Water Treatement Presentation


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Water Treatement Presentation

  1. 1. Isaure de Zélicourt
  2. 3. <ul><li>little organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Highly poisonous </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogens: deform unborn foetus </li></ul><ul><li>S mall quantities: wood burned </li></ul><ul><li>Large quantities: waste incineration plants </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically stable = remain for a long time in the environment </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>2 benzene rings joined by two ether links </li></ul>Cl Cl Cl Cl O O
  4. 5. <ul><li>Hard to degrade in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Found in polluted water </li></ul><ul><li>Find their way into the food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulate in the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Used for transformers </li></ul>
  5. 6. Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl
  6. 7. <ul><li>Uncontrolled use of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltrates the ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides and insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>Enters the food chain </li></ul><ul><li>DDT: on type of pesticides that attacks the nervous system of insects and kills them right away </li></ul>
  7. 8. Despite consequences on the environment, it saved millions of lives as it is sprayed over areas suffering of malaria CCl 3 Cl H C Cl
  8. 9. <ul><li>Copper, Cadmium, Mercury, Zinc, Chromium. </li></ul><ul><li>Either compound or elemental form </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>toxic at high levels, especially to babies because they have less stomach acid than adults, can cause blue baby syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Blue baby syndrome: decreased oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin  in babies leading to death </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li> Bar screens remove large objects and debris from the surface of the water and remove floating solids. </li></ul><ul><li> Grit chambers are used to settle out sand, grit, and small objects from the water; these particles are then sent to landfills. </li></ul><ul><li> Sedimentation tanks : Alum Ca(OH) 2 and Al2(SO4) 3 precipitates out and carry with them solid suspended particles </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Activated sludge process: </li></ul><ul><li> Air is bubbled into sewage which has been mixed with bacteria-laden sludge. </li></ul><ul><li> Aerobic bacteria oxidize organic material in the sewage. </li></ul><ul><li> Water-containing decomposed suspended particles are passed through the sedimentation tanks where the activated sludge is collected. </li></ul><ul><li> Some of the sludge is recycled, and some is sent to landfills. </li></ul><ul><li> Removes 90% of organic oxygen-demanding waste, 50% of nitrogen, and 30% of phosphates </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Charcoal filtering: </li></ul><ul><li>- removes organic pollutants through absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>- Filter can be regenerated by using heat to drive off organics </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation : </li></ul><ul><li>- get rid of heavy metal ions or phosphate ions </li></ul><ul><li>- ions are added </li></ul><ul><li>- forms insoluble precipitates with phosphate anions or metal cations </li></ul><ul><li>- solids can then be filtered out </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Desalination is not easy and is expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done by reverse osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Osmosis is found in biological systems </li></ul><ul><li>Osmosis: if two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane, then any solvent will move across that membrane towards the side of higher solute concentration </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>if two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane, then any solvent will move across that membrane towards the side of higher solute concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, water will move to dilute a salty solution </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>This is the last thing you want if your aim is fresh water! </li></ul>Seawater Fresh water Diluted Seawater
  16. 19. Sea water Fresh water Concentrated sea water More fresh water <ul><li>Salty solution put under high pressure </li></ul><ul><li>pressure pushes the water molecules into the fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>initial solution is left more concentrated </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Distillation: the process that allows the sepatation of a volatile liquid (ex. water) from a non-volatile material (ex. Salt) </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Grit Chamber: Tank in which the flow of wastewater is slowed, allowing heavy solid materials such as pebbles, sand, coffee grounds and eggshells to sink to the bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentation: a physical water treatment process used to settle out suspended solids in water under the influence of gravity. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>http://images.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ryanprocess.com/images/bar_screen.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.ryanprocess.com/bar_screens.html&usg=__ZHdRLWCrIY9TBO4K8Vvpq9ugn14=&h=271&w=195&sz=4&hl=de&start=3&um=1&tbnid=m9RTWonwdDs0RM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=81&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbar%2Bscreens%26hl%3Dde%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.sandiego.gov/mwwd/kids/graphics/grit.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.sandiego.gov/mwwd/kids/learnit/dirtywords.shtml&usg=__ThSJbCWnDPaHA6VWnYYKerGHOQo=&h=105&w=140&sz=8&hl=de&start=9&um=1&tbnid=evqdd0r1E7O_yM:&tbnh=70&tbnw=93&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgrit%2Bchamber%26hl%3Dde%26um%3D1 </li></ul><ul><li>IB chemistry course companion </li></ul><ul><li>IB chemistry Option E study guide </li></ul>