Is the process by which activates are started, directed,
and continued so that physical or psychological needs
or wants are met.
Comes from the Latin word movere which means “to
Motivation is what “moves” people to do the things
Intrinsic – actions are rewarding or satisfying in and
Participating in a sport because you find the activity
Solving a word puzzle because you find the challenge
fun and interesting
Playing a game because you find it exciting
Extrinsic – actions are performed because they lead
some sort of external outcome
Studying because you want to get a good grade
Cleaning your room to avoid being reprimanded by your
Participating in a sport in order to win awards
Competing in a contest in order to win a scholarship
the person's behavior is motivated by an internal
desire to participate in an activity for its own sake.
the behavior is motivated by a desire to gain a
reward or avoid a negative outcome.
1. Instinct – the biologically determined and innate
patterns of bahavior that exist in both people and
Example: The animal world is seasonal migration. These
animals do not learn to do this, it is instead an
inborn pattern of behavior.
-an innate, typically fixed pattern of behaviour in animals in response
to certain stimuli
- Many scientists believed that human beings are both with patterns of
behaviour that are biologically determined than learned
- Opinions range from 18 to 5759 instincts
- Proponents of this approach have identified and described wide
variety of instincts, but did have successfully explained the logic that
coincides with the behaviour
- “fixed action pattern” – a very short to medium length sequence of
Instinctive-performed without being based upon prior experience
Instinct approach examples:
Spider making web
Sea turtles newly hatched will automatically move toward the ocean
Focuses on the concepts of needs and drives
Need - a requirement of some material (such as food or
water) that is essential for survival of the organism.
Drive - a physiological tension and physical arousal arising
when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in
order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.
primary drives – those drives that involve needs of the
body such as hunger and thirst
secondary drives – those are learned through experience
or conditioning, such as the need for money or social
This theory also includes the concept of homeostasis,
or the tendency of the to maintain a steady state
If Lara’s body needs food, she feels hunger and the
state of tension /arousal associated with that need.
She will then seek to restore her homeostasis by eating
something, which is the behavior stimulated to reduce
the hunger drive.
– approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from
physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the
organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and
Example: You need to drink a glass of water in order to
reduce the internal state of thirst.
The problem of this theory, these behaviors are not always
motivated purely by physiological needs.
Example: People often eat even they are not really hungry.
– have been highlightened in some theories :
need for achievement,
need for affiliation,
need of power.
Three types of needs
Need of Achievement
Need of Affiliation
Need of Power
How to Succeed by Excelling
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-the needa strong desire in
With the Most Toys Wins
-involves for friendly social
interactions goals, not only or
- attaining and relationships
The need to have control
with over others.
realistic ones but also
Stimulus motive – a motive that appears to be unlearned
but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity .
Theory of motivation in which people are said to have an
optional (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to
maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.
-need for stimulation
- arousal theory suggests people have an optimal level of
tension that they work to maintain
- a moderate level is most commonly sought, but that level
can range from low to high (sensation seeking)
things that attract or lure people into action, most
often due to rewarding properties.
Motivated to go work each day for the monetary
reward of being paid.
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs
-beginning with the
basic physiological needs and
ending with transcendence needs
-the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by
Expression which can be seen by others
Actions by the body( physical arousal)
-is either positive and negative
When a person experiences an emotion, an arousal is
created by the sympathetic nervous system.
Facial expression do differ between various emotional
responses. Emotions are difficult to distinguish from
one another on the basis of outward bodily reactions.
Which parts of the brain are involved in various
aspects of emotions?
amygdala – a small area located within the limbic
system on the side of the brain, is associated with fear
in both humans and animals.
Primary Emotion- are one triggered in response to an
Secondary Emotion- if we experience fear, the secondary
emotion would be; feel threatened or feel angry, depending
on the situation we are experiencing
Negative Emotion - keep your energy and undermine
your effectiveness; lack of desire to do anything.
Positive Emotion- that lead one to feel good about
one’s self will lead to an emotionally happy and
How do people behave when in the grip of an
- there are facial expressions, body movements and
actions that indicate to others how a person feels.
Facial Expression can vary across different cultures,
although some aspects of facial expression seem to be
Charles Darwin-was one of the first to theorize that
emotions were a product of evolution and, therefore,
Are learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in
Giving it a label: anger, disgust, sadness, happiness,
and so on.
Also called as “ cognitive element”, because the
labelling process is a matter of retrieving memories of
previous similar experiences, perceiving the context of
the emotion, and coming up with a solution- a label.
Weather affects or emotion
Is the main factor that affects how
-gender is the best way to
-plays a central role insometimes
because our emotion depending
Itemotions are experienced
recognizeour emotion reactand
It affectsemotionsyou interpret
the way and
depends on the weather on
on what communicated
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are dealing with.
Common Sense View
When you become happy, your heart starts beating
faster. First emotion, then physiological activity
In the stimulus sense of emotion, a stimulus (snarling
dog) leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to
body arousal( in this case, indicated by shaking)
through the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
“ I’m shaking because I’m afraid”
by William James and Carl Lange
Earliest theory of emotion
Proposed idea that challenge common sense about
emotion in 1980’s
In this theory, a stimulus of sort (for example, the
large snarling dog) produces a physiological
reaction. This reaction, which is the arousal of the
“fight-or-flight” sympathetic nervous system
(wanting to run), produces bodily sensations such
as increased heart rate, dry mouth, and rapid
By Walter Cannon and Philip Bard
The emotion and the physiological arousal occur more
or less at the same time.
The fear and the bodily reaction are, therefore,
experienced at the same time- not one after the other.
Proposed that two things have to happen before the
emotion occurs: the physical arousal and a labeling of
the arousal based on cues from the surrounding
environment. These two things happen at the same
time, resulting in the labeling of the emotion .
Theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions
provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion
being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies
ANS arousal in
of face motions
In this theory, the most important aspect of any
emotional experience is how the person interprets,
or appraises, the stimulus that causes the emotional
a stimulus causes an immediate appraisal( e.g., "The
dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is
dangerous”). The cognitive appraisal results in an
emotional response, which is then followed by the
appropriate bodily response.