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Motivation and Emotion. Chapter 13


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Motivation and Emotion. Chapter 13

  1. 1. Chapter 13
  2. 2.  Is the process by which activates are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.  Comes from the Latin word movere which means “to move”  Motivation is what “moves” people to do the things they do
  3. 3.  Intrinsic – actions are rewarding or satisfying in and of themselves Examples: Participating in a sport because you find the activity enjoyable Solving a word puzzle because you find the challenge fun and interesting Playing a game because you find it exciting .
  4. 4.  Extrinsic – actions are performed because they lead some sort of external outcome Examples: Studying because you want to get a good grade Cleaning your room to avoid being reprimanded by your parents Participating in a sport in order to win awards Competing in a contest in order to win a scholarship
  5. 5.  Intrinsic the person's behavior is motivated by an internal desire to participate in an activity for its own sake.  Extrinsic the behavior is motivated by a desire to gain a reward or avoid a negative outcome.
  7. 7. 1. Instinct – the biologically determined and innate patterns of bahavior that exist in both people and animals Example: The animal world is seasonal migration. These animals do not learn to do this, it is instead an inborn pattern of behavior.
  8. 8.  -an innate, typically fixed pattern of behaviour in animals in response to certain stimuli  - Many scientists believed that human beings are both with patterns of behaviour that are biologically determined than learned  - Opinions range from 18 to 5759 instincts  - Proponents of this approach have identified and described wide variety of instincts, but did have successfully explained the logic that coincides with the behaviour  - “fixed action pattern” – a very short to medium length sequence of actions  Instinctive-performed without being based upon prior experience Instinct approach examples:  Bird migration  Spider making web  Sea turtles newly hatched will automatically move toward the ocean
  9. 9.  Focuses on the concepts of needs and drives Need - a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism. Drive - a physiological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension. primary drives – those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst secondary drives – those are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval
  10. 10.  This theory also includes the concept of homeostasis, or the tendency of the to maintain a steady state Example : If Lara’s body needs food, she feels hunger and the state of tension /arousal associated with that need. She will then seek to restore her homeostasis by eating something, which is the behavior stimulated to reduce the hunger drive.
  11. 11. – approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. Example: You need to drink a glass of water in order to reduce the internal state of thirst. The problem of this theory, these behaviors are not always motivated purely by physiological needs. Example: People often eat even they are not really hungry.
  12. 12. – have been highlightened in some theories : need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need of power.
  13. 13.  Three types of needs 1. Need of Achievement 2. Need of Affiliation 3. Need of Power How to Succeed by Excelling (nPow): Everything:Rules (nAff):Popularity at The One Who Dies -the needa strong desire in With the Most Toys Wins -involves for friendly social interactions goals, not only or - attaining and relationships The need to have control influenceothers. with over others. realistic ones but also challenging ones.
  14. 14.  Stimulus motive – a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity .  Theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optional (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation. -need for stimulation - arousal theory suggests people have an optimal level of tension that they work to maintain - a moderate level is most commonly sought, but that level can range from low to high (sensation seeking)
  15. 15.  things that attract or lure people into action, most often due to rewarding properties. Example: Motivated to go work each day for the monetary reward of being paid.
  16. 16.  Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Pyramid -beginning with the basic physiological needs and ending with transcendence needs
  17. 17. Chapter 8
  18. 18. -the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by three elements:  Conscious experience(feeling)  Expression which can be seen by others  Actions by the body( physical arousal) -is either positive and negative -affects behavior
  19. 19.  When a person experiences an emotion, an arousal is created by the sympathetic nervous system.  Facial expression do differ between various emotional responses. Emotions are difficult to distinguish from one another on the basis of outward bodily reactions.  Which parts of the brain are involved in various aspects of emotions? amygdala – a small area located within the limbic system on the side of the brain, is associated with fear in both humans and animals.
  20. 20.  Primary Emotion- are one triggered in response to an event love joy anger sad surprise fear  Secondary Emotion- if we experience fear, the secondary emotion would be; feel threatened or feel angry, depending on the situation we are experiencing passion disgust shame irritation nervousness
  21. 21. Negative Emotion - keep your energy and undermine your effectiveness; lack of desire to do anything. *exhausted *obnoxious *panic Positive Emotion- that lead one to feel good about one’s self will lead to an emotionally happy and satisfied result. *hopeful *confident *peaceful
  22. 22.  How do people behave when in the grip of an emotion? - there are facial expressions, body movements and actions that indicate to others how a person feels.  Facial Expression can vary across different cultures, although some aspects of facial expression seem to be universal.  Charles Darwin-was one of the first to theorize that emotions were a product of evolution and, therefore, universal.
  23. 23.  Are learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social setting.
  24. 24.  Giving it a label: anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, and so on.  Also called as “ cognitive element”, because the labelling process is a matter of retrieving memories of previous similar experiences, perceiving the context of the emotion, and coming up with a solution- a label.
  25. 25.  Personality Culture  Gender  Weather Weather affects or emotion Is the main factor that affects how -gender is the best way to -plays a central role insometimes because our emotion depending emotional Itemotions are experienced affects recognizeour emotion reactand It affectsemotionsyou interpret the way and depends on the weather on expression on what communicated kind them of environment we things. are dealing with.  Stress  Environment source:
  26. 26.  Common Sense View  When you become happy, your heart starts beating faster. First emotion, then physiological activity  In the stimulus sense of emotion, a stimulus (snarling dog) leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to body arousal( in this case, indicated by shaking) through the autonomic nervous system (ANS) “ I’m shaking because I’m afraid” Stimulus: First response: Snarling dog Conscious fear Second response: ANS arousal
  27. 27.  by William James and Carl Lange  Earliest theory of emotion  Proposed idea that challenge common sense about emotion in 1980’s  In this theory, a stimulus of sort (for example, the large snarling dog) produces a physiological reaction. This reaction, which is the arousal of the “fight-or-flight” sympathetic nervous system (wanting to run), produces bodily sensations such as increased heart rate, dry mouth, and rapid breathing.
  28. 28.  By Walter Cannon and Philip Bard  The emotion and the physiological arousal occur more or less at the same time.  The fear and the bodily reaction are, therefore, experienced at the same time- not one after the other.
  29. 29.  Proposed that two things have to happen before the emotion occurs: the physical arousal and a labeling of the arousal based on cues from the surrounding environment. These two things happen at the same time, resulting in the labeling of the emotion .
  30. 30.  Theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion. Stimulus: Snarling dog First response: First response: ANS arousal in face Facial expression Cognition interpretation of face motions Second response: FEAR
  31. 31.  In this theory, the most important aspect of any emotional experience is how the person interprets, or appraises, the stimulus that causes the emotional reactions.  a stimulus causes an immediate appraisal( e.g., "The dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous”). The cognitive appraisal results in an emotional response, which is then followed by the appropriate bodily response.
  32. 32. Stimulus: Snarling dog First response: Appraisal of threat FEAR Second response: Bodily response
  33. 33.  theories-of-motivation.htm