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  1. 1. Chapter 5 Personality andConsumer Behavior Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Chapter Outline • Personality Theories • Cognitive Personality Factors • Consumption • Product Personality • The Self and Self-ImageCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-2
  3. 3. What Is Personality • The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environmentCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-3
  4. 4. The Nature of Personality • Personality reflects individual differences • Personality is consistent and enduring • Personality can changeCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-4
  5. 5. Theories of Personality • Freudian theory – Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation • Neo-Freudian personality theory – Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality • Trait theory – Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traitsCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-5
  6. 6. Freudian Theory • Id – Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction • Superego – Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct • Ego – Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superegoCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-6
  7. 7. Figure 5.2 A Representation of the Interrelationships Among the Id, Ego, and SuperegoCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-7
  8. 8. Freudian Theory and “Product Personality” • Consumer researchers using Freud’s personality theory see consumer purchases as a reflection and extension of the consumer’s own personalityCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-8
  9. 9. Table 5.1 Snack Food Personality Traits Potato Chips: Ambitious, successful, high achiever, impatient Tortilla Chips: Perfectionist, high expectations, punctual, conservational Pretzels: Lively, easily bored, flirtatious, intuitive Snack Crackers: Rational, logical, contemplative, shy, prefers time aloneCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5-9
  10. 10. Neo-Freudian Personality Theory • We seek goals to overcome feelings of inferiority • We continually attempt to establish relationships with others to reduce tensions • Karen Horney was interested in child-parent relationships and desires to conquer feelings of anxiety. Proposed three personality groups – Compliant move toward others, they desire to be loved, wanted, and appreciated – Aggressive move against others – Detached move away from othersCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 10
  11. 11. Trait Theory • Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics • Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another • Personality is linked to how consumers make their choices or to consumption of a broad product category - not a specific brandCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 11
  12. 12. Trait Theory Consumer Innovators And Noninnovators• Innovativeness • The degree to which• Dogmatism consumers are• Social character receptive to new products, new• Need for uniqueness services, or new• Optimum stimulation practices level• Variety-novelty seekingCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 12
  13. 13. Trait Theory Consumer Innovators And Noninnovators• Innovativeness • A personality trait that• Dogmatism reflects the degree of• Social character rigidity a person displays toward the• Need for uniqueness unfamiliar and toward• Optimum stimulation information that is level contrary to his or her• Variety-novelty own established seeking beliefsCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 13
  14. 14. Trait Theory Consumer Innovators And Noninnovators• Innovativeness • Ranges on a continuum• Dogmatism for inner-directedness to• other-directedness Social character• • Inner-directedness Need for uniqueness – rely on own values when• Optimum stimulation evaluating products level – Innovators• Variety-novelty seeking • Other-directedness – look to others – less likely to be innovatorsCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 14
  15. 15. Trait Theory Consumer Innovators And Noninnovators• Innovativeness • Consumers who• Dogmatism avoid appearing to• Social character conform to expectations or• Need for uniqueness standards of others• Optimum stimulation level• Variety-novelty seekingCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 15
  16. 16. Trait Theory Consumer Innovators And Noninnovators• Innovativeness • A personality trait that• Dogmatism measures the level or• amount of novelty or Social character complexity that• Need for uniqueness individuals seek in their• Optimum stimulation personal experiences level • High OSL consumers tend• Variety-novelty seeking to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers.Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 16
  17. 17. Trait Theory Consumer Innovators And Noninnovators• Innovativeness • Measures a consumer’s• Dogmatism degree of variety• Social character seeking• • Examples include: Need for uniqueness – Exploratory Purchase• Optimum stimulation Behavior level – Use Innovativeness• Variety-novelty – Vicarious Exploration seekingCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 17
  18. 18. Cognitive Personality Factors • Need for cognition (NC) – A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking – Individual with high NC more likely to respond to ads rich in product information • Visualizers versus verbalizers – A person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally – Verbalizers prefer written information over graphics and images.Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 18
  19. 19. Consumer Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products • They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themesCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 19
  20. 20. This ad is designed to appeal to consumer ethno- centrism.Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 20
  21. 21. Table 5.7 Items from the CETSCALE 1. American people should always buy American-made products instead of imports. 2. Only those products that are unavailable in the U.S. should be imported. 3. Buy American-made products. Keep America working. 4. Purchasing foreign-made products is un-American. 5. It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out of jobs. 6. A real American should always buy American-made products. 7. We should purchase products manufactured in America instead of letting other countries get rich off us. 8. It is always best to purchase American products.Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 21
  22. 22. Brand Personality • Personality-like traits associated with brands • Examples – Purdue and freshness – Nike and athlete – BMW is performance driven – Levi’s 501 jeans are dependable and rugged • Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price premiumCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 22
  23. 23. A Brand Personality Framework Figure 5.8Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 23
  24. 24. Product Personality Issues • Gender – Often used for brand personalities – Some product perceived as masculine (coffee and toothpaste) while others as feminine (bath soap and shampoo) • Geography – Actual locations like Philadelphia cream cheese and Arizona iced tea – Fictitious names also used such as Hidden Valley and Bear Creek • Color – Color combinations in packaging and products denotes personalityCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 24
  25. 25. Marketers often use a fictitious location to help with personality.Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 25
  26. 26. Table 5.10 The Personality-like Associations of Colors • America’s favored color • IBM holds the title to blue • Associated with club soda • Men seek products packaged in blueBLUE Commands • Houses painted blue are avoided respect, authority • Low-calorie, skim milk • Coffee in a blue can perceived as “mild” Caution, novelty, • Eyes register it faster • Coffee in yellow can perceived as “weak” temporary,YELLOW • Stops traffic warmth • Sells a house Secure, natural, • Good work environment • Associated with vegetables and chewing gum relaxed or easy- • Canada Dry ginger ale sales increased when itGREEN going, living changed sugar-free package from red to green things and white
  27. 27. Human, exciting, • Makes food “smell” better hot, passionate, • Coffee in a red can perceived as “rich” RED strong • Women have a preference for bluish red • Men have a preference for yellowish red • Coca-Cola “owns” red Powerful, •Draws attention quicklyORANGE affordable, informal Informal and •Coffee in a dark-brown can was “tooBROWN relaxed, masculine, strong” nature •Men seek products packaged in brown •Suggests reduced calories Goodness, purity, chastity, •Pure and wholesome foodWHITE cleanliness, •Clean, bath products, feminine delicacy, refinement, Sophistication, •Powerful clothingBLACK formality power, authority, •High-tech electronics mysterySILVER, Regal, wealthy, •Suggests premium price GOLD 2007 by Prentice Hall Copyright stately 5 - 27
  28. 28. Self and Self-Image • Consumers have a variety of enduring images of themselves • These images are associated with personality in that individuals consumption relates to self-imageCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 28
  29. 29. This product appeals to a man’s self-image.Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 29
  30. 30. The Marketing Concept Issues Related toSelf and Self-Image • One or multiple • Contains traits, skills, habits, selves possessions, relationships • Makeup of the self and way of behavior • Developed through -image background, experience,and • Extended self interaction with others • Altering the self- • Consumers select products image congruent with this imageCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 30
  31. 31. Different Self-Images Actual Self- Ideal Self-Image Image Ideal Social Social Self-Image Self-Image Expected Self-ImageCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 31
  32. 32. The Marketing Concept Issues Related toSelf and Self-Image • One or multiple • Possessions can extend selves self in a number of ways: – Actually • Makeup of the – Symbolically self-image – Conferring status or rank • Extended self – Bestowing feelings of immortality • Altering the self- – Endowing with magical image powersCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 32
  33. 33. The Marketing Concept Issues Related toSelf and Self-Image • One or multiple • Consumers use self- selves altering products to • Makeup of the express individualism self-image by – Creating new self • Extended self – Maintaining the existing • Altering the self self – Extending the self -image – ConformingCopyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 5 - 33