Basic Vibration Analysis

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Basic Vibration Analysis

  1. 1. Beginning Vibration Analysis withBasic Fundamentals By: Jack Peters
  2. 2. Beginning Vibration IntroductionUnderstanding the basics and fundamentals of vibration analysis arevery important in forming a solid background to analyze problems onrotating machinery.Switching between time and frequency is a common tool used foranalysis. Because the frequency spectrum is derived from the data inthe time domain, the relationship between time and frequency is veryimportant. Units of acceleration, velocity, and displacement aretypical. Additional terms such as peak-peak, peak, and rms. are oftenused. Switching units correctly, and keeping terms straight is a must.As much as possible, this training will follow the criteria as establishedby the Vibration Institute. Jack D. Peters 2
  3. 3. Mass & Stiffness Mass & StiffnessAll machines can be broken downinto two specific categories. Mass & StiffnessMass is represented by an objectthat wants to move or rotate.Stiffness is represented by springsor constraints of that movement. Jack D. Peters 3
  4. 4. Mass & Stiffness Mass & Stiffnessfn = 1/2П k/mWhere:fn = natural frequency (Hz)k = stiffness (lb/in)m = massmass = weight/gravityweight (lb)gravity (386.1 in/sec2) Jack D. Peters 4
  5. 5. Mass & Stiffness Concept !fn = 1/2П k/m If k increases Then f increases If k decreases Then f decreases Jack D. Peters 5
  6. 6. Mass & Stiffness Concept !fn = 1/2П k/m If m increases Then f decreases If m decreases Then f increases Jack D. Peters 6
  7. 7. Spectrum What’s This ? 1 0.0002 inch Peak Magnitude 0 0 Hz 100 Hz Jack D. Peters 7
  8. 8. SpectrumFFT, Frequency Spectrum, Power Spectrum 1 0.0002 inch Peak Magnitude 0 0 Hz 100 Hz Jack D. Peters 8
  9. 9. Spectrum Scaling X & Y 1 0.0002 inch Peak Y Magnitude 0 0 Hz 100 Hz X Jack D. Peters 9
  10. 10. Spectrum Scaling X & Y 1 A 0.0002 inch M Peak P L Magnitude I T U D 0 0 Hz 100 Hz E FREQUENCY Jack D. Peters 10
  11. 11. Spectrum Scaling X & Y 1 0.0002 H inch o Peak w B a Magnitude d I s I 0 t 0 Hz 100 Hz What is it Jack D. Peters 11
  12. 12. Time Waveform What’s That ? 1 0.0004 inch Real -0.0004 0 s 7.996094 s Jack D. Peters 12
  13. 13. Time Waveform Time Waveform 1 0.0004 inch Real -0.0004 0 s 7.996094 s Jack D. Peters 13
  14. 14. Time Waveform Scaling X & Y 1 0.0004 inch Y Real -0.0004 0 s 7.996094 s X Jack D. Peters 14
  15. 15. Time Waveform Scaling X & Y 1 A 0.0004 inch M P L I Real T U D -0.0004 0 s 7.996094 s E TIME Jack D. Peters 15
  16. 16. Time Waveform Scaling X & Y 1 H 0.0004 o inch w B a Real d I s I -0.0004 0 s 7.996094 s t What is it Jack D. Peters 16
  17. 17. Time Waveform Scaling X & Y 1 H 0.0004 o inch w B a Real d I s I -0.0004 0 s 1 s t What is it Jack D. Peters 17
  18. 18. Time & Frequency Double Trouble 1 0.0002 inch Peak Magnitude 0 0 Hz 100 Hz 1 0.0004 inch Real -0.0004 0 s 7.996094 s Jack D. Peters 18
  19. 19. The X Scale The X Scale Jack D. Peters 19
  20. 20. The X Scale Hertz (Hz)One Hertz (Hz) is equal to 1 cycle / secondIt is the most common term used in vibrationanalysis to describe the frequency of a disturbance.Never forget the 1 cycle / second relationship !Traditional vibration analysis quite often expressesfrequency in terms of cycle / minute (cpm). This isbecause many pieces of process equipment haverunning speeds related to revolutions / minute (rpm).60 cpm = 1 cps = 1 Hz Jack D. Peters 20
  21. 21. The X Scale Relationship with TimeThe frequency domain is an expression of amplitudeand individual frequencies.A single frequency can be related to time. F(Hz) = 1 / T(s)The inverse of this is also true for a single frequency. T(s) = 1 / F(Hz)Keep in mind that the time domain is an expressionof amplitude and multiple frequencies. Jack D. Peters 21
  22. 22. The X Scale Concept !If: F = 1/T and T = 1/FThen: FT = 1 Jack D. Peters 22
  23. 23. The X Scale Concept ! FT = 1 If: F increases Then: T decreases If: T increases Then: F decreases Jack D. Peters 23
  24. 24. The X Scale Single Frequency X:55 Hz Y:706.8129 mV Pwr Spec 1 1 V rms Magnitude 0 0 Hz 100 Hz X:27.00806 ms Y:3.579427 mV dX:18.18848 ms dY:2.449082 mV Time 1 1 V Real -1 0 s 62.46948 ms Jack D. Peters 24
  25. 25. The X Scale Multiple Frequencies X:55 Hz Y:706.8129 mV Pwr Spec 1 1 0 Hz 100 Hz X:78 Hz Y:706.9236 mV Pwr Spec 1 1 0 Hz 100 Hz X:21 Hz Y:706.7825 mV Pwr Spec 1 1 0 Hz 100 Hz X:42 Hz Y:706.9266 mV Pwr Spec 1 1 0 Hz 100 Hz Jack D. Peters 25
  26. 26. The X Scale Multiple Time Time 55 1 1 V 0 s 62.46948 ms Time 78 1 1 V 0 s 62.46948 ms Time 21 1 1 V 0 s 62.46948 ms Time 42 1 1 V 0 s 62.46948 ms Jack D. Peters 26
  27. 27. The X Scale Real Life Time 55 + 78 + 21 + 42 = Trouble ! TIME 1 4 V Real -4 0 s 62.46948 ms Jack D. Peters 27
  28. 28. The X Scale Frequency Spectrum TIME 1 4 V Real -4 0 s 62.46948 ms X:21 Hz Y:706.7825 mV X:42 Hz Y:706.9266 mV X:55 Hz Y:706.8129 mV X:78 Hz Y:706.9236 mV FREQUENCY 1 1 V rms 0 Hz 100 Hz Jack D. Peters 28
  29. 29. The X ScaleThe Most Copied Slide in the History of Vibration Analysis ! Amplitude Inp ut cy Tim e eq uen Fr Tim eW ave um for Sp ectr m Jack D. Peters 29
  30. 30. The X Scale Lines of Resolution 1 The FFT always 0.0002 inch has a defined Peak This spectrum number of lines has 800 lines, or of resolution. the X scale is 100, 200, 400, Magnitude broken down into 800, 1600, and 800 points. 3200 lines are common choices. 0 0 Hz 100 Hz Jack D. Peters 30
  31. 31. The X Scale Filter Windows• Window filters are applied to the time waveform data to simulate data that starts and stops at zero.• They will cause errors in the time waveform and frequency spectrum.• We still like window filters ! Jack D. Peters 31
  32. 32. The X Scale Window Comparisons Jack D. Peters 32
  33. 33. The X Scale Filter Windows• Hanning (Frequency)• Flat Top (Amplitude) Hanning 16% Amplitude Error• Uniform (No Window)• Force Exponential (Frequency Response) Flat Top 1% Amplitude Error• Force/Expo Set-up Window functions courtesy of Agilent “The Fundamentals of Signal Analysis” Application Note #AN 243 Jack D. Peters 33
  34. 34. The X Scale Filter Windows• Use the Hanning Window for normal vibration monitoring (Frequency)• Use the Flat Top Window for calibration and accuracy (Amplitude)• Use the Uniform Window for bump testing and resonance checks (No Window) Jack D. Peters 34
  35. 35. The X Scale Minimum Derived HzThe minimum derived frequency is determined by: Frequency Span / Number of Analyzer Lines (data points)The frequency span is calculated as the endingfrequency minus the starting frequency.The number of analyzer lines depends on the analyzerand how the operator has set it up. Example: 0 - 400 Hz using 800 lines Answer = (400 - 0) / 800 = 0.5 Hz / Line Jack D. Peters 35
  36. 36. The X Scale BandwidthThe Bandwidth can be defined by: (Frequency Span / Analyzer Lines) Window FunctionUniform Window Function = 1.0 Note: More discussion later on window functionsHanning Window Function = 1.5 for the analyzer !Flat Top Window Function = 3.5 Example: 0 - 400 Hz using 800 Lines & Hanning Window Answer = (400 / 800) 1.5 = 0.75 Hz / Line Jack D. Peters 36
  37. 37. The X Scale Resolution The frequency resolution is defined in the following manner: 2 (Frequency Span / Analyzer Lines) Window Function or Resolution = 2 (Bandwidth) Example: 0 - 400 Hz using 800 Lines & Hanning Window Answer = 2 (400 / 800) 1.5 = 1.5 Hz / Line Jack D. Peters 37
  38. 38. The X Scale Using ResolutionThe student wishes to measure two frequencydisturbances that are very close together.Frequency #1 = 29.5 Hz.Frequency #2 = 30 Hz.The instructor suggests a hanning window and 800 lines.What frequency span is required to accurately measurethese two frequency disturbances ? Jack D. Peters 38
  39. 39. The X Scale Using ResolutionResolution = 30 - 29.5 = 0.5 Hz / LineResolution = 2 (Bandwidth)BW = (Frequency Span / Analyzer Lines) Window FunctionResolution = 2 (Frequency Span / 800) 1.50.5 = 2 (Frequency Span / 800) 1.50.5 = 3 (Frequency Span) / 800400 = 3 (Frequency Span)133 Hz = Frequency Span Jack D. Peters 39
  40. 40. The X Scale Data Sampling TimeData sampling time is the amount of time required to takeone record or sample of data. It is dependent on thefrequency span and the number of analyzer lines being used. TSample = Nlines / FspanUsing 400 lines with a 800 Hz frequency span will require: 400 / 800 = 0.5 seconds Jack D. Peters 40
  41. 41. The X Scale Average & Overlap TR#1 TR#2 TR#3• Average - On FFT#1 FFT#2 FFT#3• Overlap Percent - 50% 0% Overlap 50% Overlap TR#1 How long will it take for 10 TR#2 averages at 75% overlap TR#3 using a 800 line analyzer and FFT#1 a 200 Hz frequency span? FFT#2 FFT#3 Jack D. Peters 41
  42. 42. The X Scale 75% Overlap ? Average #1 = 800 / 200• 10 Averages Average #1 = 4 seconds• 75% Overlap• 800 Lines Average #2 - #10 = (4 x 0.25)• 200 Hz Average #2 - #10 = 1 second each Total time = 4 + (1 x 9) Total time = 13 seconds Jack D. Peters 42
  43. 43. The Y Scale The Y Scale Jack D. Peters 43
  44. 44. The Y Scale AmplitudeThe “Y” scale provides the amplitude value for eachsignal or frequency.Default units for the “Y” scale are volts RMS.Volts is an Engineering Unit (EU).RMS is one of three suffixes meant to confuse you !The other two are:(Peak) and (Peak - Peak) Jack D. Peters 44
  45. 45. The Y Scale Pk-Pk (Peak - Peak) X:55 Hz Y:1.999169 V Pwr Spec 1The Peak - Peak value V 2is expressed from the Pk-Pk Magnitudepeak to peak amplitude. 0 0 Hz 100 HzThe spectrum value X:22.43042 ms dX:9.094238 ms Y:-993.8563 mV dY:1.994871 Vuses the suffix “Pk-Pk” 1 Time 1 Vto denote this. Real -1 0 s 62.46948 ms Jack D. Peters 45
  46. 46. The Y Scale Pk (Peak)The time wave has not X:55 Hz Y:999.5843 mV Pwr Spec 1changed. The Peak V 1value is expressed Peak Magnitudefrom zero to the peak 0amplitude. 0 Hz X:27.00806 ms Y:3.579427 mV 100 Hz dX:4.516602 ms dY:997.4356 mVThe spectrum value 1 Time 1uses the suffix “Peak” V Realto denote this. -1 0 s 62.46948 ms Jack D. Peters 46
  47. 47. The Y Scale RMS (Root Mean Square)The time wave has X:55 Hz Pwr Spec 1 Y:706.8129 mVnot changed. The 1 VRMS value is rms Magnitudeexpressed from zero 0 0 Hz 100 Hzto 70.7% of the peak X:27.00806 ms Y:3.579427 mVamplitude. dX:2.288818 ms Time 1 dY:709.1976 mV 1 VThe spectrum value Realuses the suffix -1 0 s 62.46948 ms“RMS” to denote this. Jack D. Peters 47
  48. 48. The Y Scale Suffix Comparison X:27.00806 ms Y:3.579427 mV X:55 Hz Y:706.8129 mV dX:2.288818 ms dY:709.1976 m Pwr Spec 1 Time 1 2 1 V RMS V Real rms Magnitude -1 0 0 s 62.46948 ms 0 Hz 100 Hz X:27.00806 ms Y:3.579427 mV X:55 Hz Y:999.5843 mV dX:4.516602 ms dY:997.4356 m Pwr Spec 1 Time 1 2 1 V Peak V Real Peak Magnitude -1 0 0 s 62.46948 ms 0 Hz 100 Hz X:22.43042 ms Y:-993.8563 mV X:55 Hz Y:1.999169 V dX:9.094238 ms dY:1.994871 V Pwr Spec 1 Time 1 2 1 V Peak - Peak V Real Pk-Pk Magnitude -1 0 0 s 62.46948 ms 0 Hz 100 Hz Jack D. Peters 48
  49. 49. The Y Scale Changing SuffixesMany times it is necessary to change between suffixes. Pk-Pk / 2 = Peak Peak x 0.707 = RMS RMS x 1.414 = Peak Peak x 2 = Pk-Pk Jack D. Peters 49
  50. 50. The Y Scale Standard Suffixes Now that we have learned all about the three standard suffixes that might possibly confuse the “Y” scale values, what is the standard ? Vibration Institute: Displacement = mils Peak - Peak Velocity = in/s Peak or rms.. Acceleration = g’s Peak or rms.. Note: 1 mil = 0.001 inches Jack D. Peters 50
  51. 51. The Y Scale Engineering Units (EU)Engineering units are used to give meaning to theamplitude of the measurement.Instead of the default “volts”, it is possible to incorporatea unit proportional to volts that will have greatermeaning to the user.Examples: 100 mV / g 20 mV / Pa 1 V / in/s 200 mV / mil 50 mV / psi 10 mV / fpm 33 mV / % 10 mV / V Jack D. Peters 51
  52. 52. The Y Scale EU’s the Hard WaySometimes we forget to use EU’s, or just don’t understand howto set up the analyzer.There is no immediate need to panic if ????You know what the EU is for the sensor you are using.Example: An accelerometer outputs 100 mV / g and there is a10 mV peak in the frequency spectrum.What is the amplitude in g’s ?Answer = 10 mV / 100 mV = 0.1 g Jack D. Peters 52
  53. 53. The Y Scale The Big Three EU’s Acceleration Velocity Displacement Jack D. Peters 53
  54. 54. The Y Scale Converting the Big 3 In many cases we are confronted with Acceleration, Velocity, or Displacement, but are not happy with it. Maybe we have taken the measurement in acceleration, but the model calls for displacement. Maybe we have taken the data in displacement, but the manufacturer quoted the equipment specifications in velocity. How do we change between these EU’s ? Jack D. Peters 54
  55. 55. The Y Scale 386.1 What ? 1g = 32.2 feet/second2 32.2 feet 12 inches 2 X second foot 2 386.1 inches/second g Jack D. Peters 55
  56. 56. The Y Scale Go With The Flow I÷ 386.1 Acceleration (g’s) x 386.1x 2(Pi)f ÷ 2(Pi)f Velocity (inch/s)x 2(Pi)f ÷ 2(Pi)f Displacement (inch) Jack D. Peters 56
  57. 57. The Y Scale Metric Go With The Flow I÷ 9807 Acceleration (g’s) x 9807x 2(Pi)f ÷ 2(Pi)f Velocity (mm/s)x 2(Pi)f ÷ 2(Pi)f Displacement (mm) Jack D. Peters 57
  58. 58. The Y Scale Go With The Flow II Peak - Peak x2 ÷2 Peakx 1.414 x .707 RMS Jack D. Peters 58
  59. 59. The Y Scale Doing the Math Units 0.5g x 386.1 inches second2 g 2π x 25 cyclesThere is a 0.5 g secondvibration at 25 Hz. 0.5g x 386.1 inches x 1 secondWhat is the velocity ? g second2 2π x 25 cycles 0.5 x 386.1 inches 2π x 25 cycles second cycle 1.23 inches/second Jack D. Peters 59
  60. 60. The Y Scale Acceleration - VelocityExample: Find the equivalent peak velocity for a 25 Hz vibration at 7 mg RMS ? = (g x 386.1) / (2 Pi x F) = (0.007 x 386.1) / (6.28 x 25) = 0.017 inches / second RMS Answer = 0.017 x 1.414 = 0.024 inches / second Pk Jack D. Peters 60
  61. 61. The Y Scale Velocity - DisplacementExample: Find the equivalent pk-pk displacement for a 25 Hz vibration at 0.024 in/s Pk ? = Velocity / (2 Pi x F) = 0.024 / (6.28 x 25) = 0.000153 inches Pk Answer = 0.000153 x 2 = 0.000306 inches Pk-Pk Jack D. Peters 61
  62. 62. The Y Scale Acceleration - DisplacementExample: Find the equivalent Pk-Pk displacement for a 52 Hz vibration at 15 mg RMS ? = (g x 386.1) / (2 Pi x F)2 = (0.015 x 386.1) / (6.28 x 52)2 = 0.000054 inches RMS Answer = (0.000054 x 1.414) 2 = 0.000154 inches Pk-Pk Jack D. Peters 62
  63. 63. Sensors Sensors Jack D. Peters 63
  64. 64. Sensors Accelerometers• Integrated Circuit • Charge Mode Electronics inside Charge Amplifier Industrial Test & Measurement Jack D. Peters 64
  65. 65. Sensors Accelerometer Advantages• Measures casing vibration• Measures absolute motion• Can integrate to Velocity output• Easy to mount• Large range of frequency response• Available in many configurations Jack D. Peters 65
  66. 66. Sensors Accelerometer Disadvantages• Does not measure shaft vibration• Sensitive to mounting techniques and surface conditions• Difficult to perform calibration check• Double integration to displacement often causes low frequency noise• One accelerometer does not fit all applications Jack D. Peters 66
  67. 67. Sensors Mass & Charge Relative movement between post & mass creates shear in ceramic producing charge. Mass Ceramic/Quartz Post Jack D. Peters 67
  68. 68. Sensors Accelerometer Parameters Performance Suited for Application Sensitivity (mV/g) Frequency Response of target (f span) Dynamic Range of target (g level) Jack D. Peters 68
  69. 69. SensorsMounting the Accelerometer 500 2000 6,500 10,000 15,000 15,000 Hz. Jack D. Peters 69
  70. 70. Sensors Realistic Mounting Stud Bees Wax In the real world, Adhesive mounting might Magnet not be as good as Hand Held the manufacturer had in the lab ! What happened to the high frequency ? 100 1,000 10,000 Frequency, Hz Jack D. Peters 70
  71. 71. Sensors Mounting Location VerticalLoad ZoneRadial Vertical Horizontal Horizontal AxialAxial Jack D. Peters 71
  72. 72. Sensors Mounting Location Load Zone Radial Vertical Horizontal Axial Jack D. Peters 72
  73. 73. Sensors Accelerometer Alarms Machine Condition Velocity Limit rms peakAcceptance of new or repaired equipment < 0.08 < 0.16Unrestricted operation (normal) < 0.12 < 0.24Surveillance 0.12 - 0.28 0.24 - 0.7Unsuitable for Operation > 0.28 > 0.7Note #1: The rms velocity (in/sec) is the band power orband energy calculated in the frequency spectrum.Note #2: The peak velocity (in/sec) is the largest positiveor negative peak measured in the time waveform. Jack D. Peters 73
  74. 74. Sensors Proximity Probes Jack D. Peters 74
  75. 75. Sensors Proximity Probe Theory The tip of the probe broadcasts a radio frequency signalDriver into the surrounding area as a magnetic field. If a conductive target intercepts the magnetic field, eddy currents are generated on the surface of the target, and Cable power is drained from the radio frequency signal. As the power varies with target movement in the radio frequency field, the output voltage of the driver also Probe varies. A small dc voltage indicates that the target is close to the probe tip. A large dc voltage indicates that the target is far away from the probe tip.Target The variation of dc voltage is the dynamic signal indicating the vibration or displacement. Jack D. Peters 75
  76. 76. Sensors Output Values• Typical Calibration Examples – 100 mv/mil – 200 mv/mil • Copper 380 mV/mil • Aluminum 370 mV/mil• Depends on • Brass 330 mV/mil probe, cable • Tungsten Carbide 290 mV/mil (length), and • Stainless Steel 250 mV/mil driver. • Steel 4140, 4340 200 mV/mil• Target material Based on typical output sensitivity varies output. of 200 mV/mil. Jack D. Peters 76
  77. 77. Sensors Proximity Probes - Advantages• Non-contact• Measure shaft dynamic motion• Measure shaft static position (gap)• Flat frequency response dc – 1KHz• Simple calibration• Suitable for harsh environments Jack D. Peters 77
  78. 78. Sensors Proximity Probes - Disadvantages• Probe can move (vibrate)• Doesn’t work on all metals• Plated shafts may give false measurement• Measures nicks & tool marks in shaft• Must be replaced as a unit (probe, cable & driver)• Must have relief at sensing tip from surrounding metal Jack D. Peters 78
  79. 79. Sensors Typical Mountingvertical probe horizontal probe H V time Facing Driver to Driven(independent of rotation) Jack D. Peters 79
  80. 80. Sensors Looking at OrbitsVertical for Horizontal forAmplitude Time Base Jack D. Peters 80
  81. 81. Sensors The Orbit Display ilsMils Mils Jack D. Peters 81
  82. 82. Sensors Unbalance Jack D. Peters 82
  83. 83. Sensors Unbalance with Orbit Jack D. Peters 83
  84. 84. Sensors Misalignment Jack D. Peters 84
  85. 85. Sensors Misalignment with Orbit Jack D. Peters 85
  86. 86. Sensors And the problem is ? Jack D. Peters 86
  87. 87. Sensors Proximity Probe Alarms Machine Condition Allowable R/C < 3,600 RPM < 10,000 RPMNormal 0.3 0.2Surveillance 0.3 - 0.5 0.2 - 0.4Planned Shutdown 0.5 0.4Unsuitable for Operation 0.7 0.6Note #1: R is the relative displacement of the shaftmeasured by either probe in mils peak-peak.Note #2: C is the diametrical clearance (differencebetween shaft OD and journal ID) measured in mils. Jack D. Peters 87
  88. 88. Sensors Analyzer Input - Front End• Coupling - AC, DC AC coupling will block the DC voltage. Analyzer Input Capacitor It creates an amplitude error below 1 Blocks DC Hz. DC coupling has no error below 1 AC Coupling Capacitor in DSA Hz, but the analyzer must range on the total signal amplitude. If the antialias filter is turned off, at what frequency will 175 Hz. appear using a 0 -• Antialias Filter - On, Off 100 Hz span, and 800 lines ? Prevents frequencies that are greater 1024/800 = 1.28 than span from wrapping around in 100 x 1.28 = 128 Hz the spectrum. 175 Hz - 128 Hz = 47 Hz. 128 Hz - 47 Hz = 81 Hz Jack D. Peters 88
  89. 89. Sensors Low End Frequency Response Input 1To the right is a typical 0.01 V rmsproblem with frequency Magnitude 0.002response at the low end of 0 Hz Output 2 25 Hz 0.01the frequency spectrum. rms V MagnitudeThis low end roll off was a 0 0 Hz 25 Hz X:500 mHz Y:720.0918 mresult of AC coupling on X:2.8125 Hz Freq Resp 2:1 Y:984.7542 m 2CH #2 of the analyzer. Magnitude 0 0 Hz 25 HzValues below 2.8 Hz are in X:5.34375 Hz Coherence 2:1 Y:1.000001 1.1error, and values less than Magnitude0.5 Hz should not be used. 0.9 0 Hz 25 Hz Jack D. Peters 89
  90. 90. Data Collection Data Collection Jack D. Peters 90
  91. 91. Data CollectionTape Recorders “Insurance Policy” Multi-channel digital audio tape recorders. For the Measurement that can’t get away ! Jack D. Peters 91
  92. 92. Data CollectionDynamic Signal Analyzers “Test & Measurement” Large PC driven solutions with multiple channels and windows based software. Smaller portable units with 2 – 4 channel inputs and firmware operating systems. Jack D. Peters 92
  93. 93. Data CollectionData Collectors “Rotating Equipment” Jack D. Peters 93
  94. 94. Data CollectionData Collectors “Rotating Equipment”• Route Based • Data Analysis• Frequency • History Spectrum • Trending• Time Waveform • Download to PC• Orbits • Alarms• Balancing • “Smart” algorithms• Alignment Jack D. Peters 94
  95. 95. Beginning Vibration Bibliography• Eisenmann, Robert Sr. & Eisenmann, Robert Jr., Machinery Malfunction Diagnosis and Correction, ISBN 0-13-240946-1• Eshleman, Ronald L., Basic Machinery Vibrations, ISBN 0- 9669500-0-3• LaRocque, Thomas, Vibration Analysis Design, Selection, Mounting, and Installation, Application Note, Connection Technology Center• Agilent Technologies, The Fundamentals of Signal Analysis, Application note 243• Agilent Technologies, Effective Machinery Measurements using Dynamic Signal Analyzers, Application note 243-1 Jack D. Peters 95
  96. 96. Beginning Vibration Thank You ! You can find technical papers on this and other subjects at www.ctconline.com in the “Technical Resources” section Jack D. Peters 96

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