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  • That is, any computer, no matter how primitive or advance, can be divided into five parts: 1. The input devices bring the data from the outside world into the computer. 2. These data are kept in the computer’s memory until ... 3. The datapath request and process them. 4. The operation of the datapath is controlled by the computer’s controller. All the work done by the computer will NOT do us any good unless we can get the data back to the outside world. 5. Getting the data back to the outside world is the job of the output devices. The most COMMON way to connect these 5 components together is to use a network of busses.
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    1. 1. IKI20210 Pengantar Organisasi Komputer Kuliah no. 1: Pendahuluan Pembina Mata Kuliah: M. YAHYA Sumber : 1. Hamacher. Computer Organization , ed-5. 2. Materi kuliah CS61C/2000 & CS152/1997, UCB.
    2. 2. IKI20210 <ul><li>Pengantar Organisasi Komputer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mata kuliah ini mengajarkan dasar-dasar organisasi komputer sekuensial, yang terdiri dari komponen-komponen: input, output, memori, dan prosesor (kontrol dan datapath ).” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prasyarat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pengantar Sistem Digital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bobot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 SKS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buku Acuan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V. Carl Hamacher, dkk. Computer Organization . Edisi ke-5. McGraw-Hill, 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Patterson & John Hennessy. Computer Organization & Design: The Hardware/Software Interface. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Organisasi Sistem Komputer “ Organisasi Komputer adalah bagian yang terkait erat dengan unit-unit operasional dan interkoneksi antar komponen penyusun sistem komputer dalam merealisasikan aspek arsitekturnya
    4. 4. Organisasi Sistem Komputer <ul><li>Koordinasi dari berbagai tingkat abstraksi </li></ul>I/O system Processor Compiler Operating System (Windows 98) Application (Netscape) Digital Design Circuit Design Instruction Set Architecture Datapath & Control transistors Memory Hardware Software Assembler 20210
    5. 5. Tingkat-tingkat Abstraksi Organisasi Komputer <ul><li>Application S/W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Word  computer as electronic type-writer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Excel  computer as electronic calculator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System S/W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compilers  computer as translator (source to executable program) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Systems  computer as machine that executes programs, stores files, prints content of files to printers, communicate with other computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What basic operations can be carried out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What, where, and how data can be stored & retrieved in/from memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can data be exchanged to the outside “world” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer H/W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 5 components: Datapath, Control, Memory, Input, Output </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Tingkat-tingkat Bahasa Pemrograman <ul><li>lds r1, 0x100 </li></ul><ul><li>lds r2, 0x102 </li></ul><ul><li>add r1, r2 </li></ul><ul><li>sts 0x104, r1 </li></ul>High Level Language Program (e.g., C) Assembly Language Program (e.g.,AVR) Machine Language Program (AVR) Control Signal Specification Compiler Assembler Machine Interpretation A = 25; B = 8; C = A * B; 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 ° ° 20210
    7. 7. Organisasi Bahasa Pemrograman Java Java Language Java Virtual Machine Operating System Computer H/W byte code JVM dapat langsung berhubungan dgn h/w
    8. 8. 5 Komponen Utama Komputer Processor (active) Computer Control (“brain”) Datapath (“brawn”) Memory (passive) (where programs, data live when running) Devices Input Output Keyboard, Mouse Display , Printer Disk (where programs, data live when not running)
    9. 9. Contoh-contoh (Organisasi) Komputer
    10. 10. Contoh: Komputer Berbasis Pentium Processor/Memory Bus PCI Bus I/O Busses
    11. 11. Contoh: Komputer Berbasis SPARCstation20 <ul><li>TI SuperSPARC tm TMS390Z50 in Sun SPARCstation20 </li></ul>Floating-point Unit Integer Unit Inst Cache Ref MMU Data Cache Store Buffer Bus Interface SuperSPARC L2 $ CC MBus Module MBus L64852 MBus control M-S Adapter SBus DRAM Controller SBus DMA SCSI Ethernet STDIO serial kbd mouse audio RTC Boot PROM Floppy SBus Cards
    12. 12. Contoh: Microcontroller AT90S8515
    13. 13. Struktur (Umum) Interkoneksi Antar-Komponen Proc Caches Processor-Memory Bus Memory I/O Devices : Controllers adapters Disks Displays Keyboards Networks Semua komponen memiliki organisasi & antar-muka I/O Bus
    14. 14. Outline Materi Kuliah <ul><li>Konsep-konsep Dasar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored Program Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction Set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set Instruksi/Pemrograman </li></ul><ul><li>Input/Output </li></ul><ul><li>Memori </li></ul><ul><li>Aritmatika </li></ul><ul><li>Prosesor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Datapath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pipeline </li></ul>
    15. 15. Generasi Komputer <ul><li>I: ’46 – ’57: UNIVAC 1103 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bahasa Rakitan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40.000 instruksi/detik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>II: ’58 – ’64: IBM 7094 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi (Fortran, Cobol), Kompilator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O & Processor Parallelism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200.000 instruksi/detik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>III: ’65 – ’71: IBM System/360, DEC PDP-8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sistem Operasi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small- & Medium-scale Integrated Circuit (IC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache & Virtual Memory, Microprogramming, Pipelining, Parallelism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.000.000 instruksi/detik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IV: ’72 – ’77: Apple IIe, IBM PC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Scale Integrated Circuit (LSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor, PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10.000.000 instruksi/detik </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IV: ’78 – …: 80286 – Pentium IV, MIPS, Sparc, PowerPC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100.000.000 instruksi/detik </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Trend Teknologi
    17. 17. Tren Teknologi: Kapasitas Mikroprosesor 2X transistors/Chip Every 1.5 years Called “ Moore’s Law ” Alpha 21264: 15 million Pentium Pro: 5.5 million PowerPC 620: 6.9 million Alpha 21164: 9.3 million Sparc Ultra: 5.2 million Moore’s Law
    18. 18. Tren Teknologi: Kinerja Prosesor 1.54X/yr Processor performance increase/year, mistakenly referred to as Moore’s Law (transistors/chip)
    19. 19. Tren Teknologi: Kapasitas Memori (1 Chip DRAM) year size(Megabit) 1980 0.0625 1983 0.25 1986 1 1989 4 1992 16 1996 64 2000 256 Now 1.4X/yr, or doubling every 2 years 4000X since 1980
    20. 20. Teknologi Komputer  Perubahan Dramatis <ul><li>Prosessor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2X lebih cepat setiap 1,5 tahun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100X lebih cepat dalam dekade terakhir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memori </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapasitas DRAM: 2x / 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kecepatan Memori: meningkat 10% per tahun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biaya per bit: membaik 25% per tahun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapasitas meningkat 64X dalam dekade terakhir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapasitas disk: > 2X setiap 1,0 tahun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biaya per bit: membaik 100% per tahun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kapasitas meningkat 120X dalam dekade terakhir </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Bicycle Computer (Embedded) <ul><li>P. Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wireless heart monitor strap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>record 5 measures: speed, time, current distance, elevation and heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every 10 to 60 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8KB data  33 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores information so can be uploaded through a serial port into PC to be analyzed </li></ul></ul>Speed Altitude Heart Rate Dramatic change !!!