A sub point after indent #2=“Texting while driving is a major concern and I believe it should be more closely researched. The reason why I chose this topic is because it has emotionally impacted my life along with others”. Then after the last indent, “The purpose of this literature review is to express my concerns and proposal because emphasizing the fatality rate is important because it has affected my life by killing 2 of my friends through car accidents”.
After the first indent: Eighteen of their studies resulted in a decrease of their reaction times causing distractive driving. This is where it can be similar to a drunk driver, since their reaction times decrease because of the impairment to their brain. After the second indent: There are many responsibilities a driver takes on, and having interruptions or distractions can really cause more risks. These impairments can cause the same affect that alcohol has on the brain – slower reaction times and visual impairment.
Before Reading Slide I would state: Out of the 10 scholarly references three studies used simulators to produce evidence in support similar behaviors of texting while driving and drunk drivers. After first indent: This study confirmed that there was evidence which suggested having distraction from a cell phone, is similar to a driver with a blood alcohol level above the legal limit. After second indent:These patterns included swerving, driving closely, and braking harder. After fourth indent: These distractions were used in a simulator study researched by Lee and Slayer.
In the Beginning: “Young adults seem to contribute to these distractions more because they do not believe it could happen to them. When in reality young adults seem to be the cause of these distractions because of their usage of phones. “ After first indent: It seemed that young adults do not realize how much they use their cell phones without really thinking about it, this is where problems start to generate. After second indent: If young adults do not know how much they use their cell phones while driving, it can lead to significant problems and risks to other drivers. This study was very similar to the experiment three other researchers created. After last indent: Using simulators and surveys are a great start, but there needs to be more heavy research done to introduce and support new laws that ban cell phone usage while driving.
A sub point would be after the first indent: “The table shows that the research method used the most was using a simulator that counted as 30 percent of the table. Along with 20 percent used a hands-on program, 20 percent used questionnaires, 20 percent used case control studies, and 10 percent used present research. The results on the table really showed which method is more popular and is growing to be more dominate as the future continues”. After the sub indent I would explain “As more of the research continues I would actually like to see which research method is more successful. I believe that this would allow me to see which research method could help gather more evidence that using a cell phone while driving is highly dangerous.” After the last indent I would state “When we drive we do not want to be worried if other drivers are not paying attention or if they might fail to stop at a stop light. We want to get to our destination in a calm state of mind but also worry-free”.
Texting:The New Drunk Driving
By: Felicia StruckArgosy University, Chicago
Texting while driving is a very serious action. Not only does texting or making a phone call cause impairment to our thinking, but can also be distinguished as distracted driving. Distracted driving can be equivalent to drunk driving because of the behaviors each has in similarity that negatively affects drivers.
There is a large and rapidly growing body of research that shows using a cell phone while driving, decreases driving performance. The popular way of communicating goes beyond phone calls on cellular phones and really favors texting. Along with reading and applying makeup, text messaging is extremely distracting while driving. It is estimated two out of every three drivers, admit to being on a cell phone either talking or texting (Hench, 2011). Texting while driving has become equivalent to drunk driving, and I am here to present to you with my literature review from my hypothesis to my conclusion.
A study produced, determined that the participants responded about a quarter of a second later to stimuli while using a cell phone as a distracter from all studies that were analyzed (Caird et al, 2008). Wither a person is sending text messages or checking emails, it causes inattention blindness, visual impairment, and horrible reaction times (Clement, 2011). Driving while using the phone either to text or talk can decrease break time (Gozzi, 2011). Also, driving with a phone can increase the chances of hitting a car or pedestrian.
A study created by three researchers determined the relation between drunk drivers impairment to that of conversing on a cell phone while driving (Crouch, Drew, & Stayer, 2005). When drivers were under the influence, they showed a more aggressive driving pattern. ◦ This similar pattern was found in individuals who were texting or talking on a cell phone. One estimate shows crashes that are related to cell phones, cause approximately 2600 deaths, and 330,000 injuries (Slayer, 2005). These crashes are also commonly caused by visual and auditory distractions. The distractions increased their crash rate and decreased their performance dramatically (Lee & Slayer, 2004).
A study created by three researchers used these facts to gather more information. They used pre and post- questionnaires to determine how young adults rate their level of distractions. The researchers found that young adults rated their levels low in the beginning of the study and higher towards the end after watching a video (Lennon, Rentfro, &O’Leary, 2010). Researchers sent out a random questionnaire to 1947 students asking how much they use their cell phones while driving. They found that 45 percent of students used cell phones during their last trip by car (O’Brien, Goodwin, & Foss, (2010).
Research Methods 10% 30% Simulator Control 20% Hands-On Programs Questionnaires Case Control Studies Research 20% 20% This table above represents my findings and implications of the research methods for the studies that the articles I covered showed. However, how realistic are these studies? ◦ Let me explain what I would want to see more of in future research. Developing more research is very important not only for our community but for ourselves.
Being able to one day see a law, that would ban all cell phone use while driving, would be so wonderful. To take my argument further, I would love to see the government coming up with new ideas to help limit cell phone usage while driving. As more of the research continues I would actually like to see which research method is more successful. I believe that this would allow me to see which research method could help gather more evidence that using a cell phone while driving is highly dangerous. Better driving is ALWAYS safer driving.
References• Caird, J., Ho, G., Scialfa, C., Steel, P., Willness, C. (2008). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Cell Phones on Driver Performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1282-1293.• Clement, T. (2011). Cell Phone Use While Driving & Employer Liability. Professional Safety , 18-19.• Crouch, D., Drews, F., Strayer, D. (2005). A comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver. The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 381-392.• David Slayer, F. D. (2005). A comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver. The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society , 381-392.• Gozzi, R. (2011). Distracted: A Review of General Semantics. Et Cetera , 110-111.• Hench, D. (2011). Hands-on Program Shows Texting Dangers. Kennebac Journal , 7.• Lee, J., Slayer, D. (2004). Preface to the Special Section on Drive Distraction. Human Factors, 583-586.• Lennon, R., Rentfro, R., & O`Leary, B. (2010). Social Marketing and Distracted Driving Behaviors Among Young Adults. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal , 95-113.• Lerner, B. (2011). Drunk Driving, Distracted Driving, Moralism, and Public Health. The New England Journal of Medicine , 879-881.• Redelmeier, D., Tibshriani, R. (1997). Association between Cellular-Telephone Calls and Motor Vehicle Collisions. New England Journal of Medicine, 453-458.