Jean piaget’s theory by xhang[ping


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Jean piaget’s theory by xhang[ping

  1. 1. Cognitive Development JEAN PIAGET’S THEORY
  2. 2. Piaget's Theory Differs From Others In Several Ways:  It is concerned with children, rather than all learners.  It focuses on development, rather than learning parse, so it does not address learning of information or specific behaviours.  It proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences, rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviours, concepts, ideas, etc.
  3. 3. How did Piaget develop his theory?  He was interested both in how children learnt and in how they thought  Piaget studied children from infancy to adolescence, and carried out many of his own investigations using his three children.
  4. 4. Why Cognitive Development?  Development is therefore biologically based and changes as the child matures  Cognition therefore develops in all children in the same sequence of stages.  Cognitive Development is the emergence of the ability to think and understand.
  5. 5. Stages of Cognitive Development 0-2 yrs. old 2-7 yrs. old 7-11 yrs. old 11- adult • Sensorimotor stage • Preoperational stage • Concrete stage • Formal stage  Piaget believed that these stages are universal - i.e. that the same sequence of development occurs in children all over the world, whatever their culture.
  6. 6. 10-2 yrs. • infants begin to realize that an object exists even if it can no longer be seen. This important milestone -- known as object permanence -- is a sign that memory is developing. • infants start crawling, standing, and walking, their increased physical mobility leads to increased cognitive development. • infants reach another important milestone -- early language development, a sign that they are developing some symbolic abilities. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE 0- 2 yrs. old • During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment. • Infants are using their senses to explore or to know the world
  7. 7. PREOPERATIONAL STAGE 2-7 yrs. old During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-believe. But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison.
  8. 8. CONCRETE STAGE (7-11 yrs. ) At this time, elementary-age and preadolescent children demonstrate logical, concrete reasoning. Children's thinking becomes less egocentric and they are increasingly aware of external events. They begin to realize that one's own thoughts and feelings are unique and may not be shared by others or may not even be part of reality. Children also develop operational thinking -- the ability to perform reversible mental actions. During this stage, however, most children still can't tackle a problem with several variables in a systematic way.
  9. 9. • Adolescents who reach this fourth stage of intellectual development are able to FORMAL STAGE 11- adult logically use symbols related to abstract concepts, such as algebra and science. They can think about multiple variables in systematic ways, formulate hypotheses, and consider possibilities. They also can ponder abstract relationships and concepts such as justice. • Although Piaget believed in lifelong intellectual development, he insisted that the formal operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development, and that continued intellectual development in adults depends on the accumulation of knowledge.
  10. 10. Moral Development LAWRENCE KOHLBERG
  11. 11. Lawrence Kohlberg  he agreed with Piaget’s theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further  Kohlberg told several dilemma stories and asked many such questions to discover how people reasoned about moral issues.  By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions ,Kohlberg hoped to discover the ways in which moral reasoning changed as people grew.
  13. 13. Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions.  • Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished they must have done wrong.  • Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.
  14. 14. Level 2 - Conventional morality Authority is internalized but not questioned and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.  Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships. The child/individual is good in order to be seen as being a good person by others. Therefore, answers are related to the approval of others.  Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order. The child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society so judgments concern obeying rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt.
  15. 15. Level 3 Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice.  Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. The child/individual becomes aware that while rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals. The issues are not always clear cut. For example, in Heinz’s dilemma the protection of life is more important than breaking the law against stealing.  • Stage 6: Universal Principles. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone. E.g. human rights, justice and equality. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment. Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage.
  16. 16. REFERENCE:  tml