Top down approach. Have folders first, and then categorize files into folders.
In stead of categorizing them, you add annotations to these resources. Organizing digital materials your own way, rather than relying on pre-existing formats. Bottom-up approach.
What you see is people’s desktop is overwhelmingly busy… many files stored on desktop. Why is categorization hard? That’s something we do in everyday life? In the digital world, we don’t just categorize an object, we also optimize its future findability. We need to consider not just the most likely category, but also where we are most likely to look for the item at the time of finding. We are worried about the cost. Also categorization is usually a one-time thing- there are no second chances in categorizing digital objects. Think about the cost associated with creating a new category… Limited personalization: hesitate to create another folder on the computer. “I need to put more stuff into this folder to make this a folder!” Taging: Tagging eliminates the decision-making process. You don’t need to fully process the picture, or article, or video, because you can attach multiple keywords to describe it. More information-&gt; Enhanced findability. The enhanced findability is also because it’s personalized. I might want to say, this is a paper that Danco sent to me, and that cue is salient and memorable for me, so I’ll tag it that way. For other people, locations might be the cue! Geotagging….
besides personal information management, we also see tagging is used for sharing information. This is probably a even better use of it. Today, a large number of diverse applications exist that allow users to tag their documents. Del.icio.us, for example, enables users to organize their bookmarks and tag them accordingly. Flickr allows users to tag pictures and YouTube enables content creators to assign tags to videos in order to facilitate retrieval. While these systems have increasingly become an object of research for web scientists, little is known about these systems, for example how and why they are used, how behavior on a micro level propagates to phenomenon on the macro level, or we can simulate the dynamics of tagging systemâ€™s evolution.
Risk of allowing anyone to tag: variable quality, weak colication of similar items Too much organizing means no organizing.
People have different ways to retrieve information. Allow them to.
the algorithm to generate the clouds is just the same in some way, you could say that those &quot;big&quot; words in the word cloud are tags of the article, but it’s based on the word count. However tagging… is about personal interpretation about one article.
addressing the problem of creating difficult metadata. The idea behind the game is to use the computational power of humans to perform a task that computers cannot yet do (originally, image recognition)
• Tagging is the process of annotating resources with
user-generated keywords or terms in order to enable
better organization, retrieval and sharing of the resource.
How do we organize digital resources?
Why is tagging good for PIM?
• Decision-making process:
Put the item into ONE place.
• Mistakes are costly.
• Low cost, less cognitive effort
for information retrieval
• Infinite scalability
Rashmi Shinha, Cognitive analysis of tagging.
What’s collaborative tagging good for?
• “All of us are smarter than any one of us”
- Objects (tags) could
mediate social relationships
(e.g. Interest based groups)
- Cognitive diversity: We
need many perspectives for
good answers (new search
- Self expression.
Thinking about design…
• Do tags help people retrieve information?