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Augmented Reality


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Augmented Reality

  1. 1. A Brief Introduction to Augmented Reality IE 543 3 Nov 2008 Trond Nilsen
  2. 2. What is it? <ul><li>Overlaying virtual imagery on the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Merging the real and the virtual </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous interaction </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Brief History (1) <ul><li>1960s – Sutherland & Sproull’s first HMD </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Brief History (2) <ul><li>1970s / 1980s – USAF helmet displays, Super cockpit (Furness) </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Brief History (3) <ul><li>Early 1990s – Boeing wire harness assembly application. </li></ul><ul><li>Early to mid 1990s – UNC ultrasound visualization project </li></ul>
  6. 6. AR – Brief History (4) <ul><li>Early 2000s : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor AR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARToolkit / Magic Book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. AR - Applications <ul><li>Many applications, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archaeology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Video – AR Pancho
  9. 9. How? <ul><li>Two main problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking the real world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying the virtual objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variety of technology solutions for each problem </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tracking <ul><li>Magnetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast and accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive, normally requires setup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inertial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap and somewhat inaccurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be frequently recalibrated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonably accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Tracking <ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially very accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works well in conjunction with haptic feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially accurate, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May suffer from interference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for outdoor AR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid solutions </li></ul>
  12. 12. How? Displays!
  13. 13. Is it realistic? <ul><li>Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Rendering quality </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Error </li></ul><ul><li>Non-tangible </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated video </li></ul>
  14. 14. Video – AR Relight
  15. 15. ARToolKit
  16. 16. Reality / Virtuality Continuum
  17. 17. AR – Transitional Interfaces <ul><li>Interfaces that move you along the continuum </li></ul><ul><li>Supports egocentric and exocentric views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocentric - View from above </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentric - View from within </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for different tasks </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. AR - Collaboration <ul><li>Wide variety of cues used when communicating </li></ul>Speech Paralinguistic Paraverbals Prosodics Intonation Audio Gaze Gesture Face Expression Body Position Visual Object Manipulation Writing/Drawing Spatial Relationship Object Presence Contact Environmental
  19. 19. AR - Collaboration <ul><li>Face-to-face collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People surround a table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is easy to see each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People sit side by side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is hard to see each other </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. AR - Collaboration <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seamless Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Role division </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul>
  21. 21. AR – Hybrid User Interfaces
  22. 22. AR – Magic Lenses <ul><li>Developed at Xerox PARC in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>View a region of the workspace differently to the rest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not limited to magnification </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. AR – Magic Lens <ul><li>Focus + Context – two data sets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct comparison of differing data sets in situ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul>
  24. 24. AR Gaming
  25. 25. Gaming - ARQuake <ul><li>Developed by Wayne Piekarski & Bruce Thomas at University of South Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Modified version of Quake for Tinmith Outdoor AR system </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gaming – AR Tankwar
  27. 27. Video – AR Tankwar