Gilded Age/ Politics & Reform


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Gilded Age/ Politics & Reform

  1. 1. Early Reforms in the Gilded Age Angie Ng and Rachel Miller
  2. 2. Gilded Age (1870-1900) <ul><li>Mark Twain and Charles Warner’s novel “The Gilded Age”(1873) </li></ul><ul><li>Novel talked about American politics and society. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilded = something covered with gold on the outside but made of cheaper metal on the inside </li></ul><ul><li>Gilded Age= Beneath benefits of Industrialization and Urbanization (increased life expectancy) was poverty, corruption, crime, and great disparities in wealth between the rich and poor. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Individualism <ul><li>Idea that no matter how humble a person’s origins, they could rise in society (based on talent and commitment) Horatio Alger wrote over 100 “rags to riches” novels that inspired Americans to believe that success was not impossible </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Herbert Spencer proposed idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Charles Darwin who believed that life evolved over the years through natural selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that human society evolved and improved over the years because only the fittest survived. </li></ul><ul><li>catchphrase was “Survival of the fittest” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Darwinism <ul><li>Reinforced idea of individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the idea of laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>William Graham Sumner (political scientist) = if govt interfere with business, competition would not root out those that couldn’t adapt. </li></ul><ul><li>John D .Rockefeller supported SD a lot (industrial giant of oil) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Opposition to SD <ul><li>Some people believed in Bible’s account of Creation </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ward of Plymouth Church accepted Spencer’s ideas of SD </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Carnegie combine SD with Gospel of Wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed rich should engage in philanthropy –donate fortunes to help the poor and further social progress </li></ul>
  7. 7. Realism <ul><li>Movement in art and literature that portrayed people realistically instead of idealizing them like in romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Twain “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” view of pre-Civil War era </li></ul>
  8. 8. Popular Culture/Entertainment <ul><li>Industrialization improved standard of living for people, had more leisure time </li></ul><ul><li>Saloons, playing or watching basketball, baseball, football because job less strenuous physically. </li></ul><ul><li>Ragtime music (African American) </li></ul><ul><li>Vaudeville=animal acts, dancers, acrobats </li></ul>
  9. 9. Criticism <ul><li>Henry George “Progress and Poverty” raised questions about great gap between rich/poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Lester Frank “Dynamic Sociology” = Reform Darwinism. People survive because of ability to cooperate, therefore govt should be involved (poverty, education, economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Bellamy “Looking Backward” want socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism=style of writing that criticized indust. Society. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Helping the Urban Poor <ul><li>Social Gospel Movement (1870-1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve city conditions based on biblical ideas (day care, helping the poor) </li></ul><ul><li>Washington Gladden (minister from Columbus,Ohio) try apply “Christian Law” to social problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal strike (1884) Gladden= right and necessity of labor organizations” </li></ul><ul><li>Billy Sunday =protect trad. society denounce alcohol, women’s rights, labor unions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Helping the Urban Poor <ul><li>Christian Mission aka Salvation Army(1878) </li></ul><ul><li>Dwight L. Moody. President of Chicago YMCA, Bible studies, prayers, wanted to redeem souls and reform character of people. reject SD and SG </li></ul>
  12. 12. Public Education <ul><li>Idust. and urbanization=need more educated workers. </li></ul><ul><li>1870= 6,500,000 children in school, </li></ul><ul><li>1900= 17,300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>At schools knowledge about American culture (Americanization). Helped immigrants assimilate but immigrants might forget own cultural traditions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Settlement Houses <ul><li>middle–class residents in poor neighborhoods lived with and helped poor residents (mostly immigrants) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot lunches, English lessons, medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Addams’ Hull House in Chicago </li></ul>
  14. 14. Education <ul><li>Morrill Land Grand Act: federal land given to state for purpose of making agricultural and mechanical colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>Private colleges gave women edu. </li></ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama (1881) because Africans did not have equal edu opportunities </li></ul>
  15. 15. Education <ul><li>Public libraries made edu. available but like schools hard for rural people to have access </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Carnegie donated millions to construct libraries </li></ul><ul><li>LAST SLIDE!!! Whoot Whoot!! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Homework <ul><li>Read the Profiles in History section on Page 269 and explain which man ( Booker T. Washington or George Washington Carver) made a bigger impact in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 3 sentences. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Politics and Reform Rachel Miller & Angie Ng
  18. 18. Spoils System (Patronage) <ul><li>Gov. jobs were given to supporters of the winning party </li></ul><ul><li>Americans thought it corrupted the gov. & stopped lawmakers from addressing nation’s issues </li></ul><ul><li>Repub. Pres. Hayes fights patronage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoints “Halfbreeds” to replace “Stalwarts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Halfbreeds = Republican reformers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stalwarts = local bosses of republican political machines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite arguments, Republicans nominate James A. Garfield (Halfbreed) for president & Chester A. Arthur (Stalwart) for vice-president. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Assassination of Pres. J.A.G. <ul><li>Killed by Charles Guiteau, a Stalwart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that w/ Garfield dead, he would unite the Republican Party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress responds with Pendleton Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil service system where candidates are appointed based on examinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14,000 jobs (1/10 of total) resulted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started to end the spoils system. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Political Deadlock <ul><li>Republican advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New England, Midwest, big businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrat advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South w/ large Catholic & immigration populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Reps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twice during 1877-1896, a candidate lost popular vote, but won election b/c still received all electoral votes in states </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans & Democrats can’t agree on issues= can’t pass laws that helped economy </li></ul>
  21. 21. Election of 1884 <ul><li>(Dem) NY Gov. Grover Cleveland vs. (Rep) James G. Blaine, former House of Reps. Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blaine = Credit Mobilizer Scandal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleveland = Bachelor, but fathered a child 10 yrs. earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Because Cleveland admitted the rumor was true, he earned RESPECT. </li></ul><ul><li>Blaine lost several votes due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Muguwumps” that liked Cleveland’s honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not defending the Irish Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prohibition Party Candidate promised to ban alcohol sales </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Commerce, Trusts, and Tariffs <ul><li>Greater industrialization + growth labor movement = strikes + worried Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil negotiates rebates (partial refund) and lower rates b/c of volume of goods they shipped </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. believed they shouldn’t meddle with the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Public pressure= Interstate Commerce Act </li></ul><ul><li>1 st federal law designed regulate interstate commerce </li></ul><ul><li>House of reps (democrats) want pass more tariffs but Senate (republicans) reject proposal </li></ul>
  23. 23. Republicans Regain Power <ul><li>Election of 1888: Cleveland vs. Benjamin Harrison(repub) </li></ul><ul><li>Harrison lost popular vote but got electoral votes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican control + both houses Congress + White House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McKinley Tariff passed (covered fed. Revenue & transformed nation’s budget supplies into budget deficit) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Unrest in Rural America <ul><li>Farmers produced more crops, but prices lowered </li></ul><ul><li>High tariffs increased cost of manufactured goods that farmers needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers struggle to sell crops overseas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had no hope in both parties to help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embrace populism: increasing farmers’ political power </li></ul>
  25. 25. Currency <ul><li>To help Union War, US Treasury issued millions of dollars in greenbacks (can’t exchange for gold and silver) </li></ul><ul><li>More currency + no rise in goods for sale= inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Post-civil war currency: greenbacks, gold, silver, national bank notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed. Gov. stopped printing greenbacks to pay off bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1885: stopped making silver coins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deflation: increase in value and decrease of prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers didn’t like this </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Patron of Husbanding (Grange) <ul><li>1 st national farm organization </li></ul><ul><li>Formed b/c farers wanted greenbacks back </li></ul><ul><li>Created cooperatives (marketing organization for their crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Western States pass “Granger Laws” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads fight this by cutting their service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wabash vs. Illinois (1886): Supreme Court says that states can’t regulate commerce that crosses state lines </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Farmer’s Alliance <ul><li>Replaces Grange </li></ul><ul><li>Believes they can est. large cooperatives (exchanges), force farm prices up, make loans to farmers @ low interest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeded at first, then failed b/c wholesalers, manufacturers, railroads discriminated against them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also failed b/c they’re still too small! </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Populism <ul><li>1890: Power struggle within the Farmer’s Alliance b/c problems still not fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders in western states wanted new party for political reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas Alliance creates People’s Party (Populists) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endorsed democratic candidates that support their demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidates to Congress or state legislatures </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Ocala Demands <ul><li>1890: Farmer’s Alliance met in Ocala, Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted free coinage of silver, end to protective tariffs, national banks, tighter regulation of railroads, direct election of senators by votes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman’s Silver Purchase Act of 1890 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Senator John Sherman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made to stop farmers from voting for Populists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed exchange of gold for silver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Treasury purchases 4.5 mil oz. of silver per month </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t help farmers, but it reduced deflation slightly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. A Populist for President?! <ul><li>July 1892: James B. Weaver nominated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omaha Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>return unl. coinage of silver, make graduated income tax (tax higher earnings heavily) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workdays = 8 hrs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict immigration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strikebreaking is wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Competition: Grover Cleveland (he’s back, folks!) + Repub. Benjamin Harrison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grover Cleveland won … again. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Panic of 1893 <ul><li>March: Philadelphia & Reading Railroads declared bankruptcy b/c they expanded too fast and couldn’t repay loans </li></ul><ul><li>Stock market on Wall Street crashed </li></ul><ul><li>1894: economy in depression; 18% workforce unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>US Treasury in trouble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American & European investors cashed their US gov bonds for gold – which left gov gold reserves extremely low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>June 1893: Grover Cleveland repeals Sherman Silver Purchase Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to split of Democratic Party into “goldbugs” and “silverites” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Election of 1896: <ul><li>Populist’s strategy: endorse silver so pro-silver democrats would vote for them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAILED b/c democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Populists give in and vote for Bryan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bryan is super hyper-active, traveling thousands of miles, making 600 speeches in 14 weeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate William McKinley did a “Front-Porch Campaign” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literally. The man talked to people at his home in Canton, Ohio. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(psst wasn’t as effective) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. McKinley’s Success Factors <ul><li>Cleveland had bad rep for depression and losing silver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McKinley promised to provide “full dinner pail” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esp imp for famers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans believed unl silver coinage would ruin country </li></ul><ul><li>He had a rep for moderation on labor issues and tolerated different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban workers and immigrants ♥ McKinley </li></ul></ul><ul><li>While in office, the depression ended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold found in Canada (1896), Alaska (1898), South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1900: US adopted gold-based currency </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Rise of Segregation <ul><li>Resistance and Repression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans want jobs in Southern towns & homesteads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1879: former slave, Benjamin “Pap” Singleton (70 yrs. Old) organized migration of thousands of African Americans from rural south to Kansas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as “Exodusts” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1886: Colored Farmers National Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1891: hoped poor blacks + whites team up to challenge Democratic Party’s power in South </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Disfranchising African Americans <ul><li>Democrats want to win back poor whites by using racism </li></ul><ul><li>1890: Mississippi required all citizens to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pay poll tax of $2 to vote (which African American’s can’t afford) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy test (had to read/understand constitution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass the grandfather clause </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Legalizing Segregation <ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1875 prohibits forcing people out of public places b/c of race & discriminates when choosing jurors </li></ul><ul><li>1883: Supreme Court overturns this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotels, theaters, and railroads free to practice segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate but equal </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Lynching <ul><li>1890-1899: mob violence increased (187 lynchings occurred w/o proper court proceedings EVERY year) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of lynching happened in the South; 70% of the victims were African Americans </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. African Americans Respond <ul><li>Ida B. Wells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought that greed & racism contributed to lynching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress rejected anti-lynching bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lynching decreased in 1900s b/c of her & others’ contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Booker T. Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1895: Atlanta Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speech that said to postpone fighting for civil rights; focus more on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for equality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. African Americans Respond <ul><li>W.E.B. Du Bois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader of new generation of African American activists born after Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged Atlanta Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White southerners still took civil rights away from African Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Color discrimination is barbarianism” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could regain lost ground & get equality by demanding the right to vote </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. H O M E W O R K : <ul><li>Do you agree with the Atlanta Compromise? Why or why not? Write at least 3 sentences. </li></ul>