Teach chap. 7 - memory - w 11 - instructor


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  • FIGURE 7.2 The Atkinson-Schiffrin model. Remembering is thought to involve at least three steps. Incoming information is fi rst held for a second or two by sensory memory. Information selected by attention is then transferred to temporary storage in short-term memory (STM). If new information is not rapidly encoded, or rehearsed, it is forgotten. If it is transferred to long-term memory (LTM), it becomes relatively permanent, although retrieving it may be a problem. The preceding is a useful, but highly simplifi ed, model of memory; it may not be literally true of what happens in the brain (Atkinson & Schiffrin, 1968; Goldstein, 2008).
  • FIGURE 7.7 The serial position effect. The graph shows the percentage of subjects correctly recalling each item in a 15-item list. Recall is best for the first and last items. (Data from Craik, 1970.)
  • FIGURE 7.11 Some of the distractor items used in a study of recognition memory and encoding failure. Penny A is correct but was seldom recognized. Pennies G and J were popular wrong answers. (Adapted from Nickerson & Adams, 1979.)
  • FIGURE 7.8 The curve of forgetting. This graph shows the amount remembered (measured by relearning) after varying lengths of time. Notice how rapidly forgetting occurs. The material learned was nonsense syllables. Forgetting curves for meaningful information also show early losses followed by a long gradual decline, but overall, forgetting occurs much more slowly. (Adapted from Ebbinghaus, 1885.)
  • Teach chap. 7 - memory - w 11 - instructor

    1. 1. Memory
    2. 2. Memory <ul><ul><li>Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Three Processes of Memory <ul><li>Encoding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting information into a useable form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding information in memory for later use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieval: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking memories out of storage </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Memory <ul><li>Information is stored: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Term Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Term Memory </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Sensory Memory <ul><li>The first stage of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Register (most temporary stage) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses 5 senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off the lights and whisper. What senses are evoked? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stores an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Selective attention – goes to Short Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore it … goes away </li></ul>
    6. 7. Short-Term Memory (STM) <ul><li>Holds small amounts of information briefly in consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone numbers, dates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be stored as images </li></ul><ul><li>Most stored as sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Introduced to Tim – call him Jim later – not Bob) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very sensitive to interruption or interference </li></ul>
    7. 8. Short-Term Memory Capacity <ul><li>Magic Number 7 (Plus or Minus 2 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information Bits: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful units of information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>342-27-9762 Social Security Number </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>248-739-8123 Telephone Number </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Rehearsal Needed to Store STM <ul><li>Maintenance Rehearsal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating information silently to prolong its presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 18 seconds without rehearsal – the memory is gone! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elaborative Rehearsal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearse new information and link it with old information (i.e. new recipe, new route) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good way to transfer STM » LTM </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Long-Term Memory (LTM) <ul><li>Stores information relatively permanently </li></ul><ul><li>Stored on basis of meaning and importance </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited storage capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will never fill your brain! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To keep it in long term memory must rehearse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look – 20 x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do - 20 x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recite - 20 x </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best way to keep it in LTM – tell it to someone! </li></ul>
    10. 11. Long Term Memory <ul><li>To remain in LTM – must regularly rehearse ! </li></ul><ul><li>Read these words once… </li></ul><ul><li>Bed, dream, blanket, doze, pillow, nap, snore, mattress, alarm, clock, rest, slumber, nod, sheet, bunk, cot, cradle, groggy </li></ul>
    11. 12. Types of Long-Term Memories <ul><li>Skill Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How are you? Fine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Riding a bike; driving; recipe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fact Memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term memory that contains factual information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steven Spielberg directed Jurassic Park </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Let’s Review <ul><li>Three Processes of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Short Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term Memory </li></ul>
    13. 14. Measuring Memory <ul><li>Serial Position Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to recall items in the middle of a list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E asiest to remember last items – still in STM! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests are designed to “catch the middle” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the 2 nd line of our National Anthem? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. Measuring Memory <ul><li>Sometimes we think we know but are caught by distractors </li></ul><ul><li>Distractors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False items included with a correct item </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Type of Memory – Flashbulb Memories <ul><li>Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events </li></ul><ul><li>September 11, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Includes positive and negative events </li></ul><ul><li>Great confidence is placed in them </li></ul><ul><li>May be inaccurate </li></ul>
    16. 20. Let’s look back … <ul><li>Thinking back at the list of words you read earlier, state whether each word is new or old: </li></ul><ul><li>Sofa, sleep, lamp, kitchen </li></ul>
    17. 21. Type of Memory Re-integrative Memory <ul><li>Memories that are reconstructed or expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Starting with one memory and then triggering another memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look through old photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell an odor from the past: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grandma’s kitchen, fragrance from a former lover </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>An entire experience can be reconstructed from one very small recollection </li></ul>
    18. 22. Not All Memories are Alike <ul><li>Side-by-side – you still may have a different memory than your sibling! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we pay attention to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is important to us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memories are active, creative and highly personal </li></ul><ul><li>Colored by emotion, judgment and quirks of our personality </li></ul>
    19. 23. Let’s Review <ul><li>Measuring Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial Position Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type of Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashbulb Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-integrative Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all memories are alike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal, emotional, judgemental </li></ul></ul>
    20. 24. <ul><li>Why do we forget? </li></ul>
    21. 25. Why Do Memories Weaken or Fade? <ul><li>Memory Decay: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When memory traces become weak or fade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory traces are physical changes in nerve cells and brain activity when memories are stored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disuse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When memories are not used or retrieved – lose it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Use it or lose it” </li></ul></ul>
    22. 26. We “lose it” …. Soon! <ul><li>After age 15 our brain is losing neurons associated with memory loss </li></ul><ul><li>Memory loss is not just in the elderly </li></ul>
    23. 27. Forgetting <ul><li>Most forgetting occurs right after memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Ebbinghaus’ Curve of Forgetting : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graph shows amount of information remembered after varying lengths of time </li></ul></ul>
    24. 29. Forgetting <ul><li>Repression: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconsciously pushing painful, embarrassing, or threatening memories out of awareness/consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suppression: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consciously putting something painful or threatening out of mind or trying to keep it from entering awareness </li></ul></ul>
    25. 30. Amnesia <ul><li>Infantile Amnesia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No memory before age 1-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless it was a dramatic memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Amnesia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetting events that occurred before an injury or trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korsakoff Syndrome – alcoholics (“Smirnoff”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetting events that follow an injury or trauma </li></ul></ul>
    26. 31. Memory Structures <ul><li>Hippocampus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with information passing from short-term memory into long-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If damaged – no longer “create” long-term memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always live in the present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memories prior to damage will remain intact </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 32. <ul><li>Is there a way to remember? </li></ul>
    28. 33. Let’s Review <ul><li>Why do memories fade or weaken? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use it or lose it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forgetting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebinghaus Curve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infantile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde vs. Anterograde </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul>
    29. 34. Mnemonics: Memory “Tricks” <ul><ul><li>Any kind of memory system or aid: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using mental pictures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making things meaningful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making information familiar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forming bizarre, unusual, or exaggerated mental associations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise: Name the “Great Lakes” </li></ul>
    30. 35. Using Mnemonics to Remember Things in Order <ul><li>Form a Chain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember lists in order, forming an exaggerated association connecting item one to two, and so on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take a Mental Walk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally walk along a familiar path, placing objects or ideas along the path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use a system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EGBDF: Every good boy does fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOMES: Huron, Erie, Michigan, Ontario, Erie, Superior </li></ul></ul>
    31. 36. State-Dependent Learning <ul><li>Memory retrieval is influenced by mood or body state </li></ul><ul><li>If your body state is the same at the time of learning AND the time of retrieval, retrieval will be improved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Robert is drunk when he parks his car and forgets where his car is parked once he is sober, it will be easier to recall the location if he gets drunk again . – YIKES!!! </li></ul></ul>
    32. 37. Let’s Review <ul><li>Ways to remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental walk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Dependent Learning </li></ul></ul>