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# Primary Computing Curriculum 2014

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An overview of the Primary Computing Curriculum. In this document I looked at each strand in depth and provided activity ideas, resources and useful links to support teachers.

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### Primary Computing Curriculum 2014

1. 1. KEY STAGE 1 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:     •understand  what  algorithms  are,  how  they  are  implemented  as  programs  on  digital   devices,  and     •that  programs  execute  by  following  a  sequence  of  instruc<ons     •write  and  test  simple  programs     •use  logical  reasoning  to  predict  the  behaviour  of  simple  programs     •organise,  store,  manipulate  and  retrieve  data  in  a  range  of  digital  formats     •communicate  safely  and  respec=ully  online,  keeping  personal  informa<on  private,  and     •recognise  common  uses  of  informa<on  technology  beyond  school.
2. 2. KEY STAGE 1 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    understand  what  algorithms  are,  how  they  are  implemented  as   programs  on  digital  devices,  and  that  programs  execute  by  following  a  sequence  of   instruc<ons     Algorithm:  A  list  of  instruc<ons  to  complete  a  task  or  solve  a  problem.   How  to  teach?   •  You  can  provide    indoor  and  outdoor    opportuni<es  for  children  to    give  and  follow   instruc<ons.   •  You  can  ask    children  to  work  in  pairs  to  carry  out  some  instruc<ons  e.g.  brushing  teeth  or   seBng  direc<ons  in  the  classroom  using  bee-­‐bots,  roamers.     •  You  can  set  your  classroom  as  a  liDle  café    for  children  to  prac<ce  giving  and  following   instruc<ons    through  role  play.  For  example  they  could  focus  on  how  to  bake  a  cake  or  how   to  make  a  milkshake  etc.  They  could  write  the  instruc<ons  for  their  chosen  recipe  and   allow    their  friends  to  test  it  out  by  making  it.   Resources:  Bee-­‐bots,    roamers  and  other  resources  for  brushing  teeth,  baking  a  cake  and   making  a  milkshake.     Useful  Links:      hDp://rethinkingict.wikispaces.com/Algorithms   hDp://www.mar<ngsaunders.com/2013/03/a-­‐workshop-­‐on-­‐algorithms-­‐for-­‐primary-­‐schools/
3. 3. KEY STAGE 1 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    design,  write  and    debug  simple  programs     Debugging:  The  process  of  tes<ng  to  iden<fy  and  correct  errors  from  instruc<ons  or  programs.   How  to  teach?  Retell  a  story  using  picture  cards.  Put  the  cards    in  the  wrong  order.  Can  they   sequence  the  events  correctly?  You  could  lay  the  cards  on  the  ﬂoor  and  use  bee-­‐bot  to  visit   diﬀerent  events  in  a  sequence.   Let  children  watch  a  video  of  making  a  jam  sandwich.  Create  images  of  each  step  and  display   them  in  the  wrong  order.  Can  they  sequence  the  events  correctly?   Show  them  a  simple  script  to  move  the  cat  across  the  screen  on  Scratch.  Show  them  another   one  with  a  script  error.  Discuss;  Why  is  not  working?  What  is  the  problem?  Can  they  iden<fy   the  error?     Resources:    Bee-­‐bots,  Scratch,  story  cards.   Useful  Links:  Scratch is available from http://scratch.mit.edu Jam  Sandwich  algorithm  video  available  at:  hDp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leBEFaVHllE
4. 4. KEY STAGE 1 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    use  logical  reasoning  to  predict  the  behaviour  of  simple   programs     Logical  reasoning:    Applying  rules  in  a  systema<c  way  to  solve  problems.  This  can  take   place  in  many  diﬀerent  contexts;  in  mathema<cs  when  solving  a  problem  ,  in  literacy   when  structuring  a  story  or  in  programming  when  debugging.   How  to  teach  ?  Provide  children  with  opportuni<es  where  they  can  predict  the  outcome   of    a  set  of  instruc<ons.   Children  talk  about  a  set  of  instruc<ons  to  move  a  Probot  to  draw  shapes.  They  write  it,   test  it  and  correct  any  errors.  They  then  place  their  instruc<ons  in  a  box  or  bag  without   naming  it.  They  select  a  random  instruc<on  sheet  from  the  bag  and  try  to  iden<fy  the   shape.     You  can  also  evaluate  the  instruc<ons  as  a  whole  class.  You  could  ask  the  children  if  the   instruc<ons  were  correct  for  their  purpose?  How  can  you  make  them  beDer?   This  ac<vity  can  also  be  done  on  Scratch,  Daisy  the  Dinosaur  or  Hopscotch.  Children  can   write  scripts  to  move  objects  and  keep  the  outcome  a  secret.  Their  partners  can  try  to   guess  the    ac<on/  eﬀect  on  screen.   Resources:  Probot,  Scratch,  Hopscotch,  Daisy  the  Dinosaur.   Useful  links:   hDp://www.itass.newham.gov.uk/curriculum/fssow/topic.aspx?topic=6&resource=8   hDp://www.iboard.co.uk/iwb/Drawing-­‐with-­‐a-­‐Control-­‐Toy-­‐697
5. 5. KEY STAGE 1 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    organise,  store,  manipulate  and  retrieve  data  in  a  range  of   digital  formats     PBL(  Project  Based  Learning)  approach  and  teaching  in  a  context  will  make  learning  more   relevant  to  learners.  Providing  opportuni<es  for  children  to  learn  in  a  context  such  as  story-­‐ telling  using  a  stop-­‐mo<on  anima<on  or  crea<ng  a  presenta<on  on  a  speciﬁc  topic  over  a   longer  period  of  term  will  enable  them  to  master  many  transferable  skills  including   collabora<on,  communica<on,  crea<vity,  and  cri<cal  thinking.   How  to  teach  it?  Let  children  create  a  document  using  either  a  word-­‐processor  or  an  online   web  2  tool  such  as  Wikis.  They  should  prac<ce  wri<ng  sentences,  insert  images/clip  arts,   correct  their  mistakes.  For  example  when  learning  about  tradi<onal  stories  from  China,  we   divided  the  class  into  4  groups.  Each  group  focused  on  a  speciﬁc  story.  They  organised  and   presented  their  ideas  using  text,  images  and  videos.   Resources:    Word-­‐processing  and  presenta<on  so]ware,  wikis,  blogs,  anima<on  programmes.   Useful  Links:  hDp://www.clayanimator.com/english/stop_mo<on_animator.html   hDp://connec<ngclassroomswithchina.wikispaces.com/Wilbury+Primary+School
6. 6. KEY STAGE 1 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:  communicate  safely  and  respec]ully  online,  keeping  personal   informa<on  private,  and  recognise  common  uses  of  informa<on  technology  beyond  school.     How  to  teach?  Discuss  with  children:   •  Who  should  they  talk  to  when  someone  or  something  upsets  them  online.   •  What  do  they  understand    from  ‘keeping  personal  informa<on  private’.   •  You  could  also  discuss  what  kind  of  technologies  they  use  at  home,  are  they   programmable?   Useful  Links:  There  are  many  useful  websites  which  have  a  vast  range  of  resources  for   teaching    children  to  use  technology  in  a  responsible  way.     hDp://www.digital-­‐literacy.org.uk/Home.aspx   hDp://www.swgﬂ.org.uk/Staying-­‐Safe#   hDp://www.childnet.com/resources/kia/   hDp://www.school-­‐portal.co.uk/GroupWorkspaces.asp? GroupID=389043&WorkspaceID=1113846&Javascript=False
7. 7. KEY STAGE 2 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:     •design  and  write  programs  that  accomplish  speciﬁc  goals,  including  controlling  or   simula<ng  physical  systems;  solve  problems  by  decomposing  them  into  smaller  parts     •use  sequence,  selec<on,  and  repe<<on  in  programs;  work  with  variables  and  various   forms  of  input  and  output;  generate  appropriate  inputs  and  predicted  outputs  to  test   programs     •use  logical  reasoning  to  explain  how  a  simple  algorithm  works  and  to  detect  and   correct  errors  in  algorithms  and  programs     •understand  computer  networks  including  the  internet;  how  they  can  provide  mul<ple   services,  such  as  the  world-­‐wide  web;  and  the  opportuni<es  they  oﬀer  for   communica<on  and  collabora<on     •describe  how  internet  search  engines  ﬁnd  and  store  data;  use  search  engines   eﬀec<vely;  be  discerning  in  evalua<ng  digital  content;  respect  individuals  and   intellectual  property;  use  technology  responsibly,  securely  and  safely     •select,  use  and  combine  a  variety  of  so]ware  (including  internet  services)  on  a  range  of   digital  devices  to  accomplish  given  goals,  including  collec<ng,  analyzing,  evalua<ng  and   presen<ng  data  and  informa<on
8. 8. KEY STAGE 2 Design,  write  and  debug  programs  that  accomplish  speciﬁc  goals,  including  controlling  or   simula<ng  physical  systems;  solve  problems  by  decomposing  them  into  smaller  parts.   Physical  systems:  this  refers  to  anything  that  can  be  aDached  to  a  computer  such  as  sensors,  motors,   makey  makey.   Decomposi<on:  Solving  problems  by  breaking  them  into  smaller  parts.   How  to  teach?   •  It  is  always  useful  to  start  with  algorithm  games  to  remind  children  of  the  importance  of  having   precise  instruc<ons  to  achieve  speciﬁc  goals.   •  Hopscotch,  Scratch,  Alice  can  be  used  by  children  to  design  simple  games  such  as  racing  where   they  develop  their  programming  skills.   •  Programs  such  as  Enchan<ng  can  be  used  with  Scratch  for  children  to  write  programs  to  control   physical  objects.  You  can  view  an  example  below:   •  A.L.E.X    and  Cargo-­‐  Bot  apps  and  Machineers  program  provides  children  with  problem  solving   ac<vi<es.   Resources:  Scratch,  Alice,  Tynker,  Hopscotch,  Machineers,  sensors,  Lego  We  Do  or  Lego  Mindstorms.   Useful  Links:     hDp://www.tesconnect.com/scratch-­‐curriculum     hDp://games.thinkingmyself.com/   hDps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXdCoynhsBs
9. 9. KEY STAGE 2 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    use  sequence,  selec<on,  and  repe<<on  in  programs;  work  with  variables  and   various  forms  of  input  and  output;  generate  appropriate  inputs  and  predicted  outputs  to  test  programs.     Variable:  In programming, a variable is a placeholder for some value, like x and y are variables in algebra.   Repe<<on:  Repea<ng  a  set  of  instruc<ons    un<l  a  speciﬁc  goal    is  achieved.   How  to  teach?   •  Probot  can  be  used  for  prac<sing  sequencing  and  repe<<ons.  Children  can  discuss  how  many  <mes  an   instruc<on  needs  to  be  repeated  for  example  to  draw  a  rectangle.  A  similar  ac<vity  can  also  be  done   using  Scratch.   •  Simple  maze  games  on  Scratch  can  be  used  to  model  repe<<on  and  loops.   •  Discuss  with  children  the  elements  of  a  game.  You  can  compare  a  Scratch  anima<on  and  Scratch  game.   Focus  on  <me,  score,  levels  etc.  These  are  variables.  You  can  model  it  using  this  example.   •  Allow  children  to  design  their  own  game  using  loops  and  variables.  You  can  use  this  template  to  help   them  with  their  planning.   Resources:  Scratch,  Probot,  Alice  .   Useful  Links:     hDps://blockly-­‐demo.appspot.com/sta<c/apps/maze/index.html?lang=en   hDp://www.resources.digitalschoolhouse.org.uk/algorithms-­‐a-­‐programs/213-­‐art-­‐of-­‐paDerns-­‐in-­‐scratch   hDp://www.code-­‐it.co.uk/year4/scratchspidermaze2.pdf   hDps://slp.somerset.gov.uk/cypd/elim/somerse<ct/Site%20Pages/Scratch.aspx
10. 10. KEY STAGE 2 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    Use  logical  reasoning  to  explain  how  some  simple  algorithms   work  and  to  detect  and  correct  errors  in  algorithms  and  programs.   Algorithm:  A  list  of  instruc<ons  to  complete  a  task  or  solve  a  problem.   How  to  teach?   •  Use  the  ac<vi<es  at  hDp://games.thinkingmyself.com/  to  introduce  algorithms.   •  Give  examples  of  algorithms  from  daily  lives.  Examples  can  be  seen  at:   hDp://www.ehow.com/info_8394031_kinds-­‐everyday-­‐algorithms.html   •  Ask students to create an algorithm to tell a simple story using Scratch or Alice   •  Ask  students  to  write  a  sequence  of  instruc<on  for  a  car  racing  game  then  exchange  them   with  their  friends.    Students  can  sequence  their  friends  pre-­‐wriDen  lines  of  programming   into  order  and  iden<fy  any  problems   •  Use    A.L.E.X  app  and  Cargo-­‐Bot  to  encourage  children  to  talk  about  the  algorithm  that  will   be  required  to  meet  the  higher  levels  of  challenge.   Useful  Links:      http://www.tesconnect.com/algorithm http://code.google.com/p/blockly/ https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/i-logo/id435280247?mt=8 http://fmslogo.sourceforge.net/
11. 11. KEY STAGE 2 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:  understand  computer  networks  including  the  internet;  how  they  can   provide  mul<ple  services,  such  as  the  world-­‐wide  web;  and  the  opportuni<es  they  oﬀer  for   communica<on  and  collabora<on     HTML:  HTML  or  HyperText  Markup  Language  is  the  standard  markup  language  used  to  create  web  pages.   TCP  /  IP:  in  full  Transmission  Control  Protocol/Internet  Protocol,    standard  Internet  communica<ons  protocols  that   allow  digital  computers  to  communicate  over  long  distances.     CSS:  Cascading  Style  Sheets,  most  of  the  <me  abbreviated  as  CSS,  is  a  stylesheet  language  used  to  describe  the   presenta<on  of  a  document  wriDen  in  HTML  or  XML   How  to  teach?   •  Tell  children  to  get  in  a  circle  and    put  one  hand  on  the  shoulder  of  the  person  standing  next  to  them.  Say  a   sentence  to  one  of  the  child  and  ask  her/him  to  pass  it  on  to  the  next  child.  Can  the  message  pass  correctly,  or   are  any  parts  missing  in  the  process?  What  happens  if  one  child  removes  their  hand  from  a  shoulder  of   another?  Can  the  message  s<ll  be  carried  around?   •  Discuss  with  children  how  the  computers  from  all  around  the  world  understand  each  other  (They  use  the  same   language-­‐TCP/IP).  Watch  the  following  videos  with  children  and  let  them  ask  ques<ons  or  just  share  their   thoughts.  You  could  also  ask  children  to  draw  how  the  internet  works  before  and  at  the  end  of  the  lesson  to   check  their  understanding.   hDp://thekidshouldseethis.com/post/26674356049   hDp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7_LPdDKXPc   hDp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3sr7_0FyPA   •  Ask  how  email  messages  work,  how  our  message  transports  to  another  recipient?  Watch  the  following  video   with  children  and  then  re-­‐think  the  answers  for  the  previous  ques<on.   hDp://www.ictvideohelp.co.uk/internet/internetpackages/internetpackages.html   •  Introduce  HTML  and  how  websites  can  be  designed  using  this  language.  Open  the  Thimble  website  and  model   a  few    lines  of  code  to  show  them  how  to  add  text  in  diﬀerent  colours  and  sizes.
12. 12. KEY STAGE 2 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    describe  how  internet  search  engines  ﬁnd  and  store  data;  use   search  engines  eﬀec<vely;  be  discerning  in  evalua<ng  digital  content;  respect  individuals   and  intellectual  property;  use  technology  responsibly,  securely  and  safely     How  to  teach?   •  Look  at  ‘How  search  engines  work’    infographic  with  children.  Discuss  the  key  words  such   as  crawlers,  ranking,  database.  Can  they  come  up  with  methods  that  will  help  them  to  ﬁnd   what  they  are  looking  for  eﬀec<vely.  How  do  they  check  to  see  if  the  informa<on  they   found  is  real.   •  Ask  children  to  design  a  poster  to  present    useful  strategies  that  they  need  for  searching  on   the  Internet.   •  Discuss  fair  use  and  copyright  with  the  children.  Use  the  Cyberbee    website  to  check  their   understanding.   •  Use  hDp://www.digital-­‐literacy.org.uk  website  to  teach  children  about  Internet  safety,   cyberbullying  ,  privacy,  digital  footprints  and  informa<on  literacy.   Useful  Links:      hDp://www.google.com/insidesearch/searcheduca<on/   hDp://www.kidsdiscover.com/infographics/infographic-­‐how-­‐search-­‐engines-­‐work/   hDp://www.abbotswood.hants.sch.uk/planning/internet-­‐research-­‐skills.htm   hDp://www.cyberbee.com/cb_copyright.swf   hDps://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/lesson/copyrights-­‐and-­‐wrongs
13. 13. KEY STAGE 2 Pupils  should  be  taught  to:    select,  use  and  combine  a  variety  of  sorware  (including  internet   services)  on  a  range  of  digital  devices  to  accomplish  given  goals,  including  collec<ng,  analyzing,   evalua<ng  and  presen<ng  data  and  informa<on   How  to  teach?   This  strand  of  the  Compu<ng  curriculum  can  be  taught    through  cross  curricular  ac<vi<es.   Provide  opportuni<es  for  children  to:   •  Use  diﬀerent    online  tools,  so]ware  and  hardware  to  achieve  speciﬁc  goals.   •  To  review,  edit,  share  and  evaluate  their  work.   •  Work  collabora<vely  and  independently.   Example  ac<vi<es:   •  Using    programs  and  apps  like  Keynote,  PowerPoint,  Prezi,  Book  creator  app  to  create   presenta<ons.   •  Use  Padlet,  Primary  Pad  or  similar  online  tools  to  create  and  share  ideas  collabora<vely.   •  Crea<ng  anima<ons,  podcasts  or  ﬁlms  to  share  and  evaluate    their  ideas.   Useful  Links:     hDp://padlet.com/   hDps://prezi.com/proﬁle/registra<on/?license_type=PUBLIC   hDp://www.launchpadtoys.com/toontas<c/   hDp://primarypad.com/
14. 14. ALGORITHM A pupil should understand what an algorithm is, and what algorithms can be used for. Key Stage 1 Algorithms are sets of instructions for achieving goals, made up of pre-defined steps. Algorithms can be represented in simple formats. They can describe everyday activities and can be followed by humans and by computers. Computers need more precise instructions than humans do. Steps can be repeated and some steps can be made up of smaller steps. Key Stage 2 Algorithms can be represented symbolically or using instructions in a clearly defined language. Algorithms can include selection (if) and repetition (loops). Algorithms may be decomposed into component parts (procedures), each of which itself contains an algorithm. Algorithms should be stated without ambiguity and care and precision are necessary to avoid errors. Algorithms are developed according to a plan and then tested. Algorithms are corrected if they fail these tests. It can be easier to plan, test and correct parts of an algorithm separately. Key Stage 3 An algorithm is a sequence of precise steps to solve a given problem. A single problem may be solved by several different algorithms. The choice of an algorithm to solve a problem is driven by what is required of the solution. The need for accuracy of both algorithm and data. *This  informa<on  is  taken  from  CAS  Curriculum
15. 15. Science And Computing Sorting/Grouping using a software Plants Animals Materials Observe/record/monitor using data logger, digital camera or an app Changes in weather/seasons, local environment and materials Simulations Solar system Electrical circuits Research skills Using online sources to find out about: Living things and their habitat, parts of animals and human body.
16. 16. Maths And Computing Binary Numbers Place value Negative numbers Decimals Floor robots / Logo /Scratch Place value activities Problem solving Counting 2D shapes Nets of 3D shapes Position and direction Using Floor robots and Scratch to describe direction and position of an object using coordinates Statistics Construct pictograms, charts and graphs
17. 17. THANK YOU! y.allsop@mmu.ac.uk @yallsop