Hrm In South Africa


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Hrm In South Africa

  1. 2. The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations Emerging HR practices 1 2 3 4 5
  2. 3. PART 1 – The environment for HR
  3. 4. The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations Emerging HR practices 1 CHAPTER 1: Foundation & challenges for HR CHAPTER 2: Information technology for HR CHAPTER 3: Managing diversity & regulatory challenges Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  4. 5. Chapter 1 - The foundation and challenges of Human Resource Management
  5. 6. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Evaluate the development of human resource management (HRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish the strategic approach to human resources from the traditional approach to HRM </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise the key HRM functions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the roles of the HR Department </li></ul><ul><li>Identify eight challenges/issues facing HR today </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the trends relevant to the growing importance for HRM </li></ul>
  6. 7. Human resources: Past & present <ul><li>Scientific management </li></ul><ul><li>Human relations </li></ul><ul><li>The HR approach </li></ul>
  7. 8. Strategic HR <ul><li>Strategic management – making those decisions that define the overall mission & objectives of the organisation, determining the most effective utilisation of its resources and crafting and executing the strategy in ways that produce the intended results </li></ul>
  8. 9. Strategic HR (continued) <ul><li>Business strategy – management’s game plan </li></ul><ul><li>SHRM – address a wide variety of people issues relevant to business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Process is led & coordinated by top management </li></ul>
  9. 10. Strategic vs traditional HRM <ul><li>Is involved in operational planning only </li></ul><ul><li>Has medium status and authority (e.g. HR director) </li></ul><ul><li>Is concerned primarily with hourly, operational and clerical employees </li></ul><ul><li>Participates in formulating overall organisational strategic plan and aligning HR functions with company strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Has high status and authority for top HR officer (e.g. vice president for HR) </li></ul><ul><li>Is concerned with all managers and employees </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and strategy formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul>Traditional HRM Strategic HRM Dimensions
  10. 11. Strategic vs traditional HRM (continued) <ul><li>Makes operational decisions only </li></ul><ul><li>Has moderate to small integration with other organisational functions </li></ul><ul><li>Does not coordinate all HR functions </li></ul><ul><li>Is involved in making strategic decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Is fully integrated with other organisational functions e.g. marketing, finance, production </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates all HRM activities </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul>Traditional HRM Strategic HRM Dimensions
  11. 12. A model of strategic HRM Corporate strategy External environment Internal environment Competition, government regulation, technology, market trends, economic Culture, structure, politics, employee skills, past strategy Employee separation HR planning, design of jobs & work systems, what workers do, what workers need, how jobs interface with others HR strategy Laws regulating employment HRIS Labour relations Compensation Performance management Training Staffing Business unit strategy
  12. 13. HR functions <ul><li>Assigned exclusively to HR: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation and benefits issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AA & EE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JA programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-employment testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude surveys </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. HR activities (jointly with other departments) <ul><li>JA & JD </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment and selection </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal, training and development and career management </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation and health </li></ul><ul><li>Labour relations </li></ul><ul><li>HRIS & problem-solving </li></ul>
  14. 15. HR department roles <ul><li>Does the HR function affect the success of an organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>HR policies </li></ul><ul><li>Critical policy issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work systems </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Communication <ul><li>Downward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New employee orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee handbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestions programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaint procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-door meetings </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. HR department roles (continued) <ul><li>Advice & services </li></ul><ul><li>Control functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection & analysis of hiring, selection, placement & promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of performance appraisal records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of statistics on absenteeism, grievances and accidents </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The structure of the HR department <ul><li>Clerical, professional, managerial staff </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities for HR functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not only reside with HR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All managers at all levels share in the responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Current issues & challenges <ul><li>Worker productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Quality improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Downsizing, delayering & decruiting </li></ul><ul><li>The changing workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Global economy </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of government </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of working life </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and training </li></ul>
  19. 20. Challenges facing HR managers in 21 st century External macro environment External micro environment Critical people issues Internal macro environment Internal micro environment
  20. 21. <ul><li>HR career opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalisation of HRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics and HRM </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Summary <ul><li>Strategic HR activities address a broad range of issues relevant to the successful formulation and implementation of company plans. </li></ul><ul><li>The management of people has seen three distinct approaches since the turn of the last century: scientific management, human relations and the HR approach. The trend has been toward the HR approach, whereby two complementary goals are sought: increased organisational effectiveness and the satisfaction of individual employee needs. HR policies and programmes strive to achieve both goals. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of critical issues face HR managers and administrators in South Africa today. Improving worker productivity through HR programmes, policies and techniques remains a challenge. Increasing the quality of working life (QWL) is a goal of many organisations, and programmes such as the redesign of jobs have been implemented to enhance QWL. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiring and motivating today's changing workforce is a major HR challenge. Innovative HR programmes must meet the needs of a diverse labour force while enabling the company to compete successfully in a global economy. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Summary <ul><li>Although the HR programmes of different organisations will vary, the HR departments of most organisations have these common responsibilities: job design and analysis; recruitment and selection; induction and internal staffing; appraisal, training and development; compensation; and labour relations. </li></ul><ul><li>HR managers and administrators play a number of roles in achieving effective HR management. These include creating HR policies, offering advice to line managers, providing services (e.g. recruiting, training, and research), and controlling activities to ensure that employment legislation and HR policies are being followed. Also, it is usually HR's responsibility to design and maintain effective communication flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs in the HR department include clerical (support), professional and managerial positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Free trade and globalisation are putting most firms in fiercely competitive markets where success depends on the quality of HR management. </li></ul><ul><li>Work itself will be redefined in the future; more high-order thinking, constant learning and flexibility. </li></ul>
  23. 29. Chapter 2 – Information Technology for Human Resources
  24. 30. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Describe the Internet and identify the two functional categories of information available on the Internet that are most useful to HR managers </li></ul><ul><li>Define a human resource information system (HRIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the structural design of an HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between the different types of HRISs </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some of the modules of an HRIS database </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the steps to be followed in the development and implementation of an HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss five critical standards that must be met if information provided by an HRIS is to be viewed as quality information </li></ul><ul><li>List several things HR can do to foster data security throughout the organisation </li></ul>
  25. 31. HR and the Internet <ul><li>Conversational resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reference sources </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets – organisational network that operates over the Internet connecting people to people and people to knowledge and information </li></ul><ul><li>Extranets – an Internet-linked network that allows employees access to information provided by external entities </li></ul>
  26. 32. Human Resource Information System (HRIS) <ul><li>Nature of an HRIS </li></ul>
  27. 33. Benefits of an HRIS <ul><li>Reduces errors </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic tool </li></ul><ul><li>Provide valuable information to decision makers </li></ul>
  28. 34. Components of an HRIS <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures and users </li></ul>
  29. 35. Functional components of an HRIS Employee information Software Reports Input Transformation Output
  30. 36. Structural design of HRISs <ul><li>Concentrated HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Independent HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid approach </li></ul>
  31. 37. Types of HRISs <ul><li>EDP (electronic data processing) – automated processing of routine information </li></ul><ul><li>MIS (management information system) – integration and planning of the information system’s function </li></ul><ul><li>DSS (decision support system) – decisions made at a higher level in the organisation </li></ul>
  32. 38. Reasons for the slow introduction of computer-based systems in HR departments <ul><li>Lack of support by top management </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction with the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Defensiveness about revealing HR operations </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of HRIS knowledge and skills by HR managers </li></ul>
  33. 39. Fully developed HRIS database Succession planning Skills inventory HR planning & forecasting Compensation administration Future use <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Health claims </li></ul>Health & safety Applicant tracking Position control Affirmative action Training & development Personnel module Corporate, Bio-graphical, Histo-rical, Company/ HR policies DATABASE Career development & planning Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  34. 40. Applications of the HRIS database modules <ul><li>Applicant-tracking module </li></ul><ul><li>T&D module </li></ul><ul><li>Position control module </li></ul><ul><li>Wage & salary administration module </li></ul><ul><li>HRP module </li></ul><ul><li>Skills inventory module </li></ul><ul><li>Succession planning module </li></ul><ul><li>Basic personnel module </li></ul>
  35. 41. Why do HRISs fail? <ul><li>Lack of management commitment & resources and inadequate numbers of personnel are made available </li></ul><ul><li>Project team not assigned for the duration of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Project is set up for failure (political intrigue, conflict & hidden agendas) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect decisions are made – poorly written needs-analysis reports </li></ul><ul><li>Key personnel are not included in the project team </li></ul><ul><li>Clients are not surveyed/interviewed to determine their needs </li></ul>
  36. 42. Development, implementation & maintenance of an HRIS database <ul><li>Phase I – Needs analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II – Design & development </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III – Implementation & maintenance </li></ul>
  37. 43. Securing the integrity of HR data <ul><li>Biggest risk </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping records unaltered </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling access </li></ul><ul><li>Security technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information to be accessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of access </li></ul></ul>
  38. 44. Summary <ul><li>Automation came late to the HR department. When it did, the system put in place resembled payroll more than personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>The appearance of the personal computer (PC), perhaps more than any other single event, shifted information control away from the data processing/MIS department. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer is becoming an integral part of the HR department. As a tool, it has moved beyond producing simple reports to helping HR managers make complex decisions. Human resource information systems (HRISs) are making this possible. As a whole, an HRIS creates more opportunities for the HR profession to influence the company. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical HRIS is composed of a database, computer software and hardware. </li></ul>
  39. 45. Summary <ul><li>There has been an explosion of PC hardware improvements and software offerings that greatly expand the possibilities of HRISs. Small employers can now benefit by getting the same results on PCs and minicomputers that could only be obtained using mainframes a few years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice between mainframes, minicomputers and PCs is complicated by the blurring of distinctions between them. Technological improvements are levelling the playing field between competitive technologies, and a likely scenario is that a medium-sized to larger employer will employ a combination of networked computer systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in computer technology allow more tasks to be accomplished than ever before. Very sophisticated analyses can be performed on an ad hoc basis. Even PC programs allow complicated 'what if' questions to be answered. </li></ul>
  40. 46. Summary <ul><li>Modern HRISs place HR professionals in a better position to play a more integral role in the strategic management of today's organisation. Computer technology, which first seemed to divide departments, now serves to bring them closer together as they share information, and more of it, to implement the business strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>For an HRIS to be effective, users must be properly trained to use it, and it must be used by those whom it is intended to serve. </li></ul><ul><li>HRIS concerns about he privacy of information that the database contains are very important. Proper care must be taken to restrict access to the system to those individuals who have a legitimate need for its information. </li></ul>
  41. 52. Chapter 3 – Managing diversity and regulatory challenges
  42. 53. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Discuss the composition of the South African workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Define diversity management, and discuss why it is important </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between the concepts affirmative action and diversity management </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the primary principles of the South African Constitution and other related employment legislation regarding discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the two types of sexual harassment and how employers should respond to complaints </li></ul>
  43. 54. South Africa’s diverse population <ul><li>Ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Younger workers </li></ul><ul><li>Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual/affectional orientation </li></ul>
  44. 55. An organisational fitness model <ul><li>Refer to Figure 3.1 page 69 </li></ul>
  45. 56. Managing diversity <ul><li>A planned systematic and comprehensive managerial process for developing an organisational environment in which all employees, with their similarities and differences, can contribute to the strategic and competitive advantage of the organisation, and where no‑one is excluded on the basis of factors unrelated to productivity </li></ul>
  46. 57. Managing diversity <ul><li>What is diversity? Recognition of the groups of people who share such common traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes & prejudices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotype – a fixed, distorted generalisation about the members of a group: it is not generalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudice – processing our stereotypes in such a way to reinforce your own sense of superiority to members of that group </li></ul></ul>
  47. 58. Managing diversity (continued) <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity awareness training </li></ul>
  48. 59. Managing diversity (continued) <ul><li>Problems with diversity training </li></ul><ul><li>Language sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>The multicultural organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can an organisation truly become a multicultural organisation? </li></ul></ul>Step 1 Unfreezing Step 2 Moving Step 3 Refreezing
  49. 60. Response to diversity: Government legislation <ul><li>LRA 66 of 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution 108 of 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>BCEA 75 of 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>EEA 55 of 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of equality and prevention of unfair discrimination act 4 of 2000 </li></ul>
  50. 61. Sexual harassment <ul><li>Defining sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring & researching sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Different forms of sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>HR’s responsibility </li></ul>
  51. 62. Summary <ul><li>The rapid diversification of the South African workforce is changing the way in which managers succeed in administrating organisations. They must be able to harness the energies, talents and differences of a more diversified workforce. This requires an ability to recognise value and to manage individuals from diverse cultures and perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity‑awareness training and diversity programmes strive to increase employees' recognition of the value of everyone in the workplace. Some programmes, however, have caused problems among certain employees. To achieve diversity, HR managers must: (1) hire a diverse workforce; (2) enforce policies and laws on discrimination; and (3) learn to value and manage employees' differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative action programmes by employers seek to determine areas of under use of women and disadvantaged group members. Employers establish goals and timetables to increase recruitment and selection of women and other groups in underutilised job categories. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  52. 63. <ul><li>Government legislation has greatly affected the selection process. Employers must ensure that their recruitment practices are nondiscriminatory and that each applicant is given an equal opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment has developed into a complex but critical HR issue. Both quid pro quo and hostile environment forms of harassment are clearly prohibited. Employers realise that developing complaint investigation procedures and training supervisors to respond must be done before a complaint is filed to provide objectivity. </li></ul>Summary Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  53. 69. The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations Emerging HR practices 2 CHAPTER 4: HR planning, research & problem-solving CHAPTER 5: Job design and job analysis CHAPTER 6: Recruitment & selection CHAPTER 7: Induction, motivation & retention CHAPTER 8: Internal staffing & career management Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  54. 70. Chapter 4 – HR planning, research and problem-solving
  55. 71. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Define strategic human resource planning (SHRP) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of SHRP to the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the steps in the SHRP process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the methods by which an organisation can develop forecasts of anticipated personnel (supply and demand) </li></ul><ul><li>List several common pitfalls in SHRP </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the importance of the HR research function and cite the individuals and institutions that conduct HR research </li></ul>
  56. 72. Chapter outcomes (continued) <ul><li>Provide an overview of the major HR research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Describe in detail the employee survey process - by far the most common form of HR research </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the importance of conducting - whenever possible - a cost-benefit analysis of HR activities and to provide an example using employee absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Cite some of the major personnel/HR problems - absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction and perceptions of unfairness </li></ul>
  57. 73. Types of HR planning <ul><li>Input linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Decision inclusion linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Review and reaction linkages </li></ul>
  58. 74. <ul><li>Planning horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy-linked HRP </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for SHRP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main responsibility lies with HR managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR managers must liaise with line management </li></ul></ul>
  59. 75. <ul><li>Why is SHRP so important? </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of SHRP </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in the SHRP process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR demand analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR supply analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common pitfalls in SHRP </li></ul>
  60. 76. HR research <ul><li>Types of research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic/Pure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The researchers </li></ul><ul><li>HR research publications </li></ul>
  61. 77. Research techniques <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific-use questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exit interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Historical study </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled experiments </li></ul>
  62. 78. <ul><li>HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-benefit analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving and analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researching absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing absenteeism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover </li></ul></ul>
  63. 79. <ul><li>Problem-solving and analysis (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of fairness </li></ul></ul>
  64. 80. <ul><li>Problem-solving and analysis (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions of fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural & distributive justice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring perceptions of fairness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Researching fairness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing unfairness </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 81. Factors that affect turnover Employee turnover Demographic factors General economic trends Local labour market Personal mobility Job security
  66. 82. Summary <ul><li>SHRP is the process of getting the right number of qualified people into the right job at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>To be effective, the SHR plan must be derived from the long-range plans of the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy-linked HRP is based on a close working relationship between HR staff and line managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Various methods for forecasting HR needs exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound HR research can significantly strengthen an organisation’s HR programmes. Some specific uses of research include measurement and evaluation of current personnel policies, programmes and activities, and appraisal of proposed policies, programmes and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Research is generally classified as basic or applied. Most HR research is applied research to solve a particular problem or evaluate a proposed HR programme or activity. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  67. 83. Summary <ul><li>HR research is conducted by a variety of individuals and public and private organisations, including government departments, private organisations, personnel associations, universities and individual business firms. In a business firm, HR research is usually conducted by a member of the personnel staff. Results are available in a number of journals and other publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques that are frequently used in HR research include surveys, specific-use questionnaires, interviews and historical studies. The controlled experiment has only limited use because of the difficulties in applying this technique in an organisational setting. The primary uses of surveys, questionnaires and interviews are to gather employees’ feelings and perceptions about areas of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction and to evaluate present and proposed HR programmes and policies. </li></ul><ul><li>An important requirement for HR research is a valid HRIS. Without relevant information, it will not only be difficult to carry out meaningful research but the HR staff’s day-to-day effectiveness will also be limited. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  68. 84. Summary <ul><li>Whenever possible, HR professionals should analyse HR problems and evaluate their programmes using a cost-benefit analysis. Some problems and activities that lend themselves to this form of analysis are turnover, absenteeism, attitudes and employee grievances. </li></ul><ul><li>Although HR professionals and line managers must confront a wide array of people problems, a small, hard-core group of problems seem to permeate many organisations and consume an inordinate amount of the time of line and staff decision-makers. These problems typically include absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction and unfairness. For problems such as these, decision-makers must, through the use of HR research, systematically analyse the extent of the problem in their organisations, determine where the problems exist and develop strategies to overcome them. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  69. 90. Chapter 5 – Job design and job analysis
  70. 91. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Discuss workflow analysis and business process re-engineering as approaches to organisational work. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the design of a job affects employee motivation and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Show various methods of designing motivating jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how motivating jobs can be created by building work teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of radically new organisational programmes such as TQM. </li></ul>
  71. 92. Chapter outcomes (continued) <ul><li>Understand the basic elements of a job analysis programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the end products of job analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major methods of job analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the future use and updating of job analysis information. </li></ul><ul><li>Cite techniques useful in writing job descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the major elements of job descriptions and job specifications. </li></ul>
  72. 93. Dividing work into jobs <ul><li>Work – effort directed towards producing and accomplishing results </li></ul><ul><li>Job – grouping of tasks, duties & responsibilities that constitute the total work assignment </li></ul><ul><li>As organisations change, these tasks, duties & responsibilities may also change over time </li></ul><ul><li>When all jobs are added together they should = the amount of “work” that is to be completed </li></ul>
  73. 94. Dividing work into jobs (continued) <ul><li>Workflow analysis – studies the way work moves through the organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts with examination of desired & actual outputs (goods & services) into quantity & quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities (tasks & jobs) that lead to the outputs are evaluated to see if they can achieve the desired outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs (people, material, information, data, equipment etc) must be assessed to determine if these inputs make the outputs & activities more efficient </li></ul></ul>
  74. 95. Dividing work into jobs (continued) <ul><li>Re-engineering – generates the needed changes in the business processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of business process re-engineering  improve such activities as product development, customer service & service delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require the use of work teams, training employees to do more than one job and reorganising operations, workflow and offices to simplify and speed up the work </li></ul></ul>
  75. 96. Designing jobs <ul><li>Major HR concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job design (JD) – determines how work is performed & greatly affects how an employee feels about a job, how much authority an employee has over the work, how much decision-making the employee performs on the job and how many tasks the employee should complete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JD determines working relationship with employees & relationship among employees </li></ul></ul>
  76. 97. Designing jobs (continued) <ul><ul><li>JD determines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of social relationships that exist on a job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships between the employee and the work </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 98. A framework for job design Feedback Feedback Task Accomplishment Productivity Effectiveness Efficiency Worker reaction Satisfaction Absenteeism Turnover Job content Task variety, autonomy, complexity, difficulty, identity Job functions Responsibility, authority, information flow, work methods, co-ordination requirements Relationships Dealing with others, friendship opportunities, teamwork requirements Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  78. 99. Major approaches to job design <ul><li>Specialisation-intensive jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job simplification (job specialisation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation intensive jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job enlargement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job enrichment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work teams </li></ul></ul>
  79. 100. Advantages - Major approaches to job design <ul><li>Specialisation intensive </li></ul><ul><li> Productivity of skilled workers </li></ul><ul><li> Training time required </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to replace workers </li></ul><ul><li>Few mental work errors </li></ul><ul><li>Greater manager control of operations </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation intensive </li></ul><ul><li> Productivity of challenged workers </li></ul><ul><li> Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li> Turnover </li></ul><ul><li> Product quality </li></ul><ul><li>More employee ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Greater employee job satisfaction </li></ul>
  80. 101. New organisational approaches <ul><li>Total quality management (TQM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the quality of all the processes that lead to the final product or service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be successful it requires support of top management & the belief that quality is a key part of every employee’s job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer focus in the process of designing and improving quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper implementation requires a clear vision & support of top management and a focus on results NOT the process </li></ul></ul>
  81. 102. The office environment <ul><li>Work environment (space, workstations, light etc) affects employee morale, productivity and quality, absenteeism & turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity can happen anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Retain the services of an architect or design consultant </li></ul>
  82. 103. Robotics <ul><li>The use of robots to perform routine tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial robots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropomorphic (approximate the appearance and functions of humans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonanthropomorphi c (machine-like and have limited functions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First-generation robots – performed simple jobs and had limited capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Second-generation robots – built with senses, vision or touch, making them more adaptable </li></ul><ul><li>New robots - perform most of the drilling, shaping & bending tasks previously performed by robots </li></ul>
  83. 104. Ergonomics <ul><li>Taking into account the human factor in designing the employee’s workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between the employees and their workstations – machines used, lighting, noise, chairs etc, these can affect productivity </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Employee handbook identifies the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul>
  84. 105. Productivity measures <ul><li>Quantity or volume produced </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate measure of productivity is vital to organisational improvement effort </li></ul><ul><li>Gain competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to improve productivity & quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on employee seeing a link between what they produce & what the company is attempting to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will work for one company may not for another </li></ul></ul>
  85. 106. Productivity measures (continued) <ul><li>Organisations must be careful not to measure the wrong things or overlook those that are critical to success </li></ul><ul><li>Merely implementing quality techniques, including employee empowerment and benchmarking will not produce benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity is the relationship between what is put into a piece of work (input) and what is yielded (output) </li></ul>
  86. 107. Three major components of productivity Effectiveness “ Doing the right things” Resource market Market needs Utilisation & efficiency “ Doing things right” The production process Labour, materials and capital Inputs Conversion Goods and services Outputs Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  87. 108. Three major components of productivity <ul><li>Utilisation – the extent to which we use resources </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency – rate of conversion while resources are being used </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness – measured in terms of “doing the right things” </li></ul>
  88. 109. Other JD issues <ul><li>Work schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexitime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed workweeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative physical work locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></ul>
  89. 110. The nature of job analysis (JA) <ul><li>Job analysis – systematically investigate the tasks, duties and responsibilities of the jobs within the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Investigates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills employees need to do a job adequately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy of the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental effort required to perform the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines operated, reports completed & special financial/other responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions (levels of temperature, light etc) </li></ul></ul>
  90. 111. The importance of JA <ul><li>New realities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational restructuring due to downsizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need to motivate and reward people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of technology on jobs throughout the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour legislation pertaining to employment equity and general discriminatory practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The implementation of teams </li></ul></ul>
  91. 112. Components of a job <ul><li>To understand a specific job and to be able to make comparisons among or between jobs, it is important that anyone analysing a job should know that it can be broken down into several components and arranged into a hierarchy of work activities </li></ul>
  92. 113. Hierarchy of work activities Job family Occupation Job Position Duty Task Element
  93. 114. Programme implementation <ul><li>Committee review </li></ul><ul><li>Information collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site observations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work sampling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PAQ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FJA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CMQ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WPS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  94. 115. Programme implementation <ul><li>Information review </li></ul><ul><li>Product completion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job description (JD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of a JD: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wage/salary surveys </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outplacement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 116. Programme implementation <ul><li>Product completion (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job description (JD) (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elements of a JD: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job identification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job summary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job duties & responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job specification (JS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Future use & updating </li></ul>
  96. 117. JA problems <ul><li>Employee fear </li></ul><ul><li>Need to update information regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Job is held by only one or two employees </li></ul>
  97. 118. Summary <ul><li>Understanding how people are motivated, that is, their needs and goals, is critical to modern job design. </li></ul><ul><li>The task employees perform on the job and the variety, difficulty level and autonomy of the job greatly affect job satisfaction and productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees, individually or in work teams, are being asked to take on greater responsibility for the design and control of their jobs. Simple, repetitious tasks are eliminated whenever possible, generally resulting in jobs that are more motivating and challenging. At the same time, some degree of job specialisation is necessary so that new employees can learn their jobs quickly and make fewer errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes such as job enrichment, self-managed work groups, TQM and re-engineering have resulted in redesigned jobs that were previously highly specialised and boring. There is also a trend toward multiskilling, whereby team members learn multiple tasks. Organisations are adopting work teams and giving them more freedom and responsibilities. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  98. 119. Summary <ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the fastest-growing productivity improvement programmes in the world. It is based on the principle of commitment to continuous improvement and meeting customers' needs. It is largely a bottom-up change effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-engineering is more radical. It involves more than tweaking old procedures; it is the redesign of business processes to achieve major gains in cost, service or time. The process begins with the simple but powerful question: If we could start from scratch, how would we do this? It is different from TQM because it comes from the top down. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology plays an important role in modern job design. Robotics, ergonomics and the office environment can improve employee creativity, productivity and quality. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  99. 120. Summary <ul><li>In addition to job design, organisations may choose to implement programmes that increase workplace flexibility. These programmes tend to adopt a scheduling mix between employees' needs and the organisation's staffing requirements in ways that are consistent with the company's culture. Compressed work weeks, flexitime programmes and telecommuting are the most common approaches. Employees who desire greater control over work hours, who would like easier commuting or want a different lifestyle will be attracted to organisations that offer these types of programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>A sound JA programme produces many benefits for an organisation. Information critical to employment and compensation is collected on a systematic basis. JDs, JSs and JEs can easily be produced from the JA data. Thus, critical HR practices such as hiring, wage determination and administrative record-keeping are assisted by job analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Information collection should always begin by conducting a background search. Internal sources can include previous job analyses, interviews with job incumbents and job supervisors, site observations by the analyst, questionnaires and diaries. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  100. 121. Summary <ul><li>There is a variety of job analysis methods, with each having certain advantages, depending on the purpose, cost and time. The most popular method is the PAQ. A more complex method that demands computer analysis and that can handle thousands of jobs and people is the FJA. </li></ul><ul><li>Job analysis is necessary to comply with the primary employment provisions. The process helps to determine essential functions and whether an individual can carry out the essential functions with or without reasonable accommodation. </li></ul><ul><li>Job descriptions generally should contain a complete identification of the job and its location within the organisation. The section on duties and responsibilities should group all tasks into major functional categories, and each entry should begin with verbs. Job specifications should include all SKAs needed to perform the job, as well as other minimum qualifications. </li></ul>
  101. 127. Chapter 6 – Recruitment & selection
  102. 128. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Identify different ways that labour markets can be identified and approached </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal versus external recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Identify internal and external methods of recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>List and discuss a number of hiring alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the HR department's role in the selection process </li></ul>
  103. 129. Chapter outcomes (continued) <ul><li>Diagram and discuss the sequence of a typical selection process </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss several types of selection interviews and some key considerations when conducting these interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the merits of references </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various decision strategies for selection </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how legal concerns impact on both recruitment and selection </li></ul>
  104. 130. Definitions <ul><li>Recruitment – the process of acquiring applicants who are available and qualified to fill positions in organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Selection - the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position </li></ul>
  105. 131. Linking the role of recruitment and selection External labour market Selection activities Recruitment activities Organisation’s need for additional labour
  106. 132. The recruitment process Environment HRP AA & EE Specific requests Satisfactory pool of recruits Manager’s comments JA info Job openings identified Job requirements Internal sources Internal methods External sources External methods
  107. 133. Recruitment strategies in a diverse workforce <ul><li>Non-traditional recruitment strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantaged training programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learnerships and mentoring programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career exhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telerecruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity data banks </li></ul></ul>
  108. 134. Labour markets information <ul><li>Labour market sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part-time employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underemployed individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operation of the labour market </li></ul>
  109. 135. Recruitment sources <ul><li>Internal sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Also discuss employee relocation, glass ceiling) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(also discuss Peter Principle) </li></ul></ul>
  110. 136. Advantages <ul><li>Internal recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Morale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain effect of promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to hire at entry level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually faster, less expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicant pool is bigger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New ideas, contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Internal infighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimises Peter Principle </li></ul></ul>
  111. 137. Disadvantages <ul><li>Internal recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhealthy competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbreeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morale problem for those not promoted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong management development programme needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy incentive of employees to strive for promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual’s ability to fit in is unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased adjustment problem </li></ul></ul>
  112. 138. Methods of recruitment <ul><li>Internal methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job posting </li></ul></ul>
  113. 139. Methods of recruitment <ul><li>External methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee referrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University campus recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private employment agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio, TV & the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  114. 140. Hiring alternatives <ul><li>Assigning overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary help </li></ul><ul><li>Leasing employees </li></ul>
  115. 141. Recruitment and the law <ul><li>LRA 66 of 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>BCEA 75 of 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>EEA 55 of 1998 </li></ul>
  116. 142. Selection <ul><li>An HR responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Selection and the law </li></ul><ul><li>Selection process </li></ul>
  117. 143. Framework for selection Organisational goals Job design Job success criterion Job specification Selection instruments Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  118. 144. Steps in the selection process Initial screening Application blank Pre-employment testing Interviews Reference checks Medical examination Comply? Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No Reject Job offer Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  119. 145. Initial screening (step 1) <ul><li>Removing obviously unqualified/undesired applicants </li></ul><ul><li>Critical job specifications or requirements of EEA </li></ul><ul><li>CV red flags </li></ul><ul><li>CV tracking system </li></ul>
  120. 146. Application blank (step 2) <ul><li>Information obtained is compared to JS to determine if there is a potential match </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted application blank </li></ul><ul><li>CV method </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of application blank </li></ul>
  121. 147. Pre-employment testing (step 3) <ul><li>Reliability of a test refers to consistency of measurement, usually across time but also across different raters </li></ul><ul><li>Validity is the extent to which scores on a test or interview correspond to actual job performance </li></ul>
  122. 148. Pre-employment testing (continued) <ul><li>Employment Equity Act Section 8 of Chapter II </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial selection devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment centres </li></ul></ul>
  123. 149. Interviews (step 4) <ul><li>Purpose of the interview: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the applicant have the ability to perform the job? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the applicant be motivated to be successful? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the applicant match the needs of the organisation? </li></ul></ul>
  124. 150. Interviews (continued) <ul><li>Reliability & validity of interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with interview </li></ul><ul><li>Structured & objective process </li></ul><ul><li>Effective interviewing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing the application blank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training the interviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job-related questions </li></ul></ul>
  125. 151. Interviews (continued) <ul><li>Types of interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-on-One </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured interview (directive/patterned) </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic job preview </li></ul>
  126. 152. Reference checks (step 5) <ul><li>Methods (personal visits, telephonic, mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone – advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively little expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A structured form </li></ul></ul>
  127. 153. Reference checks (continued) <ul><li>Personal references </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify data received on application blank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the quality of the personal recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine how well the person knows the applicant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Previous employers </li></ul>
  128. 154. Medical examination (step 6) <ul><li>After job offer has been made </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent to passing the medical examination </li></ul><ul><li>EEA Section 7(1) and (2) & Section 50(4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can test if it can be justified </li></ul></ul>
  129. 155. The selection decision <ul><li>Compensatory selection – all applicants who pass the initial screening will be tested, interviewed etc </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple hurdles selection – applicant needs to pass each hurdle (step) </li></ul>
  130. 156. Record keeping <ul><li>EEA </li></ul><ul><li>LRA </li></ul><ul><li>Keep complete set of records of the recruitment and selection process </li></ul><ul><li>Proof of non-discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Keep documents such as advertisements, contract with employment agencies etc </li></ul>
  131. 157. Summary <ul><li>Recruitment requires the HR specialist to acquire a pool of available and qualified applicants. The recruiters can tap a variety of sources, including current employees, part-time workers, the unemployed and employees of other organisations who feel they are underemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Job-posting programmes are widely used to recruit applicants for positions. New voice-mail and electronic-mail systems offer several advantages over traditional bulletin boards. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective recruitment advertising has increased because of the use of common marketing research tools. The need for advertising has increased because of dual-career couples and a general unwillingness to relocate on the part of professional and technical employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Current employees are the most common source of applicants for higher-level positions. They offer the organisation several advantages over external applicants and give all employees the incentive of knowing that they may be promoted as a reward for hard work. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  132. 158. Summary <ul><li>Overtime, temporary help and leasing are alternative sources of additional labour. Depending on the number of hours and skills needed, these recruitment sources may be more desirable than hiring permanent employees. </li></ul><ul><li>University/school campus recruitment has become more competitive and employers more sophisticated in their methods. A poor economy should signal to students the need to sue innovative job leads. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-employment tests can be effective tools in the selection process. If carefully selected, validated and monitored, they can help select applicants who will match the position's requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference checking has increased in use but has been subjected to legal challenges. Employers can legally provide factual and accurate information, but they should be able to verify any job-related information they release. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  133. 164. Chapter 7 – Induction, motivation and retention
  134. 165. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Identify different ways that labour markets can be identified and approached </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal versus external recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Identify internal and external methods of recruiting </li></ul><ul><li>List and discuss a number of hiring alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the HR department's role in the selection process </li></ul>
  135. 166. Chapter outcomes (continued) <ul><li>Diagram and discuss the sequence of a typical selection process </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss several types of selection interviews and some key considerations when conducting these interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the merits of references </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various decision strategies for selection </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how legal concerns impact on both recruitment and selection </li></ul>
  136. 167. Definition <ul><li>Induction/orientation/socialisation – the process of integrating the new employee into the organisation and acquainting him/her with the details and requirements of the job </li></ul>
  137. 168. Objectives of induction <ul><li>Acquainting new employees with job procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing relationships with co-workers, including subordinates and supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a sense of belonging among employees by showing them how their job fits into the overall organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Acquainting new employees with the goals of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Indicating to the employees the preferred means by which these goals should be attained </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the basic responsibilities of the job </li></ul><ul><li>Indicating the required behaviour patterns for effective job performance </li></ul>
  138. 169. Model for induction <ul><li>Phase I – Anticipatory socialisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realism about the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realism about the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence of skills and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence of needs and values </li></ul></ul>
  139. 170. Model for induction (continued) <ul><li>Phase II – Encounter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of outside-life conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of intergroup role conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation to the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation to the group </li></ul></ul>
  140. 171. Model for induction (continued) <ul><li>Phase III – Change and acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution of role demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustment to group norms and values </li></ul></ul>
  141. 172. Benefits of induction <ul><li> Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li> Labour turnover </li></ul><ul><li> Commitment to values and goals </li></ul><ul><li> Performance as a result of faster learning times </li></ul><ul><li> Costly and time-consuming mistakes </li></ul><ul><li> Absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li> Customer service through heightened productivity </li></ul><ul><li> Manager/subordinate relationships </li></ul><ul><li> Understanding of company policies, goals and procedures </li></ul>
  142. 173. Reasons for the lack of effective induction <ul><li>The supervisors responsible for the task either lack the time or ability to fulfil this obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations do not regard anxiety and stress, owing to insecurity and unfulfilled expectations, as a primary cause of labour turnover among new employees. They therefore consider induction to reduce anxiety and stress as unnecessary </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations regard effective recruitment, selection, training and development as substitutes for induction </li></ul><ul><li>Where induction programmes are introduced, the key components are lacking </li></ul>
  143. 174. Reasons for the lack of effective induction (continued) <ul><li>Induction is aimed at inducing new employees to adhere to organisational practices and procedures while little attention is paid to instilling loyalty and commitment to the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Employees who are transferred or promoted within the organisation are not subjected to induction programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Induction programmes are not followed up, i.e. the success of these programmes is not determined </li></ul><ul><li>Induction programmes often concentrate on promoting the image of the organisation </li></ul>
  144. 175. Responsibility for induction <ul><li>The supervisor - ensures that the employees in the section receive all the information necessary to enable them to function as efficiently and effectively as possible (introduction of new employees to co-workers, explaining job duties and responsibilities as well as policies, procedures, rules and regulations and also taking the employees on a familiarisation tour of the workplace) </li></ul><ul><li>The head of department - meets all new employees and briefly explains to them the role and responsibilities of the particular department within the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>The human resources department - the employment contract, compensation, loan facilities, medical schemes, pension plans and the development and monitoring of the success of the induction programme </li></ul>
  145. 176. Responsibility for induction (continued) <ul><li>A 'mentor' or 'buddy‘ - responsible for assisting the new employee regarding how to operate basic equipment such as photocopiers, telephones and faxes and how to dispose of the mail. He/she may also demonstrate how to log on to computers, generate passwords and use basic programs (junior member of the workgroup). </li></ul><ul><li>The shop steward/staff representative - explains issues such as grievance and disciplinary procedures </li></ul><ul><li>New employees - responsible for the completion of induction evaluation forms. They must also provide informal feedback to the HR department and supervisors if requested </li></ul>
  146. 177. Who should be given induction training? <ul><li>New employees - do not assume that new employees would immediately know what it has taken others months or years to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred/promoted employees - current employees who have been transferred or promoted within the organisation should receive induction training (especially if it involves a significant change of environment) </li></ul><ul><li>All current employees - reinduction programme involving all current employees should take place periodically (important if significant changes in organisational policies or structures have taken place eg. if one organisation is purchased by another) </li></ul>
  147. 178. Scope of induction training <ul><li>Two levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General organisational induction – affect all employees in the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific departmental induction – tailored to the new employee’s specific department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee handbook – review regularly, guard against too much detail, mention topics briefly, could also be on website </li></ul>
  148. 179. Approaches in induction <ul><li>3 basic approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiovisual </li></ul></ul>Formal induction Informal induction
  149. 180. How long should the induction training be? <ul><li>Avoid cramming all induction (detailed information) into one long session </li></ul><ul><li>Sessions should not be longer than 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Period of induction should be linked to time it takes to become effective </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up sessions are important after ± 2 months </li></ul>
  150. 181. Planning an induction programme <ul><li>Developing induction programme takes 3-6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Key planning considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Induction policy - properly formulated induction policy, drawn up jointly by management & employees adopted by top management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget - adequate budget should be made available for this purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other planning considerations - A number of other aspects must also be considered: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time needed to plan & implement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  151. 182. Planning an induction programme (continued) <ul><ul><li>Other planning considerations - A number of other aspects must also be considered: (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programme goals, topics to be included, methods of organising and presenting them, duration of induction sessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Materials, facilities and personnel to be used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General organisation topics versus department and job topics to be covered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications and training needs of human resources personnel, line managers and supervisors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programme flexibility to accommodate employee differences in education, intelligence and work experience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  152. 183. Designing an induction programme <ul><li>Different groups in the organisation require different induction programmes (eg. management & non-management) </li></ul><ul><li>Design programme to include all the information the newcomer will “need to know” and the “nice to know” as well </li></ul><ul><li>“ Need to know” – information the newcomer requires as soon as possible to fit in & be effective </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nice to know” – can be given over a period of time as they settle in </li></ul>
  153. 184. Designing an induction programme (continued) <ul><li>Categories of information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job-related information - describes what the job entails and how it is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General information - includes a great deal of information, such as fringe benefits, safety and accident prevention and physical facilities </li></ul></ul>
  154. 185. Implementing the induction programme <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-employment preparation - process begins during recruitment and selection stage, first impressions are formed at this stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-employment information - formal letter of appointment (containing: a JD, starting salary, salary progression, grade of job, basic terms & conditions of employment, location of job and probationary period, indicate whether job offer is conditional upon satisfactory references/medical checks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st day instructions - job accepted in writing, the newcomer should be sent instructions for the first day. Copy of letter sent to supervisor. Should include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Office number & locality of the building to report for duty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name & job title of person to whom the employee must report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date to report & starting time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What they should bring when reporting for duty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  155. 186. Implementing the induction programme (continued) <ul><li>Steps: (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The welcome pack - contains more information on the organisation, could also be sent. Following items can be included: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A letter of welcome from the managing director of the organisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational charts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Details of rules and conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A letter of welcome from the recognised trade union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Map of the facility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone numbers and locations of key personnel and operations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed outline of emergency and accident-prevention procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organising the work - duties that the new employee will perform must be discussed by the supervisor and his employees. The new employee must be given some meaningful work on the first day </li></ul></ul>
  156. 187. Implementing the induction programme (continued) <ul><li>Steps: (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefing colleagues - other staff should be briefed about the new employee (should be informed of the name of the newcomer, the post to which he or she has been appointed, his or her background, job location and the date of commencement of duties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative arrangements - office of newcomer must be cleaned and made ready for arrival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training – consider any training needed by newcomer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first day induction – should be short, the newcomer should start rather late and leave earlier than normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On arrival - when a new employee arrives at the workplace for the first time it is important that the person who meets him/her has prior knowledge of his or her arrival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic information - newcomer may first be introduced to a senior manager/ proceed directly to the HR department (banking details, new address/telephone number will be obtained etc) </li></ul></ul>
  157. 188. Implementing the induction programme (continued) <ul><li>Steps: (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The initial discussion - paperwork completed, time to meet the department head (initial conversation, cover mutual expectations & give an idea of what to expect during the 1st day & week) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building the relationship - department head should establish rapport (built on mutual respect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate supervisor - will introduce the newcomer to fellow workers & also conduct a tour of the workplace (briefly discuss the JD, standards & assessment) inform when and where required to attend induction lectures/sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The buddy or mentor - should be about the same age and grade as newcomer (will assist regarding questions as they arise, temporary arrangement) </li></ul></ul>
  158. 189. Evaluation of the induction programme <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To ensure that the organisation is spending its money wisely and achieving positive results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That the methods used to assist new employees to integrate and become effective workers in the organisation are the most suitable </li></ul></ul>
  159. 190. Evaluation of the induction programme <ul><li>Use questionnaires, surveys, exit interviews and course evaluation forms, qualitative information can also be gathered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should be involved? Depending on the type of information to be collected, the HR department will be directly involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will be measured? Various elements will need to be measured over different time scales </li></ul></ul>
  160. 191. Motivation <ul><li>Completing the induction process does not guarantee satisfactory employee performance </li></ul><ul><li>Many factors affect performance abilities, efforts expended & continued organisational support received </li></ul><ul><li>HR should analyse and address these areas </li></ul>
  161. 192. Motivation <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The force that energises behaviour, gives direction to behaviour and underlies the tendency to persist even in the face of obstacles </li></ul></ul>
  162. 193. Motivation <ul><li>Motivators are specific to an individual </li></ul><ul><li>A manager should attempt to meet the employee’s important needs/basic requirements for worker productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased diversity of workforce </li></ul>
  163. 194. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Physical needs Security needs Social needs Self-esteem needs Self-actualisation needs
  164. 195. Alderfer’s ERG theory <ul><li>Closely related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>ERG ( e xistence, r elatedness and g rowth) </li></ul><ul><li>Differences do exist, however </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer proposes that, when one need is frustrated, we simply concentrate on the others </li></ul>
  165. 196. Achievement motivation <ul><li>David McClelland </li></ul><ul><li>3 needs are emphasised: achievement, affiliation & power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need to achieve (N ach) - preoccupation to focus on goals, improving performance and tangible results (associated with self-discipline, schedule-keeping, accepting responsibility and becoming success-oriented, often associated with lack of group orientation) </li></ul></ul>
  166. 197. Achievement motivation (continued) <ul><ul><li>The need for affiliation (N aff) - motivates people to make friends, to become members of groups and to associate with others (focus on human companionship, interpersonal relations & concern for others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for power (N pow) - desire to obtain & exercise control over others, resources and the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N aff + N pow strong  individual demonstrates a propensity for either totalitarian methods of control or more democratic methods </li></ul><ul><li>N Ach + N pow  different types of assertive behaviours and management styles </li></ul>
  167. 198. Goal setting <ul><li>Edwin Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Job performance can be increased through goal setting - when individuals are given measurable goals rather than vague performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Best-known expression of goal setting theory is management by objectives (MBO) </li></ul>
  168. 199. Goal setting (continued) <ul><li>Goal-setting strategies involve a systematic process  manager & subordinate discuss and agree on a set of jointly determined goals </li></ul><ul><li>Present a case for or against each goal </li></ul><ul><li>Final result - a set of goals that is in keeping with the overall goals of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback on progress is periodically supplied, enabling the worker to make necessary corrections </li></ul><ul><li>Link between performance & rewards is clear (emphasis on what is achieved rather than on how ) </li></ul>
  169. 200. Positive reinforcement <ul><li>The practice of giving valued rewards to someone who has just engaged in a desired behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Law of effect - behaviour that leads to a pleasant response will be repeated, whereas behaviour that results in an unpleasant response tends not to be repeated </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is at the heart of merit increases </li></ul><ul><li>For reinforcement to continue to affect employees’ future behaviour manager must make certain that rewards are meaningful and desired by each employee </li></ul><ul><li>Manager must tailor the reward, whether it be recognition, pay or changing job requirements, to fit the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Manager must be sure that employees realise that rewards are contingent on correct behaviour. </li></ul>
  170. 201. Herzberg’s two-factor theory <ul><li>Frederick Herzberg </li></ul><ul><li>Motivator-hygiene factors - applied to the workplace and job design </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg noticed that people identified different things as sources of work dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) from those that were sources of satisfaction (motivators) </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and dissatisfaction not simple opposites </li></ul>
  171. 202. Herzberg’s two-factor theory (continued) Hygiene needs Motivator needs - job environ-ment creates demand for + job opportu-nities allow workers to achieve Hygiene factors: More money, better supervision, good working conditions etc Motivators: Achievement, responsibility, growth, work itself, recognition Level of job dissatis-faction Level of job performance Level of job satisfaction
  172. 203. Individual/organisational relationships <ul><li>The psychological contract - entails beliefs about what employees believe they are entitled to receive because they perceive their employer promised to provide these things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwritten </li></ul></ul>
  173. 204. Individual/organisational relationships (continued) <ul><li>The psychological contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violations of the psychological contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing of the psychological contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical implications for companies regarding psychological contracts </li></ul></ul>
  174. 205. Retention of human resources <ul><li>Compensation & benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational environment </li></ul><ul><li>Work/development environment </li></ul><ul><li>Work-life balance </li></ul>
  175. 206. Summary <ul><li>Starting a new job is not easy. It is important that careful attention be paid to the introduction of the new employee to the organisation, his or her co-workers and his or her job. This is also applicable to transferred and promoted employees. The method to achieve this is by means of a well-designed induction programme. </li></ul><ul><li>To implement the programme successfully requires the joint effort of the HR department, the line managers and the existing employees. </li></ul><ul><li>While the first day of the new employee at the organisation is critical, there are limits to what can be achieved and the induction will often have to be spread over a longer period. </li></ul><ul><li>When planning the induction programme, it is important to note not only the content of the programme but also the best way of handling it. The programme will also have to be monitored regularly to correct any problems and to see whether any redesign is necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful induction will lead to better-motivated employees and higher productivity within the organisation. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  176. 207. Summary <ul><li>After induction has been completed, it is important that the employee receives proper training in order to improve his or her skills within the job environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual performance components include individual ability, effort expended and organisational support. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation deals with the needs and desires of human behaviour. Various theories of motivation have been developed. </li></ul><ul><li>A psychological contract contains the unwritten expectations that employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationship. Those contracts are changing along with employee loyalty to their employers. </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of employees is a major focus of HR efforts in organisations. The determinants of retention can be broadly divided into four categories. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  177. 213. Chapter 8 – Internal staffing and career management issues
  178. 214. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Understand the reasons for the design of a proper internal staffing programme </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the factors that influence internal staffing decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Name the advantages of internal staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the various types of internal staffing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the guidelines for the selection of the best type of internal staffing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the elements necessary for a successful career management function </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the problems that typically confront employees when seeking to advance their careers </li></ul><ul><li>Define a plateaued employee </li></ul>
  179. 215. Reasons underlying the design of a proper internal staffing programme <ul><li>Employee dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing concerns with job security </li></ul><ul><li>Changing employee attitudes and concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Employment equity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Labour union presence </li></ul>
  180. 216. Factors influencing staffing decisions <ul><li>Organisation growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganisation </li></ul><ul><li>General economic trends and other issues </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition </li></ul>
  181. 217. Advantages of internal staffing <ul><li>Maintain closer control over the skills & work habits acquired by their existing employees </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually prepare employees to fill complicated or critical positions without overburdening their capacity to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Employers do not have to spend time orienting the new incumbents to the business environment or to standardise operating procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Have more detailed information about the abilities, aptitudes and work habits of internal employees </li></ul><ul><li>Employee satisfaction and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfil hiring goals and timetables specified in employment equity actions </li></ul><ul><li>Employees placed in the best interests of both the organisation and the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Can contribute to the organisation's bottom line </li></ul>
  182. 218. Requirements for effective internal staffing <ul><li>Pay close attention to identifying the current employee skill levels and development needs </li></ul><ul><li>Employees must be flexible to be able to move easily within the organisation and thus be better utilised </li></ul><ul><li>Multiskilling - broadening of employee's skills beyond the bounds of their current jobs, must be available </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that internal equity exists in matters such as compensation, promotion and access to training </li></ul><ul><li>HRIS should exist </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of top-level managers & line managers </li></ul>
  183. 219. Types of internal staffing strategies <ul><li>Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure selection strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational guidance strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise staffing strategy </li></ul></ul>
  184. 220. <ul><li>Selection ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Performance costs </li></ul><ul><li>Type of job </li></ul>Guidelines for the selection of the most effective internal staffing strategy
  185. 221. Various approaches to internal staffing <ul><li>2 objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee satisfaction and commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay-off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down-sizing/retrenchment </li></ul></ul>
  186. 222. Various approaches to internal staffing (continued) <ul><li>Moves: (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resignations, quits & dismissals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of employee separations </li></ul></ul>
  187. 223. Career management <ul><li>Career - sequence of jobs held during a person’s working life </li></ul><ul><li>Career management - process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies that enable HR professionals and managers to satisfy workforce needs and allow individuals to achieve their career objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Individual career planning - process whereby each employee personally plans career goals </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational career planning - process whereby management plans career goals for employees </li></ul>
  188. 224. Benefits to the organisation <ul><li>Staffing inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing from within </li></ul><ul><li>Solving staffing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying employee needs </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Employment equity </li></ul>
  189. 225. Changing face of career management <ul><li>Traditional path of career progression upwards has gone </li></ul><ul><li>Increased competition, cost competitiveness and information technology have all resulted in the de-manning and de-layering of organisational structures </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations have removed the rungs of the career ladder and instead are concentrating on the optimal use of their human resources </li></ul>
  190. 226. Changing face of career management <ul><li>Differences between levels in organisations with flatter structures are far greater, there is a qualitative leap rather than a quantitative step involved </li></ul><ul><li>Moves sideways rather than upwards are more frequent </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of a series of positions to an ultimate top position has been replaced by the individual’s acquisition of competencies which enable him/her to manage change at the next level of responsibility </li></ul>
  191. 227. Balancing individual and organisational needs Career management Organisation’s needs Individual’s needs Personal / Professional Strategic / Operational Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  192. 228. Successful career management <ul><li>Organisational career planning </li></ul><ul><li>Individual career planning </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating plans </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing plans </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of career plans </li></ul>
  193. 229. Other issues <ul><li>Plateaued employee </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-career couples </li></ul>
  194. 230. Summary <ul><li>The movement of employees from one post to another within an organisation is known as internal staffing. These movements are usually necessitated by growth factors, which may be either positive or negative in nature, or by employee losses from a variety of causes. </li></ul><ul><li>The movement of employees can be broadly classified into four categories: up, down, across and out of the organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to be effective, the manager should regularly review policies and programmes regarding internal staffing. Thus, in addition to possessing mechanisms for identifying where vacancies are likely to occur, and for the development of employees to fill them, all organisations should have established practical ways of handling all promotions, transfers, demotions and retrenchments, as well as retirements. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be a tried and satisfactory method of identifying the most suitable candidates, deciding among a variety of candidates, easing transitions across jobs and monitoring all these activities from an organisational and individual perspective. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  195. 231. Summary <ul><li>There are different types of strategy that can be used to assist with internal staffing decisions; these are a pure selection strategy, a vocational guidance strategy and a compromise strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Career management involves integration of organisational staffing needs with the career goals and aspirations of individuals. To be effective, career management should be formal and planned, should receive support from top management and should be recognised as a process that involves coordination of a number of separate yet interrelated HR tools and techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Once organisational HR staffing needs and personal career goals have been defined and integrated, a number of personnel practices can start a career in motion. These include job posting, PA and T & D activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-career couples should be prepared to deal with problems that include potential conflicts over career paths and the division of family responsibilities. Assistance from organisations may include dual-career audits, special recruiting techniques and special policies for dual-career couples. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  196. 237. The environment for HR Finding & placing qualified workers Assessing & developing qualified workers Labour relations Emerging HR practices 3 CHAPTER 9: Performance management & appraisal CHAPTER 10: Training & development CHAPTER 11: Managing compensation & benefits CHAPTER 12: Health & safety
  197. 238. Chapter 9 – Performance management and appraisal
  198. 239. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Explain the evaluative and developmental objectives of performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major performance appraisal methods </li></ul><ul><li>Design and evaluate a programme of performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss who should perform the appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Provide examples of several rater errors </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss several concerns about appraisal feedback interviews </li></ul>
  199. 240. Definitions <ul><li>Performance appraisal (PA) - ongoing process of evaluating and managing both the behaviour and outcomes in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Performance management (PM) - a broader term than performance appraisal , became popular in the 1980s as total quality management (TQM) programmes emphasised using all the management tools, including performance appraisal, to ensure achievement of performance goals </li></ul>
  200. 241. Organisational performance management cycle <ul><li>Refer to Figure 9.1 of Human Resource Management in South Africa </li></ul>
  201. 242. South Africa’s performance management dilemma <ul><li>Existence of negative working culture </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in corporate strategy did not result in corresponding behaviour changes </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient line management support for performance management </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic and formal performance reviews: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of follow-up of performance reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overemphasis on the appraisal aspect at the expense of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate performance information and inadequately maintained objectivity </li></ul></ul>
  202. 243. South Africa’s performance management dilemma (continued) <ul><li>A large number of organisations do not have a formal performance management system </li></ul>
  203. 244. Performance criteria <ul><li>3 types of performance criterion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait-based criteria - focus on the personal characteristics of an employee (eg. loyalty, dependability, creativity and communication skills, focus on what a person is, not on what he or she does or accomplishes on the job) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour-based criteria - specific behaviours that lead to job success (eg. instead of ranking leadership ability (a trait), the rater is asked to assess whether an employee exhibits certain behaviours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results or outcome-based criteria - focus on what was accomplished or produced rather than how it was accomplished or produced </li></ul></ul>
  204. 245. PA objectives <ul><li>Compensation decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate selection system </li></ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Direction for future performance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify T&D needs </li></ul>EVALUATE DEVELOPMENTAL
  205. 246. The appraisal process <ul><li>Steps in developing a PA system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine performance requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose an appropriate appraisal method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss methods with employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraise according to job standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss appraisal with employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine future performance goals </li></ul></ul>
  206. 247. Legal considerations <ul><li>Written appraisals conducted regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors should be trained </li></ul><ul><li>Apply consistent, explicit and objective </li></ul><ul><li>Audit system </li></ul><ul><li>Problem areas detailed & documented </li></ul><ul><li>Problems identified establish things for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Give employee clear opportunity to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Employer should be able to prove that employee received the appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation of PA should be restricted </li></ul><ul><li>Check past PAs </li></ul>
  207. 248. Methods for appraising performance <ul><li>Category rating </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic rating scale </li></ul><ul><li>Non graphic rating scale </li></ul><ul><li>Checklist of critical incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Force distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Paired comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural/objective </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural rating approaches </li></ul><ul><li>MBO </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Critical incidents </li></ul><ul><li>Essay </li></ul>PA methods Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  208. 249. MBO process MBO Goal setting Periodic review Self control Action planning Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  209. 250. Common rater errors <ul><li>Halo effect </li></ul><ul><li>Central tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Leniency </li></ul><ul><li>Rater bias </li></ul><ul><li>Strictness </li></ul><ul><li>Recency/primary effect </li></ul><ul><li>Overall ratings </li></ul>
  210. 251. Who should do the rating? <ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Peer evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Customer/client evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Self-ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse appraisals </li></ul><ul><li>Team portfolio appraisals </li></ul>
  211. 252. Assessment centres <ul><li>Many of the employee performance appraisal systems focus on the employee’s past performance </li></ul><ul><li>Using the assessment centre method it is also possible to, at the same time, attempt to assess a candidate’s potential for future advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment centres are used increasingly to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify employees who have higher level management potential; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select first-line supervisors; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine employee development needs. </li></ul></ul>
  212. 253. Monitoring employees on the job <ul><li>Possible to evaluate employee performance electronically </li></ul><ul><li>Video surveillance is used to discourage theft and other rule violations </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone surveillance of service representatives has been used for a long time to monitor the timing and content of customer contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programs can monitor keystrokes to track employee performance, eavesdrop on employee electronic mail (e-mail) and record who accesses which databases at what times </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring employees by computer or any other method is open to serious invasion and privacy issues </li></ul>
  213. 254. Systems approach to effective PAs Effective appraisal support Effective manager-rating practices Effective system design Top management support Appraisal outcome linked ratings Ongoing systems review Effective performance planning actv Ongoing appraisal & coaching Motivate raters to conduct effective appraisals Clear appraisal purpose Employee/ma-nager input in system design Properly trained personnel Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  214. 255. The appraisal interview <ul><li>Problems with the appraisal interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to give criticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality biases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to give effective feedback </li></ul></ul>
  215. 256. The appraisal interview (continued) <ul><li>Interview format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for the interview - important in a successful appraisal interview. Supervisor (or other rater) should gather and review all relevant performance records (these include all data regarding work output and quality, absenteeism and tardiness etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the purpose of the interview . The employee should be told if the interview will cover compensation and staffing decisions (merit increase, promotion, transfer, etc.), employee development or both </li></ul></ul>
  216. 257. The appraisal interview (continued) <ul><li>Interview format (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate specific areas of good performance and areas that need improvement - begin the discussion by highlighting areas of good performance. Appreciation and recognition for good work are important parts of the appraisal interview. Areas of performance in need of improvement are discussed next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invite participation . Throughout the employee should be invited to comment. This enables the employee to let off steam and tell why certain performance problems exist. It is also an opportune time to clear up any misunderstandings that may still exist about job expectations </li></ul></ul>
  217. 258. The appraisal interview (continued) <ul><li>Interview format (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on development - setting up the employee’s development programme. Employees are much more likely to be committed to developmental programmes if they agree with the supervisor that the programme is necessary to improve job skills and abilities. Employees who feel that no performance problems exist or that a programme of development is unnecessary to promote career goals will be uncommitted to development. Supervisors must clearly show their employees how development is related to job success </li></ul></ul>
  218. 259. The appraisal interview (continued) <ul><li>Problem-solving interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role, attitude & skills of interviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee’s motivation for change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks of interviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable results </li></ul></ul>
  219. 260. Summary <ul><li>Employees generally dislike and fear PA, and even supervisors find the process stressful. Employees tend to be satisfied with the process if the appraisal interview is constructive and if the chosen method is job-related and provides specific direction for future performance. </li></ul><ul><li>The PA process generally has two goals: (1) the evaluation of employees' past performance for salary and selection decisions; and (2) the improvement of future performance as a part of career development. The evaluative objective tends to dominate specific organisational uses of appraisal information. </li></ul><ul><li>The appraisal process should contain certain features. A standardised process should evaluate all employees in a consistent manner. Job analysis should be used in the content development to ensure job-relatedness. Supervisors should be trained in the process and should provide employees with direct written feedback from the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain rater errors, such as supervisor bias, halo effect or recency, can only be minimised; others, such as leniency or central tendency, can be eliminated. But forms that eliminate these problems generally contain their own problems. Each appraisal method has unique advantages and disadvantages but rating scales continue to be used most often by HR managers. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  220. 261. Summary <ul><li>The appraisal interview is the most important element in the PA process. Supervisors who dislike 'playing God' find it hard to act simultaneously as judge and friend. Supervisors need to be trained for and give adequate attention to the appraisal interview. Employee preparation can also help them to provide useful input into the discussion, as well as to be psychologically prepared for any possible negative feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations can benefit by periodically evaluating their appraisal programme. The HR department can provide feedback to supervisors about the quality of their appraisals and check for rater problems, such as the halo effect or leniency. Multiple raters - such as peers, customers and team ratings - may be used as information added to supervisor's ratings. </li></ul>Human Resource Management in South Africa 3/e by Grobler, W ä rnich et al ISBN 1-84480-328-7 © 2006 Thomson Learning
  221. 267. Chapter 10 – Training & development
  222. 268. Chapter outcomes <ul><li>Identify the major purposes of training and development (T&D) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the differences and similarities between employee training and management development </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to conduct a needs assessment, including performing organisational, job/task and individual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to design and deliver training </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the many on-the-job and away-from-the-job T&D techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to evaluate a training programme </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of the South African Qualifications Authority Act, No. 58 of 1995, the Skills Development Act, No. 97 of 1998 and the Skills Development Levies Act, No. 9 of 1999 towards addressing the serious skills shortages in South Africa <