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  2. 2. 2 Strategic Brand Management Process Mental maps Competitive frame of reference Points-of-parity and points-of-difference Core brand associations Brand mantra Mixing and matching of brand elements Integrating brand marketing activities Leveraging of secondary associations Brand Value Chain Brand audits Brand tracking Brand equity management system Brand-product matrix Brand portfolios and hierarchies Brand expansion strategies Brand reinforcement and revitalization KEY CONCEPTSSTEPS Grow and Sustain Brand Equity Identify and Establish Brand Positioning and Values Plan and Implement Brand Marketing Programs Measure and Interpret Brand Performance
  3. 3. 3 Building Customer-Based Brand Equity • Brand knowledge structures depend on . . . – The initial choices for the brand elements – The supporting marketing program and the manner by which the brand is integrated into it – Other associations indirectly transferred to the brand by linking it to some other entities
  4. 4. 4 Brand Elements Objective: • Enhance brand awareness • Facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations – Brand Names – URLs – Logos & Symbols – Characters – Slogans – Jingles – Packaging
  5. 5. 5 Brand Elements Choice Criteria: General Considerations • Memorable – Easily Recognized – Easily Recalled • Meaningful – Descriptive – Persuasive • Likable – Fun & Interesting – Aesthetics – Rich Visual & Verbal Imagery • Transferrable – Within & Across Product Categories – Across Geographical Boundaries & Cultures • Adaptable – Flexible & Updateable • Protectable – Legally – Competitively
  6. 6. 6 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Brand Names • Brand Awareness – Simple and easy to pronounce: Raid, Chevy – Familiar and meaningful: Neon, JuicyJuice – Different, distinctive, and unique: Apple, Toys’R’Us, Xerox • Brand Associations – The explicit and implicit meanings consumers extract from it are important. The brand name can reinforce an important attribute or benefit association that makes up the positioning. – Broader meaning than just the category: performance- related or emotion-laden (ColorStay lipsticks, Close-Up toothpaste) – Descriptive names can cause difficulty in re-positioning: I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter
  7. 7. 7 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Brand Names Landor’s Brand Name Taxonomy (p.147, Figure 4- 3) 1. Descriptive 2. Suggestive 3. Compounds Naming Procedures 1. Define branding objectives 2. Generate as many names as possible 3. Screen based on marketing considerations 4. Collect more extensive info about the survivors 5. Conduct consumer research 6. Choose and register the brand name 4. Classical 5. Arbitrary 6. Fanciful
  8. 8. 8 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: URLs • Uniform Resource Locators: Domain names • Must register and pay for its use • By September 2000, 98% of the words in a typical English dictionary had been registered. • A company can either sue the current owner of the URL for copyright infringement, buy the name from the current owner, or register all conceivable variations of its brand as domain names ahead of time.
  9. 9. 9 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Logos and Symbols • Versatile: Can be updated and transferred. Useful to endorse sub-brands. • Strong word marks (with no separate logo): Coca-Cola, Kit-Kat • Non-word mark logos (Symbols): Mercedes star, Nike swoosh, Olympic rings • Many logos fall between these two extremes: Literal representations of brand name (Apple), certain elements of brand (McDonald’s Golden Arches, Playboy bunny, etc.)
  10. 10. 10 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Characters • Takes on human or real-life characteristics: the Marlboro cowboy, Ronald McDonald, Energizer’s drumming pink bunny • Colorful and rich in imagery: Brand awareness • Relationship building • Transferable • Licensing opportunities
  11. 11. 11 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Slogans • Function like hooks or handles – Build brand awareness by • playing off the brand name (My doctor said Mylanta) • Making strong links with the category (If you’re not wearing Dockers, you’re just wearing pants – Reinforce brand positioning or POD (Nothing runs like a Deere) • Relatively easier to change
  12. 12. 12 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Jingles • Musical messages written around the brand • Often convey product meaning in an abstract fashion • Most likely to relate to feelings and other intangibles
  13. 13. 13 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Packaging • The activities of designing and producing containers or wrappers for a product. • Objectives?
  14. 14. 14 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Packaging • The activities of designing and producing containers or wrappers for a product. • Objectives – Identify the brand – Convey descriptive and persuasive information – Facilitate product transportation and protection – Assist at-home storage – Aid product consumption
  15. 15. 15 Options and Tactics for Brand Elements: Packaging • Bigger or smaller packaged versions: Different market segments • Stand out from the clutter • The “last five seconds of marketing” • Can redesign the package, but there is a risk… • Guidelines: 175, Figure 4-10
  16. 16. 16 • Our sense of taste and touch is very suggestible, and what we see on a package can lead us to taste what we think we are going to taste. • Long after we have bought a product, a package can still lead us to believe we bought it because it was a good value. • Studies of 48 different types of foods and personal care products have shown that people pour and consume between 18% and 32% more of a product as the size of the container doubles. Packaging Can Influence Perceptions of Taste, Value and Consumption
  17. 17. 17 Packaging Can Influence How a Person Uses a Product • One strategy to increase use of mature products has been to encourage people to use the brand in new situations, like soup for breakfast, or new uses, like baking soda as a refrigerator deodorizer. • An analysis of 26 products and 402 consumers showed that twice as many people learned about the new use from the package than from television ads.
  18. 18. 18 Putting It All Together • The entire set of brand elements makes up the brand identity, the contribution of all brand elements to awareness and image. • The cohesiveness of the brand identity depends on the extent to which the brand elements are consistent.
  19. 19. 19 Mix and Match the Brand Elements • Brand elements have their strengths and weaknesses. • Maximize their collective contribution to brand equity – Mix: Achievement of objectives – Match: Reinforcement of meaning • P. 178, Figure 4-11