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Berbahasa untuk Bernalar

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Ini naskah powerpoint saya di seminar ”Bahasa Indonesia Sebagai Bahasa Ilmiah” yang diadakan di Bukittinggi, 1-3 November 2013 oleh Komisi Ilmu Sosial AIPI.

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Berbahasa untuk Bernalar

  1. 1. BERBAHASA UNTUK BERNALAR Iwan Pranoto Bukittinggi 2 November 2013 @iwanpranoto © 2013
  2. 2. @iwanpranoto © 2013
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  4. 4. Menulis Harus Membaca Membaca Menulis Apakah siswa Indonesia pernah mengalami membaca tulisan yang indah? @iwanpranoto © 2013
  5. 5. PIRLS 2011: Kecakapan Membaca Progress in International Reading Literacy Study @iwanpranoto © 2013
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  7. 7. PIRLS Scale • 625 • Integrate ideas and information across texts to provide reasons and explanations. Advanced International Benchmark • 550 • Make inferences and interpretations with text-based support. High International Benchmark • 475 • Make straightforward inferences. Intermediate International Benchmark • 400 • Locate and retrieve information from different parts of the text. Low International Benchmark @iwanpranoto © 2013
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  14. 14. Low International Benchmark @iwanpranoto © 2013
  15. 15. Intermediate International Benchmark @iwanpranoto © 2013
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  18. 18. Kecakapan Menulis (dan Membaca) Hanya guru Bahasa Indonesia kah yang berhak dan efektif membelajarkan kecakapan menulis (dan membaca)? @iwanpranoto © 2013
  19. 19. Prinsip Belajar Menulis Menulis untuk Belajar @iwanpranoto © 2013
  20. 20. Berpikir dan Berbahasa Aktif Berpikir & Belajar Menulis & Berbicara @iwanpranoto © 2013
  21. 21. Definisi “Menulis dalam Lintas Kurikulum” We define writing across the curriculum as a means to connect writing to learning in all content areas. We define writing as the process through which students think on paper, explore ideas, raise questions, attempt solutions, uncover processes, build and defend arguments, brainstorm, introspect, and figure out what’s going on. We define all of these as thinking. Writing to learn across the curriculum provides a potent way for students to exercise their own voices as well as to take on new voices which represent their knowledge of the content and the language of the discipline they are learning (Lester, et. al, 2000, p.4). @iwanpranoto © 2013
  22. 22. Guna Menulis Mendorong berpikir yang lebih canggih @iwanpranoto © 2013
  23. 23. Writing/SpeakingAssignment Continuum Informal – Writing/Speaking to Learn (Low Stakes) Assesses informally Freewrites Group work Lab Notes Group discussion Field interviews/notes Journal entries Pair-and-share 1-minute paper Oral summaries Group informal reports Abstract/Summaries Position statements Unrevised analyses “Microthemes” Poster sessions Formal – Learning to Write/Speak (High Stakes) Assessed Formally Term papers Presentations Interviews Lab reports Oral/essay exams Documented papers Group oral reports @iwanpranoto © 2013
  24. 24. Writing Assignment Tuliskan sebuah … • Surat • Paragraf • Pidato • Catatan • dialog dari… • siswa • Mahluk luar angkasa • rekayasawan • wartawan • matematikawan untuk … • Orangtua • Direktur LIPI • Presiden • Kepala Sekolah • Walikota tentang … • Menyelesaikan persamaan aljabar • Penerapan geometri dalam kehidupan nyata • dsb. An Adaptation from Fulton, B. and Lombard, B., The Language of Math: Helping Students Speak, Write, and Think Mathematically, 2003 @iwanpranoto © 2013
  25. 25. Write a (format) from (voice) to (audience) about (specific topic) Format • note • paragraph • song • list • dialogue • speech • poem • instruction Voice • teacher • younger student • older student • alien • architect • parent • news reporter Audience • younger student • alien • the President • employee • customer • boss • teacher @iwanpranoto © 2013
  26. 26. Bahasa alamiah dan teknis Setengah dari selisih dua bilangan adalah 14. Jumlahnya 70. Tentukan dua bilangan itu.
  27. 27. Paradoks dalam Penugasan Semakin pendek tugas menulis yang diberikan ke murid, semakin mendalam pula pemikiran yang dilakukan. Semakin tak standar tugas yang diberikan ke murid, semakin besar kemungkinan mereka tidak plagiat. @iwanpranoto © 2013
  28. 28. PEMBELAJARAN BERBANTUAN INTERNET @iwanpranoto © 2013
  29. 29. Perbendaharaan Kata Teknis Matematika Belajar matematika mirip dengan belajar bahasa asing Kata di matematika, walau tampaknya kata sehari-hari, tetapi punya makna sendiri Misalnya, kata “antara” di geometri sangat khusus maknanya. Titik B di antara titik A dan C artinya tiga titik itu segaris Rumus di matematika dapat dan harus diartikulasikan dalam bahasa alamiah, dan sebaliknya @iwanpranoto © 2013
  30. 30. Menyulitkan Plagiarisme • Kumpulkan banyak tulisan informal murid, sehingga mereka sadar bahwa kita tahu gaya menulis atau bicara mereka • Tugaskan topik spesifik untuk jenis tugas yang mau dinilai. Misalnya, “Terapkan Teori X pada data berikut”; “Ungkapkan reaksimu terhadap gagasan Z dan selanjutnya buatlah … “; “Tulislah sebuah esai 500 kata yang merefleksikan apa yang disampaikan di Buku X pada halaman 314-316”; “Tuliskan sebuah cerita yang mengilustrasikan penggunaan Teori Nilai Rata-rata Turunan.” • Jika jumlah murid banyak, buatlah beberapa kelompok dengan tugas berbeda tiap kelompok. @iwanpranoto © 2013
  31. 31. Pertanyaan “Nakal” di Kelas Mengapa -1 kali -1 hasilnya +1? Bagaimana Newton akan berpikir seandainya dia tahu sekarang kalkulus dipelajari di SMA? Dalam buku sejarah, kebenaran menurut siapakah yang diikuti? Menurutmu, siapa yang pantas disebut pahlawan? @iwanpranoto © 2013
  32. 32. @iwanpranoto pakiwan.com TERIMA KASIH @iwanpranoto © 2013

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