2. Welfare’s Programs• Many smallergovernment-assistanceprogramsE.g.: SpecialSupplemental FoodProgram for Women,Infants and Children[WIC]; generalassistance [GA]…
2.1. TANF• Originated from the Aid toDependent Children (ADP)program in the SocialSecurity Act of 1935• 1950s and 1960s :renamedto the program Aid toFamilies with DependentChildren(AFDC)• 1996: replaced to TANF
2.1 TANF=>TANF cemented the primary emphasis ongetting welfare recipients into jobs.
III. Qualifications of receivingWelfare1. Requirements for residents2. Requirements for families3. Work requirements
1. Requirements for residents• Must first be a citizen ofthe US• Legal immigrants for atleast five years• Exception for refugeeswho have dependentchildren under 18.
2. Requirements for families• Families with minor childrenliving at home, not singlepeople• Pregnant mothers in their lastthree months• Relatives with whom thechildren are living, even ifthey are not the childrensparents
3. Work requirements• TANF benefits => work activities• Single parents families >= 20 hours/week• Two-parent families: >= 35 hours/week• Single parents (have children < 6 years) : free• Teenage parents: attend school or job training
IV. Achievements of the US Welfare1. Benefits of welfare to economy2. Remarkable achievements to society
1.Benefits of welfare to economy• Government-providedbenefits: completed byoccupational pension.=> Total yearly percapita disposableincome of retirees: notdiffer much.
1.Benefits of welfare to economy• Less substitution: public and privateprovision (no government-operatedsystem)
1.Benefits of welfare to economyChart 1: U.S. national health expenditure (NHE)as a share of gross domestic product (GDP)and private and public shares of NHE,selected years 1965–2015.
1.Benefits of welfare to economy=> Government transfer systems(including social insurance) have reducedthe scatter of the distribution of yearlydisposable income.
2. Remarkable Social WelfareAchievementsThe 1996 Social Welfare Reform
The 1996 Social Welfare reform• In 1996: the "PersonalResponsibility and WorkOpportunity ReconciliationAct of 1996." law• President Bill Clintontriumphantly declaredthese reforms would “endwelfare as we know it”
The 1996 Social Welfare Reform• Reform’s goal: moving current and potentialwelfare recipients into the labor force• Establish “family caps”
The 1996 Social Welfare Reform• The replacement of the oldAid to Families withDependent Children (AFDC)program with the TemporaryAssistance for NeedyFamilies (TANF)• Emphasis on work, timelimits, and sanctions againststates• Strong decline in thecaseloads since the 1996reforms
The 1996 Social Welfare Reform• The number of familiesreceiving cash welfareis now the lowest it hasbeen since 1969• The percentage of childrenon welfare is lower than ithas been since 1966
The 1996 Social Welfare Reform=>• The American are in a new era of welfareuse.• The historic Welfare Reform in 1996 laidthe foundations for the later welfarereforms in America.
Discussion Questions1. Name the basic Welfare’s programs?2. Which is the most remarkableachievement of the Social Welfare?