Inside the cell


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types of cells

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Inside the cell

  1. 1. Inside the Cell <ul><li>Types of Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Structures and Functions </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is a cell? <ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest unit that can carry out functions of living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Small organs” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cells must be small <ul><li>Surface area to volume ratio is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>SA must be large compared to the volume or cell will not survive </li></ul><ul><li>Can not take in or get rid of materials fast enough if there is not enough surface area </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Very simple </li></ul><ul><li>All are single celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Bacteria, and only bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>No Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane-bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Single celled and multi-cellular organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Plant, animal, and fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane bound organelles </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Prokaryotes have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Very primitive </li></ul><ul><li>Origin: 3.5 BYA </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prokaryotic Cell pili nucleoid ribosome flagella
  7. 8. What do ALL cells have in common? <ul><li>Cell membrane (aka plasma membrane) </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material (DNA or RNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes (produce proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul>
  8. 9. Cell Membrane <ul><li>A selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer that forms a barrier between the cell and its environment </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a security fence </li></ul>
  9. 10. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Liquid substance that all chemical reactions of life take place in </li></ul><ul><li>Has dissolved ions, macromolecules </li></ul><ul><li>Fills in around the organelles of the cell </li></ul>
  10. 11. Genetic Material <ul><li>DNA is found as either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organized chromosomes (eukaryotes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single, loosely packed chromosome (prokaryotes) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Ribosomes <ul><li>Two-piece protein-based organelle that makes proteins in both major types of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Varies structurally in prokaryotes and eukaryotes </li></ul>
  12. 13. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleus <ul><li>Contains cell’s genetic material in form of chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Controls most of cell activities </li></ul><ul><li>Site of transcription (1st step in protein synthesis) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Nucleolus <ul><li>Smaller, dark body inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for ribosome synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis : to make or produce </li></ul>
  14. 15. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Golgi Body <ul><li>Part of endomembrane system </li></ul><ul><li>Packages and exports cell chemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Works with ER and cell membrane to receive and deliver cell chemicals. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: ER <ul><li>ER =Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER : no ribosomes, synthesizes lipids, detoxifies substances </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER : studded with ribosomes, modifies and transports proteins inside cell </li></ul>
  16. 18. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Mitochondria <ul><li>Converts glucose into ATP during cell respiration (makes energy for the cell) </li></ul><ul><li>Is thought to have been primitive prokaryote because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has own DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does its own cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly folded inner membrane </li></ul>
  17. 19. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Chloroplast <ul><li>Found in plant cells and some protists </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for converting carbon dioxide and water into glucose during photosynthesis (makes energy) </li></ul>
  18. 20. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Lysosome <ul><li>Vesicle that comes off of Golgi body containing digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for digestion of old, worn out cell parts and cells </li></ul><ul><li>Also digests nutrients </li></ul>
  19. 21. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Vacuole <ul><li>Small ones in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Large ones found in plant cells, stores water to maintain pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Can accumulate wastes, pigments in plant cells </li></ul>
  20. 22. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Centriole <ul><li>Found only in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of microtubules in triplet arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Organizes microtubules that attach to chromosomes during cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Provides structure in some cells </li></ul>
  21. 23. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles: Cilia/Flagella <ul><li>Cilia : short hairlike projections used in cellular movement </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella : whiplike projection used in cellular movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure in prokaryotes is slightly different </li></ul></ul>