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Improve energy efficiency of secure disk systems - nas09


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Improving energy efficiency of security-aware storage systems is challenging, because security and energy efficiency are often two conflicting goals. The first step toward making the best tradeoffs between high security and energy efficiency is to profile encryption algorithms to decide if storage systems would be able to produce energy savings for security mechanisms. We are focused on encryption algorithms rather than other types of security services, because encryption algorithms are usually computation-intensive. In this study, we used the XySSL libraries and profiled operations of several test problems using Conky - a lightweight system monitor that is highly configurable. Using our profiling techniques we concluded that although 3DES is much slower than AES encryption,it more likely to save energy in security-aware storage systems using 3DES than AES. The CPU is the bottleneck in 3DES, allowing us to take advantage of dynamic power management schemes to conserve energy at the disk level.After profiling several hash functions, we noticed that the CPU is not the bottleneck for any of these functions,indicating that it is difficult to leverage the dynamic power management technique to conserve energy of a single disk where hash functions are implemented for integrity checking.

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Improve energy efficiency of secure disk systems - nas09

  1. 1. Can We Improve Energy Efficiency of Secure Disk Systems without Modifying Security Mechanisms? Xiaojun Ruan, Adam Manzanares , Shu Yin and Xiao Qin Auburn University [email_address]
  2. 2. Introduction 02/28/11
  3. 3. Introduction 02/28/11
  4. 4. Introduction 02/28/11
  5. 5. Proposed Architecture <ul><li>Write requests </li></ul><ul><li>Read requests </li></ul><ul><li>Data movement </li></ul><ul><li>Power Management </li></ul>Disk 1 Disk 2 Disk 3 Disk 4 Disk 5 Buffer Disks RAM Buffer Buffer Disk Controller Disk Requests
  6. 6. Security vs. Power Consumption ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2006. R. CHANDRAMOULI et. al
  7. 7. Improve both Energy Efficiency and Security: Approach 1 <ul><li>To improve the energy efficiency of security mechanisms in disk systems </li></ul>Security Mechanisms Improve Energy Efficiency
  8. 8. Improve both Energy Efficiency and Security: Approach 2 <ul><li>To integrate conventional security services with energy-efficient disk architectures. </li></ul>Security Mechanisms Energy Conservation Schemes
  9. 9. Table 1 System Parameters of the Testbed     CPU Speed Pentium 4 2.4 GHZ Memory 512 MB Operating System Ubuntu 7.10 USB 1.1 12 Mb/s HD Bus IDE
  10. 10. Xyssl <ul><li>Implements many popular encryption algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Provides sample programs </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed us to develop software based on the sample programs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conky <ul><li>Lightweight system monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Highly configurable </li></ul><ul><li>Simple text configuration file </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conky
  13. 13. Testbed Information <ul><li>Encryption Algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3DES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hash Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHA-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHA-256 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSA Signature Verification </li></ul>
  14. 14. Possible Bottlenecks Receive Encrypt or Verify Store Flash Drive (Network) CPU Hard Disk
  15. 15. Experiment Results <ul><li>MD5 Verification </li></ul>
  16. 16. Experiment Results <ul><li>MD5 Verification </li></ul>
  17. 17. Experiment Results <ul><li>SHA-1 Verification </li></ul>
  18. 18. Experiment Results <ul><li>SHA-1 Verification </li></ul>
  19. 19. Experiment Results <ul><li>RSA Verification </li></ul>
  20. 20. Experiment Results <ul><li>RSA Verification </li></ul>
  21. 21. Experiment Results <ul><li>Advanced Encryption Standard </li></ul>
  22. 22. Experiment Results <ul><li>Advanced Encryption Standard </li></ul>
  23. 23. Experiment Results <ul><li>3DES </li></ul>
  24. 24. Experiment Results <ul><li>3DES </li></ul>
  25. 25. A Sample Table       CPU Load Read Load Write Load Save Energy for Reads? Save Energy for Writes? MD5 M H M Unlikely Yes SHA1 M VH M Unlikely Yes SHA2 M VH M Unlikely Yes RSA M VH M No Yes AES VH VH M No Yes 3DES EH M L Yes Yes
  26. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>For MD5, SHA-1, SHA-2 and RSA, the bottleneck is the reading speed due to the network data transmitting rate. </li></ul><ul><li>For 3DES, bottleneck is CPU, because 3DES algorithm’s workload is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no space to save energy for Bottleneck components </li></ul>
  27. 27. Major drawbacks of this research <ul><li>Workload was not representative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated I/O workload. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not consider access patterns of a single user / multiple users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test bed was not representative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An emulated network environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only evaluated a single disk rather than parallel disks </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Download the presentation slides Google: slideshare Xiao Qin
  29. 29. Download our paper Google: Xiao Qin X.-J. Ruan, A. Manzanares, S. Yin, M. Nijim, and X. Qin, “Can We Improve Energy Efficiency of Secure Disk Systems without Modifying Security Mechanisms?” Proc. 4th IEEE Int'l Conf. Networking, Architecture, and Storage, July 2009. Abstract: http:// =5197358
  30. 30. Questions <ul><li>? </li></ul>