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Circulatory System
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  1. 1. Circulatory &Respiratory System Ft. Asthma & Congestive Heart Failure By: Juliana Irizarry Rezwana Islam Milagros Davalos Christina Wang
  2. 2. Circulatory SystemComponents: Heart, blood vessels, & blood Heart2 valves (Tricuspid and mitral), 2 atriums, 2 ventricles, interventricular septumLocated in thoracic cavity
  3. 3. Blood Vessels Arteries, arterioles i. Endothelium lines the inside of artery ii. Media - Middle of artery iii.Adventitia - hard outside layer of artery iv.Aorta - Largest blood vessel in the body
  4. 4. FunctionTransports blood filled with nutrients, hormones, and oxygen to organs and rids them of wastes.Systole is when the blood vessels are contracted and diastole is when the vessels are relaxed. Both may be measured to find the patient’s blood pressure.
  5. 5. Respiratory System Key Terms Respiration – the sequence of evens that results in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and body cells. Ventilation – breathing External Respiration – exchange of gases between lungs and blood Cellular Respiration – Cells utilizing oxygen for specific activities
  6. 6. FunctionsPeople generally think of respiratory as breathing, but this is only one of the activities of the respiratory system. The body cells need a continuous supply of oxygen for the metabolic process that are necessary to maintain life. The respiratory system works with
  7. 7. FunctionsEvery 3-5 seconds, nerve impulses stimulate the breathing process. After this, there is an exchange of gases between the lungs and blood, which is also known as external respiration. The blood transports the gases to and from the tissue cells. The exchange of gases between blood and tissue cells is internal respiration. Finally the cells utilize the oxygen for their
  8. 8. Structures of the SystemNasal passages: Air entering from the nostrils is led to the nasal passages.Pharynx: Also known as the throat.Trachea: Windpipe; Main tube connecting mouth to lungs.Epiglottis: Flap that covers entrance to the trachea.Lungs: Main organ of respiratory system.Bronchi: Responsible for the exchange of gases between the blood and the air.Lungs:They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the atmosphere into bloodand releasing carbon dioxide from blood to the atmosphere.Bronchioles: Small branching out tubes divided into alveoli.Alveoli: Tiny air sacs that do the oxidation and the exhale
  9. 9. Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by the inflammationof that lungs that cause recurrent attacks of breathlessness,coughing, chest tightness, and wheezing. It is often characterized byexcessive sensitivity of the lungs to various stimuli. Respiratory infections and Asthma is often hereditary. and outdoorrangecolds  Indoor Triggers air from viral infections to Cigarette smoke pollutants, including ozone Allergic reactions to such and particle pollutionallergies, to irritating gases and particles inallergens as pollen, mold,  Exposure to cold air or the air. Each personanimal dander, feather, dust, sudden temperature changereacts differently to  Excitement/stressfood, and cockroaches the factors that may trigger asthma, including:  Exercise
  10. 10.  One of the most effective medications for controllingasthma is inhaled Corticosteroids, which are anti inflammatorymedications. Taken early and as directed, these well tolerated10 Worst Cities for Asthma: 10 Best Cities For Asthma:and safe medications can improve Moines, Iowa1. Allentown, PA 1. Des asthma control,2. normalize lung McAllen, Texas 2. Charleston, S.C.function, and possibly preventOmaha, Neb.3. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 3. irreversible injury4. St. lung airways. to Louis, MO 4. Austin, Texas5. Hartford, Connecticut 5. Kansas City, Mo.6. Chattanooga, Tennessee 6. Baton Rouge, La.7. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 7. Greenville, S.C.8. Knoxville, Tennessee 8. Portland, Ore.9. New Haven, Connecticut 9. Seattle, Wash.10.Memphis, Tennessee 10. Boise, Idaho
  11. 11. What is an Asthma Attack?An asthma attack is a sudden worsening of asthmasymptoms caused by the tightening of muscles aroundyour airways (bronchospasm). During the asthmaattack, the lining of the airways also becomes swollenor inflamed and thicker mucus -- more than normal --is produced. All of these factors bronchospasm,inflammation, and mucus production -- cause symptomsof an asthma attack such as difficulty breathing, Severe wheezing when  Tightened neck and chestwheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing both in and out muscles, calledperforming normal daily activities. Other symptoms of Coughing that wont stop  retractions Very rapid breathingan asthma attack may include: Difficulty talking  Chest pain or pressure  Feelings of anxiety or panic  Pale, sweaty face  Blue lips or fingernails
  12. 12. Some useful tips! If you have allergies and asthma, it’s important to minimize your exposure toallergens (substances to which you are allergic). Allergen exposure can temporarilyincrease the inflammation of the airways in a person with asthma making them moresusceptible to an asthma attack. Avoiding or minimizing contact with the substanceyou are allergic to can help prevent an asthma attack. Smoke and asthma are a bad mix. Minimize exposure to all sources of smoke,including tobacco, incense, candles, fires, and fireworks. Do not allow smoking in yourhome or car, and avoid public places that permit smoking. If you smoke cigarettes,get help to quit successfully. Smoking always makes asthma worse.
  13. 13. Congestive Heart Failure Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) – A chronic inability of the heart to maintain an adequate output of blood from one or both ventricles, resulting in an inadequate blood supply to the body tissues and retention of fluid. Congestive heart failure usually occurs in the Left Side Heart Failure elderly.1. Pulmonary edema occurs when air sacs in the lungs are filled with fluid.2. It occurs because the left side of the heart is not efficiently pumping blood to and from the lungs. Right-Sided Heart Failure1. Fluid builds up beginning with the feet and legs.2. It can also be effected by the liver, gastrointestinal tract, or arms.
  14. 14. About CHFThe symptoms of CHF vary, but can include 1. Fatigue 2. Diminished exercise capacity 3. Shortness of breath 4. Swelling 5. CoughingThe goals of congestive heart failuretreatment are to:1. Treat the underlying cause of your heart failure.2.Improve your symptoms and quality of