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Ppt sieve analysis

1. 1. Soil ClassificationSieve Analysis, Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit B. Munwar Basha 1
2. 2. If I give you a bag of 1-Kg soil taken from an under construction site and ask you the following questions.1. What is the most basic classification of soil?2. What are the methods of soil gradation or grain size distribution?3. How do you define the soil types? Clay, Silt, Sand, Gravel or cobble and boulder4. Calculate D10, D30 and D60 of this soil using the sieve analysis?5. Calculate both the Cu and CC of this soil?6. Is this soil poorly, gap or well graded, Liquid limit and Plastic limit? How do you define theses terms? You will learn in today’s practical class Answer all the above questions in your2first report.
3. 3. Purpose:• This test is performed to determine the percentage of different grain sizes contained within a soil.• The mechanical or sieve analysis is performed to determine the distribution of the coarser, larger-sized particles, and the hydrometer method is used to determine the distribution of the finer particles. Significance:• The distribution of different grain sizes affects the engineering properties of soil.• Grain size analysis provides the grain size distribution, and it is required in classifying the soil. 3
4. 4. Major Soil GroupsCohesive Granular soils orsoils Cohesionless soils Clay Silt Sand Gravel Cobble Boulder 0.002 0.075 4.75 Grain size (mm) Fine grain Coarse grain soils soils 4
5. 5. Grain Size Distribution Significance of GSD: To know the relative proportions of different grain sizes. An important factor influencing the geotechnical characteristics of a coarse grain soil. Not important in fine grain soils. 5
6. 6. Grain Size Distribution Determination of GSD:  In coarse grain soils …... By sieve analysis In fine grain soils …... By hydrometer analysis hydrometer stack of sieves sieve shaker soil/water suspensionSieve Analysis Hydrometer Analysis 6
7. 7. Sieve Analyses 7
8. 8. Sieve Analysis 8
9. 9. Sieve Designation - LargeSieves largerthan the #4sieve aredesignated bythe size of theopenings inthe sieve 9
10. 10. Sieve Designation - SmallerSmaller sieves are 10numbered 1- openingsaccording to the inch per inchnumber of openingsper inch # 10 sieve 10
11. 11. Sieving procedure(1) Write down the weight of each sieve as well as thebottom pan to be used in the analysis.(2) Record the weight of the given dry soil sample.(3) Make sure that all the sieves are clean, and assemblethem in the ascending order of sieve numbers (#4 sieve attop and #200 sieve at bottom). Place the pan below #200sieve. Carefully pour the soil sample into the top sieve andplace the cap over it.(4) Place the sieve stack in the mechanical shaker andshake for 10 minutes.(5) Remove the stack from the shaker and carefully weighand record the weight of each sieve with its retained soil.In addition, remember to weigh and record the weight ofthe bottom pan with its retained fine soil. 11
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14. 14. Data Analysis:(1) Obtain the mass of soil retained on each sieve bysubtracting the weight of the empty sieve from the mass ofthe sieve + retained soil, and record this mass as the weightretained on the data sheet. The sum of these retainedmasses should be approximately equals the initial mass ofthe soil sample. A loss of more than two percent isunsatisfactory.(2) Calculate the percent retained on each sieve by dividingthe weight retained on each sieve by the original samplemass.(3) Calculate the percent passing (or percent finer) bystarting with 100 percent and subtracting the percentretained on each sieve as a cumulative procedure. 14
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17. 17. For example: Total mass = 500 g,Mass retained on No. 4 sieve = 9.7 gFor the No.4 sieve:Quantity passing = Total mass - Mass retained= 500 - 9.7 = 490.3 gThe percent retained is calculated as;% retained = Mass retained/Total mass= (9.7/500) X 100 = 1.9 %From this, the % passing = 100 - 1.9 = 98.1 % 17
18. 18. Grain size distribution 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) 18
19. 19. Unified Soil Classification Each soil is given a 2 letter classification (e.g. SW). The following procedure is used.  Coarse grained (>50% larger than 75 mm)  Prefix S if > 50% of coarse is Sand  Prefix G if > 50% of coarse is Gravel  Suffix depends on %fines  if %fines < 5% suffix is either W or P  if %fines > 12% suffix is either M or C  if 5% < %fines < 12% Dual symbols are used 19
20. 20. Unified Soil Classification To determine W or P, calculate Cu and Cc D60 Cu = D10 x% of the soil has particles 2 D30 smaller than Dx Cc = ( D60 × D10 ) 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) 20
21. 21. Grading curves 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) W Well graded 21
22. 22. Grading curves 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) W Well graded U Uniform 22
23. 23. Grading curves 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) W Well graded U Uniform P Poorly graded 23
24. 24. Grading curves 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) W Well graded U Uniform P Poorly graded C Well graded with some clay 24
25. 25. Grading curves 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) W Well graded U Uniform P Poorly graded C Well graded with some clay 25 F Well graded with an excess of fines
26. 26. 100 80 hydrometer sieve % Passing 60 fines sands gravels 40 D10 = 0.013 mm 20 D 30 D30 = 0.47 mm D60 = 7.4 mm 0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Grain size (mm) Grain Size Distribution Curve can find % of gravels, sands, fines define D10, D30, D60.. as above.
27. 27. To determine W or P, calculate Cu and Cc D60 Cu = D10 x% of the soil has particles 2 D30 smaller than Dx Cc = ( D60 × D10 ) 100 80% Finer 60 40 20 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size (mm) D90 = 3 mm 27
28. 28. Well or Poorly Graded SoilsWell Graded Soils Poorly Graded SoilsWide range of grain sizes Others, including two special cases:present (a) Uniform soils – grains of same sizeGravels: Cc = 1-3 & Cu >4 (b) Gap graded soils – no grains in aSands: Cc = 1-3 & Cu >6 specific size range 28
29. 29. Atterberg Limits Border line water contents, separating the different states of a fine grained soil water content0 Shrinkage Plastic Liquid limit limit limit brittle- semi- plastic liquid solid solid 29
30. 30. Purpose:This lab is performed to determine theplastic and liquid limits of a fine grainedsoil. The Atterberg limits are based on themoisture content of the soil.The plastic limit: is the moisture contentthat defines where the soil changes from asemi-solid to a plastic (flexible) state.The liquid limit: is the moisture contentthat defines where the soil changes from aplastic to a viscous fluid state. 30
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32. 32. Liquid Limit Definition Thewater content at which a soil changes from a plastic consistency to a liquid consistency Defined by Laboratory Test concept developed by Atterberg in 1911. 32
33. 33. Defined by Laboratory Test concept developed by Atterberg in 1911. The liquid limit (LL) is arbitrarily defined as the water content, in percent, at which a pat of soil in a standard cup and cut by a groove of standard dimensions will flow together at the base of the groove for a distance of 12 mm under the impact of 25 blows in the devise. The cup being dropped 10 mm in a standard liquid limit apparatus operated at a rate of two shocks per second. 33
34. 34. Atterberg LimitsLiquid Limit (wL or LL): Clay flows like liquid when w > LLPlastic Limit (wP or PL):Lowest water content where the clay is still plasticShrinkage Limit (wS or SL): At w<SL, no volume reduction on drying 34
35. 35. LL Test Procedure Prepare paste of soil finer than 425 micron sieve Place Soil in Cup 35
36. 36. LL Test Procedure Cut groove in soil paste with standard grooving tool 36
37. 37. LL Test Procedure Rotatecam and count number of blows of cup required to close groove by 1/2” 37
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40. 40. LL Test Procedure Perform on 3 to 4 specimens that bracket 25 blows to close groove Obtain water content for each test Plot water content versus number of blows on semi-log paper 40
41. 41. LL Test Results Interpolate LL water content at 25 blows Log N 25 LL= w% water content, % 41
42. 42. LL Values < 16 % not realistic PI, % 16 Liquid Limit, % 42
43. 43. LL Values > 50 - HIGH PI, % H Liquid Limit, % 50 43
44. 44. LL Values < 50 - LOW PI, % L Liquid Limit, % 50 44
45. 45. Plastic LimitThe minimum water content at which a soil will just begin to crumble when it is rolled into a thread of approximately 3 mm in diameter. 45
46. 46. Plastic Limit w% procedure Usingpaste from LL test, begin drying May add dry soil or spread on plate and air- dry 46
47. 47. Plastic Limit w% procedure When point is reached where thread is cracking and cannot be re-rolled to 3 mm diameter, collect at least 6 grams and measure water content. Defined plastic limit 47
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49. 49. 1. Calculate the water content of each of the plastic limit moisture cans after they have been in the oven for at least 16 hours.2. Compute the average of the water contents to determine the plastic limit, PL. 49
50. 50. Definition of Plasticity Index PlasticityIndex is the numerical difference between the Liquid Limit w% and the Plastic Limit w%Plasticity Index = Liquid Limit – Plastic Limit PL w% LL PI = LL - PL plastic (remoldable) 50
51. 51. Plasticity ChartLow plasticity wL = < 35%Intermediate plasticity wL = 35 - 50%High plasticity wL = 50 - 70%Very high plasticity wL = 70 - 90%Extremely high plasticity wL = > 90% 51