Acne is a skin disease marked by
pimples on the face, chest, and back
and occurs when the hair follicles
become plugged with oil and dead
One of the most common skin diseases.
Considerable psychological impact on
the quality of life.
No cure, but the disease can be
controlled through medications.
Factors that contribute to the formation of acne:
Overproduction of oil (sebum).
Irregular shedding of dead skin cells resulting in irritation of the hair
follicles of your skin.
Buildup of bacteria.
Factors that may worsen acne:
Hormones. Androgens are hormones that increase in boys and girls during
puberty and cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and make more sebum.
Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives can
also affect sebum production.
Certain medications. Drugs containing corticosteroids, androgens or lithium
are known to cause acne.
Diet. Studies indicate that certain dietary factors, including dairy products and
carbohydrate-rich foods — such as bread, bagels and chips, which increase
blood sugar — may trigger acne.
Types of acne:
Comedones (whiteheads and
blackheads) are created when the openings
of hair follicles become clogged and
blocked with oil secretions, dead skin cells
and sometimes bacteria. When comedones
are open at the skin surface, they're called
blackheads because of the dark appearance
of the plugs in the hair follicles. When
comedones are closed, they're called
whiteheads — slightly raised, skin-colored
Types of acne:
Papules are small raised bumps that signal
inflammation or infection in the hair follicles.
Papules may be red and tender.
Pustules (pimples) are red, tender bumps with
white pus at their tips.
Nodules are large, solid, painful lumps beneath
the surface of the skin. They're formed by the
buildup of secretions deep within hair follicles.
Cysts are painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the
surface of the skin. These boil-like infections
can cause scars.
Stages of acne:
Stage #0- Extremely minor signs of acne, which you really don't need to
worry about. This includes occasional appearance of tiny zits.
Stage #1- This is considered the initial stage where the acne starts with
blackheads and whiteheads. You may even start to notice on your face a
few white spots.
Stage #2- At this stage you will start to notice on a few places on your skin
a mild inflammation and papules can accompany this inflammation.
Stage #3- When your acne outbreak hits this stage you will see papules
frequently start to break out and the ones that are already on the skin will
start to further develop and begin to look inflamed.
Stages of acne:
Stage #4- At this stage your acne has developed in pustules and you can
see a number of them beginning to develop on the skin. These pustules are
pus filled, have tips that are white, and will look inflamed.
Stage #5- The “severe” stage. Now you will start to see cysts and nodules
appearing on your skin and the pustules will develop further into cysts on
Stage #6- When your acne outbreak hits this stage you will notice the
nodules and cysts that are filled with pus bursting.
Stage #7- At this stage there are still nodules and cysts bursting but there is
medication that will help to clear all the cystic acne and nodules that
Stage #8- Acne is beginning to heal.
(Open the pores)
Cleansing and skin care
Exfoliating cleansers and masks
(Kill the bacteria)
Topical (external) applications
(Reduce the oil)
Glycolic acid or hydroxy acids