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  2. 2. Strategic Brand Management Process Mental maps Competitive frame of reference Points-of-parity and points-of-difference Core brand values Brand mantra Mixing and matching of brand elements Integrating brand marketing activities Leveraging of secondary associations Brand Value Chain Brand audits Brand tracking Brand equity management system Brand-product matrix Brand portfolios and hierarchies Brand expansion strategies Brand reinforcement and revitalization KEY CONCEPTS STEPS Grow and Sustain Brand Equity Identify and Establish Brand Positioning and Values Plan and Implement Brand Marketing Programs Measure and Interpret Brand Performance
  4. 4. Role of Integrated Marketing Communications <ul><li>Marketing communications … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ V oice” of the brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D ialogue and relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I nform, persuade, and remind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form desired brand knowledge structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can c ontribute to brand equity by creating: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brand awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brand associations (strong, unique, and favorable) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Role of Integrated Marketing Communications (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>Consumers can be told or shown how and why a product is used, by what kind of person, and where and when; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers can learn about who makes the product and what the company and brand stand for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers be given an incentive or reward for trial or usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brands can be linked to other … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Things </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Simple Test for M arketing Communications Effectiveness Current Brand Knowledge Desired Brand Knowledge Communication
  7. 7. Information Processing Model of Communications <ul><li>Six Steps of Persuasion: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul>
  8. 8. Communication Process
  9. 9. Marketing Communications Options <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Event marketing and sponsorship </li></ul><ul><li>Public relations and publicity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal selling </li></ul>
  10. 10. ADVERTISING <ul><li>A powerful means of creating strong, favorable, and unique brand associations and eliciting positive judgments and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to increase both sales and profits than “money-off” sales promotions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Category of Advertising <ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>Direct response </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive: websites, online ads </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Place advertising: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards; movies, airlines, and lounges; product placement; and point-of-purchase advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*See Figure 6-4 in Page 237 for pros and cons of each option. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ADVERTISING <ul><li>Success Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer targeting, the ad creative, consumer understanding, brand positioning, consumer motivation, and ad memorability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research, e.g., copy testing: Be skeptical! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read The Science of Branding 6-1, p. 2 3 8 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ad Campaign Considerations <ul><li>Campaigns make brands -- not single ads </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative and develop creative themes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid slavishly sticking to executional formulas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand communications should sing like a choir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple notes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find fresh consumer insights & compelling brand truths </li></ul><ul><li>Productively conduct ad research </li></ul>
  14. 14. Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising <ul><li>Failure to distinguish ad positioning (what you say) from ad creative (how you say it) </li></ul><ul><li>Mistaken assumptions about consumer knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Improperly positioned </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to break through the clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Distracting, overpowering creative in ads </li></ul>
  15. 15. Common Mistakes in Developing Advertising (cont.) <ul><li>Under-branded ads </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to use supporting media </li></ul><ul><li>Changing campaigns too frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Substituting ad frequency for ad quality </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ideal Ad Campaign <ul><li>The right consumer is exposed to the right message at the right place and at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>The creative strategy for the advertising causes the consumer to notice and attend to the ad but does not distract from the intended message. </li></ul><ul><li>The ad properly reflects the consumer’s level of understanding about the product and the brand. </li></ul><ul><li>The ad correctly positions the brand in terms of desirable and deliverable points-of-difference and points-of-parity. </li></ul><ul><li>The ad motivates consumers to consider purchase of the brand. </li></ul><ul><li>The ad creates strong brand associations to all of these stored communication effects so that they can have an effect when consumers are considering making a purchase. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Short-term incentives to encourage trial or usage of a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers can target sales promotions at either the trade or end consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer promotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer promotions are designed to change the choices, quantity, or timing of consumers’ product purchases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade promotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade promotions are often financial incentives or discounts given to retailers, distributors, and other members of the trade to stock, display, and in other ways facilitate the sale of a product. </li></ul></ul>PROMOTIONS
  18. 18. PROMOTIONS <ul><li>Consumer Promotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros: Price discrimination; Product experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons: Decreased brand loyalty; increased switching; decreased quality perceptions; increased price sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade Promotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros: Secure shelf space and distribution for a new brand; achieve more prominence on the shelf and in the store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons: Risk of forward buying and diversion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. EVENT MARKETING & SPONSORSHIP <ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify with a particular target market or lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase awareness of the company or product name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of key brand image associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To enhance corporate image dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To create experiences and evoke feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To express commitment to the community or on social issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To entertain key clients or reward key employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To permit merchandising or promotional opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk: Success of the event </li></ul>
  20. 20. EVENT MARKETING & SPONSORSHIP <ul><li>Marketing program that accompanies a sponsorship ultimately determines its success. </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage the event! </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring the impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply-side method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand-side method </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. PUBLIC RELATIONS & PUBLICITY <ul><li>Promote and protect a company’s image or its individual products </li></ul><ul><li>Invaluable especially during a marketing crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Buzz-marketing Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell us what’s new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make claims you can’t support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask your customers to articulate what’s special about your product or service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start measuring buzz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to the buzz </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. PERSONAL SELLING <ul><li>Keys to Better Selling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rethink training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get everyone involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire from the top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forge electronic links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to your customers </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Integrated Marketing Communications and Customer-Based Brand Equity <ul><li>One implications of the CBBE framework is that the manner in which brand associations are formed does not matter -- only the resulting strength, favorability, and uniqueness </li></ul>
  24. 24. Developing IMC Programs <ul><li>Mixing communication options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate all possible communication options available to create knowledge structures according to effectiveness criteria as well as cost considerations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different communication options have different strengths and can accomplish different objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the optimal mix </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Evaluating IMC Programs <ul><li>Coverage What proportion of the target audience is reached by each communication option employed? How much overlap exists among options? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Communication Option A Communication Option C Communication Option B Audience Audience Communication Option Overlap Note: Circles represent the market segments reached by various communication options. Shaded portions represent areas of overlap in communication options.
  27. 27. Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.) <ul><li>Contribution - the collective effect on brand equity in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enhancing depth & breadth of awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improving strength, favorability, & uniqueness of brand associations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonality - the extent to which information conveyed by different communication options share meaning </li></ul>
  28. 28. Evaluating IMC Programs (cont.) <ul><li>Complementarity - the extent to which different associations and linkages are emphasized across communication options </li></ul><ul><li>Versatility - the extent to which information contained in a communication option works with different types of consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different communications history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different market segments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple vs. Broad Information Provision Strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost What is the per capita expense? </li></ul>
  29. 29. GENERAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION GUIDELINES <ul><li>Be analytical : Use frameworks of consumer behavior and managerial decision-making to develop well-reasoned communication programs </li></ul><ul><li>Be curious : Fully understand consumers by using all forms of research and always be thinking of how you can create added value for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Be single-minded : Focus message on well-defined target markets (less can be more) </li></ul><ul><li>Be integrative : reinforce your message through consistency and cuing across all communications </li></ul>
  30. 30. GENERAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION GUIDELINES <ul><li>Be creative : State your message in a unique fashion; use alternative promotions and media to create favorable, strong, and unique brand associations </li></ul><ul><li>Be observant : Monitor competition, customers, channel members, and employees through tracking studies </li></ul><ul><li>Be realistic : Understand the complexities involved in marketing communications </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient : Take a long-term view of communication effectiveness to build and manage brand equity </li></ul>