There are five basic forms of the products, namely, step, taper, shear, streamline and sculpture Aesthetic Considerations
  • 27.  Step form: The step form is a stepped structure having vertical accent It is similar to the shape of a multistorey building.  Taper form The taper form consists of tapered blocks or tapered cylinders.  Shear form The shear form has a square outlook.  Streamline form The streamline form has a streamlined shape having a smooth flow as seen in automobile and aeroplane structures  Sculpture form Aesthetic Considerations
  • 28. Aesthetic Considerations The sculpture and stream forms are suitable for mobile products like vehicles, while step and shear forms are suitable for stationary products
  • 29. • Colour  Colour is one of the major contributors to the aesthetic appeal of the product.  Many colours are linked with different moods and conditions.  The selection of the colour should be compatible with the conventions.  Morgan has suggested the colour code given in the following Table. Aesthetic Considerations Colour Meaning Red Danger, Hazard, Hot Orange Possible Danger Yellow Caution Green Safety Blue Caution-Cold Grey Dull
  • 30. • Material and Surface Finish  The material and surface finish of the product contribute significantly to the appearance.  The material like, stainless steel gives better appearance than the cast irons, plain carbon steels or low alloy steels.  The brass or bronze give richness to the appearance of the product.  The products with better surface finish are always aesthetically pleasing.  The surface coating processes like: spray painting, anodizing, electroplating, etc. greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the product. Aesthetic Considerations
  • 31. • Ergonomics is defined as the scientific study of the man-machine-working environment relationship and the application of anatomical, physiological and psychological principles to solve the problems arising from this relationship • The word ergonomic is formed from two Greek word: ergo means work and nomic mean natural laws. • The final objective of the ergonomics is to make the machine fit for user rather than to make the user adapt himself or herself to the machine. • It aims at decreasing the physical and mental stresses to the user. • Psychology - Experimental psychologists who study people at work to provide data on such things as: Human sensory capacities, psychomotor performance, Human decision making, Human error rates, Selection tests and procedures, Learning and training. Ergonomic Considerations
  • 32. • Anthropometry - An applied branch of anthropology concerned with the measurement of the physical features of people. Measures how tall we are, how far we can reach, how wide our hips are, how our joints flex, and how our bodies move. • Applied Physiology - Concerns the vital processes such as cardiac function, respiration, oxygen consumption, and electromyography activity, and the responses of these vital processes to work, stress, and environmental influences. Ergonomic Considerations
  • 34. Ergonomic Considerations • This man-machine closed loop system in influenced by the working environmental factors such as: lighting, noise, temperature, humidity, air circulation, etc. • Ergonomic Considerations in Design of Displays • Ergonomic Considerations in Design of Controls • Working Environment. • Lighting • Noise • Temperature • Humidity and air circulation
  • 35. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design for manufacturing and assembly are simple guidelines formulated to get the below benefits • It simplifies the design • It simplifies the production processes and decreases the product cost • It improves product quality and reliability (because if the production process is simplified, then there is less opportunity for errors). • It decreases the assembly cost. • It decreases the assembly time. • It reduces time required to bring a new product into market.
  • 36. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design) – Reduce the Part Counts – Design engineers should try for product design that uses the minimum number of parts – Fewer parts result in lower costs – It also makes assembly simpler and fewer chances of defects.
  • 37. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design) – Use modular designs: – Modularize multiple parts into single sub-assemblies – Modular design reduces the number of parts being assembled at any one time and also simplifies final assembly – Field service becomes simple, fast and cheap because dismantling is faster and requires fewer tools. •
  • 38. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design) • Assemble in the open • Design to allow assembly in open spaces, not confined spaces • Assembly operation should be carried out in clear view. This is important in manual assembly •
  • 39. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design for Assembly or DFA Guidelines (Assembly Considerations in Design) • Design parts for simple assembly: • Design parts with orienting features to make alignment easier •
  • 40. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Why casting???? • Complex parts which are difficult to machine, are made by the casting process • Almost any metal can be melted and cast. Most of the sand cast parts are made of cast iron, aluminum alloys and brass • The size of the sand casting can be as small as 10 g and as large as 200 x 103 kg • Sand castings have irregular and grainy surfaces and machining is required if the part is moving with respect to some other part or structure
  • 41. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Why casting???? • Cast components are stable, rigid and strong compared with machined or forged parts. • Typical examples of cast components are machine tool beds and structures, cylinder blocks of internal combustion engines, pumps and gear box housings.
  • 42. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Basic considerations of casting • Always keep the stressed areas of the parts in compression • Round all external corners • Wherever possible, the section thickness throughout should be held as uniform as compatible with overall design considerations • Avoid concentration of metal at the junctions • Avoid very thin sections • The wall adjacent to the drilled hole should have a thickness equivalent to the thickness of the main body
  • 43. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Basic considerations of casting • Oval-shaped holes are preferred with larger dimensions along the direction of forces • To facilitate easy removal, the pattern must have some draft • Outside bosses should be omitted to facilitate a straight pattern draft
  • 44. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Always keep the stressed areas of the parts in compression • Cast iron has more compressive strength than its tensile strength • The castings should be placed in such a way that they are subjected to compressive rather than tensile stresses. • (a) Incorrect (Part in tension) (b) Correct (Part in compression)
  • 45. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Always keep the stressed areas of the parts in compression • When tensile stresses are unavoidable, a clamping device such as a tie rod or a bearing cap should be considered. • The clamping device relieves the cast iron components from tensile stresses
  • 46. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Round all external corners • It increases the endurance limit of the component and reduces the formation of brittle chilled edges • When the metal in the corner cools faster than the metal adjacent to the corner, brittle chilled edges are formed • Appropriate fillet radius reduces the stress concentration
  • 47. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Wherever possible, the section thickness throughout should be held as uniform as compatible with overall design considerations • Abrupt changes in the cross-section result in high stress concentration • If the thickness is to be varied at all, the change should be gradual
  • 48. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Avoid concentration of metal at the junctions • At the junction, there is a concentration of metal. • Even after the metal on the surface solidifies, the central portion still remains in the molten stage, with the result that a shrinkage cavity or blowhole may appear at the center • There are two ways to avoid the concentration of metal. • One is to provide a cored opening in webs and ribs • Alternatively, one can stagger the ribs and webs
  • 49. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Avoid concentration of metal at the junctions Cored Holes Staggered ribs
  • 50. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Avoid very thin sections • It depends upon the process of casting such as sand casting , permanent mold casting or die casting – The wall adjacent to the drilled hole should have a thickness equivalent to the thickness of the main body • The inserted stud will not restore the strength of the original thickness. •
  • 51. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Oval-shaped holes are preferred with larger dimensions along the direction of forces
  • 52. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for casting • Outside bosses should be omitted to facilitate a straight pattern draft
  • 53. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Forging • Why forging???? • A properly designed forging is not only sound with regard to strength but it also helps reduce the forging forces, improves die life and simplifies die design • Forged components are usually made of steels and non-ferrous metals. • They can be as small as a gudgeon pin and as large as a crankshaft. • Forged components are used under the following circumstances: • Moving components requiring light weight to reduce inertia forces, e.g. connecting rod of I. C. engines, Components subjected to excessive stresses, e.g. aircraft structures, Small components that must be supported by other structures or parts, e.g. hand tools and handles, Components requiring pressure tightness where the part must be free from internal cracks, e.g. valve bodies, Components whose failure would cause injury and expensive damage are forged for safety.
  • 54. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Forging • Why forging???? • A properly designed forging is not only sound with regard to strength but it also helps reduce the forging forces, improves die life and simplifies die design • Forged components are usually made of steels and non-ferrous metals. • They can be as small as a gudgeon pin and as large as a crankshaft. • Forged components are used under the following circumstances: • Moving components requiring light weight to reduce inertia forces, e.g. connecting rod of I. C. engines, Components subjected to excessive stresses, e.g. aircraft structures, Small components that must be supported by other structures or parts, e.g. hand tools and handles, Components requiring pressure tightness where the part must be free from internal cracks, e.g. valve bodies, Components whose failure would cause injury and expensive damage are forged for safety.
  • 55. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Forging While designing a forging, advantage should be taken of the direction of fibre lines • There are no fibre lines in the cast component and the grains are scattered. • In case of a component prepared by machining methods, such as turning or milling, the original fibre lines of rolled stock are broken. • It is only in case of forged parts that the fibre lines are arranged in a favorable way to withstand stresses due to external load. • While designing a forging, the profile is selected in such a way that fibre lines are parallel to tensile forces and perpendicular to shear forces
  • 56. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Forging While designing a forging, advantage should be taken of the direction of fibre lines
  • 57. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Forging The forged component should be provided with an adequate draft • The draft angle is provided for an easy removal of the part from the die impressions
  • 58. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Forging • The parting line should be in one plane as far as possible and it should divide the forging into two equal parts. • When the parting line is broken, it results in unbalanced forging forces, which tends to displace the two die halves.
  • 59. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Welding • Why welding????? • Welding is the most important method of joining the parts into a complex assembly • Select the Material with High Weldability • In general, low carbon steel is more easily welded than high carbon steel. • Higher carbon content tends to harden the welded joint, as a result of which the weld is susceptible to cracks.
  • 60. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Welding • Use Minimum Number of Welds • Only the adjoining area of the joint is heated up, which has no freedom to expand or contract. • Uneven expansion and contraction in this adjoining area and parent metal results in distortion. • Since distortion always occurs in welding, the design should involve a minimum number of welds and avoid over welding. • It will not only reduce the distortion but also the cost
  • 61. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Welding • Use Standard Components • The designer should specify standard sizes for plates, bars and rolled sections. • Non-standard sections involve flame cutting of plates and additional welding. • As far as possible, the designer should select plates of equal thickness for a butt joint.
  • 62. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Welding • Select Proper Location for the Weld • The welded joint should be located in an area where stresses and deflection are not critical. • Also, it should be located at such a place that the welder and welding machine has unobstructed access to that location. • Prescribe Correct Sequence of Welding • The designer should consider the sequence in which the parts should be welded together for minimum distortion. • This is particularly important for a complex job involving a number of welds. • An incorrect sequence of welding causes distortion and sometimes cracks in the weld metal due to stress concentration at some point in fabrication
  • 63. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Welding • Reduce edge preparation • It is necessary to prepare bevel edges for the components prior to welding operation. • This preparatory work can be totally eliminated by making a slight change in the arrangement of components. (a) Incorrect (b) Correct
  • 64. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) • Design of components for Machining • Why machining??? • Machined components are widely used in all industrial products. • They are usually made from ferrous and non-ferrous metals. • They are as small as a gear in a wristwatch and as large as huge turbine housing. • Metal-cutting operations: Turning, Milling, drilling, shaping, boring, reaming etc. • Surface finishing operations: Grinding, buffing etc.