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Languages
of the WORLD
Irma Nydia Villanueva Rivera
Every language is the
most important language
of the world - to its
speakers…
World POPULATION
• 7,000 millions
The numbers of languages in
the world
There are about 6,000 to 7,000
languages on earth today. Maybe more,
maybe fewer, it...
Facts
• Language existed long before writing.
• With the exception of the Sign Languages used
by the deaf, and written lan...
• It is remarkable that children seem to be
innately disposed to perceive the sounds of
language.
• Children are also inna...
Language HISTORY
• History of the English Language
• All languages change with time. A
comparison of Chaucer's English,
Shakespere's English and Modern
English shows how a l...
• English is a West Germanic language
with heavy influence from Old Norse,
Old French, and other Romance
languages. Englis...
THE LANGUAGE FAMILIES OF THE
WORLD
• A language family is a grouping of linguistically
linked languages, stemming from a common
ancestral mother-language cal...
Language Planisphere
The Amerind Family (South
America)
• The language map of South America
includes some of the North American sub-
families, ...
Amerind includes
nearly 600 languages,
with more than 20
million speakers
(North and South American
Indian languages).
TOP LANGUAGES
Most Widely Spoken Languages
in the World
• Mandarin Chinese tops the list of most
popular world languages, with over a
bi...
Language Number of speakers (Approx.)
• 1. Chinese (Mandarin) 1,213,000,000
• 2. Spanish 329,000,000
• 3. English 328,000,...
Distribution of languages by area
of origin (Part of the Ethnologue, 16th Edition,
M. Paul Lewis, Editor)
Area Living
lang...
Endangered languages
• 473 of the languages listed in the
Ethnologue are classified as nearly
extinct. They are classified...
Endangered languages
• The entries below give just the known
population information.
• Africa (46 total)
• The Americas (1...
Every other week, somewhere
on Earth, a language dies.
Why is it important that we
safeguard linguistic diversity?
What do...
A language is much more than a
means of communication; it is the
vector of a way of thinking, a
culture, the depository of...
The World's 10 most influential
Languages by George Weber
• The formula used to calculate the
importance of each language
A hierarchy
of lingua francas
Rise and fall of
major languages:
the historical
dimension.
The HISTORY of WRITING
The HISTORY of writing
• The transfer of more complex information,
ideas and concepts from one individual to
another, or t...
• The advent of a writing system, however, seems
to coincide with the transition from hunter-
gatherer societies to more p...
• Around 4100-3800 BCE, the tokens began to be
symbols that could be impressed or inscribed in
clay to represent a record ...
• For the next step toward the
development of an alphabet, we must go
to Egypt where picture writing had
developed sometim...
Writing systems
What is writing?
• Writing is a method of representing
language in visual or tactile form.
• Writing systems use sets of s...
• First text in Castilian
(X Century).
• Emilianenses Glosses
are small hand-
written annotations,
realized in several
lan...
Types of writing system
• Writing systems can be divided into two
main types: those that represent consonants
and vowels (...
• Abjads / Consonant Alphabets
-Abjads, or consonant alphabets, have
independent letters for consonants and may
indicate v...
• Alphabets
-Alphabets, or phonemic alphabets, are
sets of letters that represent consonants
and vowels.
• The ñ came originally from the letter n (nn became
ñ ).
• The ñ does not exist in Latin and is the only Spanish
letter o...
• Syllabic Alphabets / Abugidas
-Syllabic alphabets, alphasyllabaries or
abugidas are writing systems in which the
main el...
• Syllabaries
-A syllabary is a phonetic writing system
consisting of symbols representing syllables.
-A syllable is often...
• Semanto-phonetic writing systems
-The symbols used in semanto-phonetic
writing systems often represent both sound
and me...
• Undeciphered writing systems
-Writing systems that have yet to be
deciphered or have only been partially
deciphered.
Res...
 There is no such thing as one
language superior to another.
 The importance of a language
can not be measured. Cultures...
Created by Irma Nydia Villanueva-Rivera
Spanish Teacher, Puerto Rico Department of Education
spanishteacherpr@yahoo.com
ht...
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
Languages of the word
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Languages of the word

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Languages of the word

  1. 1. Languages of the WORLD Irma Nydia Villanueva Rivera
  2. 2. Every language is the most important language of the world - to its speakers…
  3. 3. World POPULATION • 7,000 millions
  4. 4. The numbers of languages in the world There are about 6,000 to 7,000 languages on earth today. Maybe more, maybe fewer, it depends on the way we count, on what we consider as a language, as a dialect… 3,000 about to be extinct
  5. 5. Facts • Language existed long before writing. • With the exception of the Sign Languages used by the deaf, and written languages, the languages with which most of us are familiar rely on the medium of sound. • For instance, children are explicitly taught to read and write sometime after they acquire a spoken language, and many cultures have never employed writing systems.
  6. 6. • It is remarkable that children seem to be innately disposed to perceive the sounds of language. • Children are also innately disposed towards producing speech sounds. • For spoken varieties of language, this includes the problem of control of the muscles of the vocal tract (lungs, throat, tongue, lips) responsible for making the sounds.
  7. 7. Language HISTORY • History of the English Language
  8. 8. • All languages change with time. A comparison of Chaucer's English, Shakespere's English and Modern English shows how a language can change over several hundred years. Modern English spoken in Britain, North America and Australia uses different words and grammar.
  9. 9. • English is a West Germanic language with heavy influence from Old Norse, Old French, and other Romance languages. English is widely spoken around the world due to previous British exploration and colonization and later American expansion and cultural influence, including the internet.
  10. 10. THE LANGUAGE FAMILIES OF THE WORLD
  11. 11. • A language family is a grouping of linguistically linked languages, stemming from a common ancestral mother-language called Protolanguage. • Most languages in the world belong to a specific family. Languages that have no demonstrable relation with others, and cannot be classified within a specific family, are generally known as language isolates. • Creole languages are the only ones to be neither isolates, nor members of a linguistic family. They form their own different type of languages.
  12. 12. Language Planisphere
  13. 13. The Amerind Family (South America) • The language map of South America includes some of the North American sub- families, and adds a few more. Well known languages include Quechua (Inca), Guarani, and Carib. The Andean language sub- family (which includes Quechua) numbers nearly nine million speakers.
  14. 14. Amerind includes nearly 600 languages, with more than 20 million speakers (North and South American Indian languages).
  15. 15. TOP LANGUAGES
  16. 16. Most Widely Spoken Languages in the World • Mandarin Chinese tops the list of most popular world languages, with over a billion speakers. 普通話
  17. 17. Language Number of speakers (Approx.) • 1. Chinese (Mandarin) 1,213,000,000 • 2. Spanish 329,000,000 • 3. English 328,000,000 • 4. Arabic 221,000,000 • 5. Hindi1 182,000,000 • 6. Bengali 181,000,000 • 7. Portuguese 178,000,000 • 8. Russian 144,000,000 • 9. Japanese 122,000,000 • 10. German 90,000,000 Source: Ethnologue, 16th Edition. 1. Encompasses multiple dialects.
  18. 18. Distribution of languages by area of origin (Part of the Ethnologue, 16th Edition, M. Paul Lewis, Editor) Area Living languages Number of speakers Count Percent Count Percent Mean Median Africa 2,110 30.5 726,453,403 12.2 344,291 25,200 Americas 993 14.4 50,496,321 0.8 50,852 2,300 Asia 2,322 33.6 3,622,771,264 60.8 1,560,194 11,100 Europe 234 3.4 1,553,360,941 26.1 6,638,295 201,500 Pacific 1,250 18.1 6,429,788 0.1 5,144 980 Totals 6,909 100.0 5,959,511,717 100.0 862,572 7,560
  19. 19. Endangered languages • 473 of the languages listed in the Ethnologue are classified as nearly extinct. They are classified in this way when "only a few elderly speakers are still living.”
  20. 20. Endangered languages • The entries below give just the known population information. • Africa (46 total) • The Americas (182 total) • Asia (84 total) • Europe (9 total) • The Pacific (152 total)
  21. 21. Every other week, somewhere on Earth, a language dies. Why is it important that we safeguard linguistic diversity? What do we lose when a language disappears?
  22. 22. A language is much more than a means of communication; it is the vector of a way of thinking, a culture, the depository of a people’s history, its mythology, its cosmogony, its music…It is not only words are lost when a language disappears, but an entire perception of the world.
  23. 23. The World's 10 most influential Languages by George Weber • The formula used to calculate the importance of each language
  24. 24. A hierarchy of lingua francas
  25. 25. Rise and fall of major languages: the historical dimension.
  26. 26. The HISTORY of WRITING
  27. 27. The HISTORY of writing • The transfer of more complex information, ideas and concepts from one individual to another, or to a group, was the single most advantageous evolutionary adaptation for species preservation. As long ago as 25,000- 30,000 years BP, humans were painting pictures on cave walls. Whether these pictures were telling a "story" or represented some type of "spirit house" or ritual exercise is not known.
  28. 28. • The advent of a writing system, however, seems to coincide with the transition from hunter- gatherer societies to more permanent agrarian encampments when it became necessary to count ones property, whether it be parcels of land, animals or measures of grain or to transfer that property to another individual or another settlement. We see the first evidence for this with incised "counting tokens" about 9,000 years ago in the neolithic fertile crescent.
  29. 29. • Around 4100-3800 BCE, the tokens began to be symbols that could be impressed or inscribed in clay to represent a record of land, grain or cattle and a written language was beginning to develop. One of the earliest examples was found in the excavations of Uruk in Mesopotamia at a level representing the time of the crystallization of the Sumerian culture. • Eventually, the pictographs were stylized, rotated and in impressed in clay with a wedge shaped stylus to become the script known as Cuneiform.
  30. 30. • For the next step toward the development of an alphabet, we must go to Egypt where picture writing had developed sometime near the end of the 4th millennium BC.
  31. 31. Writing systems
  32. 32. What is writing? • Writing is a method of representing language in visual or tactile form. • Writing systems use sets of symbols to represent the sounds of speech, and may also have symbols for such things as punctuation and numerals.
  33. 33. • First text in Castilian (X Century). • Emilianenses Glosses are small hand- written annotations, realized in several languages ( Latin, Romance and euskera medieval ), between lines or in the margins of some passages of the Latin codex . Example: SPANISH
  34. 34. Types of writing system • Writing systems can be divided into two main types: those that represent consonants and vowels (alphabets), and those which represent syllables (syllabaries), though some do both. There are a number of subdivisions of each type, and there are different classifications of writing systems in different sources.
  35. 35. • Abjads / Consonant Alphabets -Abjads, or consonant alphabets, have independent letters for consonants and may indicate vowels using some of the consonant letters and/or with diacritics. -Semitic languages
  36. 36. • Alphabets -Alphabets, or phonemic alphabets, are sets of letters that represent consonants and vowels.
  37. 37. • The ñ came originally from the letter n (nn became ñ ). • The ñ does not exist in Latin and is the only Spanish letter of Spanish origins. • English uses "gn," such as in "signal" and "campaign,“. • Has been copied by two other languages: Basque and Galician (vascuense y gallego).
  38. 38. • Syllabic Alphabets / Abugidas -Syllabic alphabets, alphasyllabaries or abugidas are writing systems in which the main element is the syllable. -Syllables are built up of consonants, each of which has an inherent vowel, e.g. ka, kha, ga, gha.
  39. 39. • Syllabaries -A syllabary is a phonetic writing system consisting of symbols representing syllables. -A syllable is often made up of a consonant plus a vowel or a single vowel. -Japanese
  40. 40. • Semanto-phonetic writing systems -The symbols used in semanto-phonetic writing systems often represent both sound and meaning. As a result, such scripts generally include a large number of symbols: anything from several hundred to tens of thousands. -Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic and Chinese
  41. 41. • Undeciphered writing systems -Writing systems that have yet to be deciphered or have only been partially deciphered. Resourse: Omniglot
  42. 42.  There is no such thing as one language superior to another.  The importance of a language can not be measured. Cultures can not also be measured.  The Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is not either better or worse than the Spanish spoken in Spain or Bolivia.  The English spoken in England is not superior than the English spoken in Belice. Things to remember
  43. 43. Created by Irma Nydia Villanueva-Rivera Spanish Teacher, Puerto Rico Department of Education spanishteacherpr@yahoo.com http://irmavillanuevarivera.wordpress.com http://lenguajelenguayhabla.blogspot.com

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