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Teach chap. 3 - devel - w 11 - student


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Teach chap. 3 - devel - w 11 - student

  1. 1. Human Development
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Prenatal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget: Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Ainsworth: Attachment Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg: Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>Erickson: Psychosocial Development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Developmental Psychology <ul><ul><li>The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Heredity <ul><li>Heredity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of physical and psychological characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From parents to children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through genes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaped like a double helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains coded genetic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Genetic blueprint” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Genes <ul><li>Total: 46 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23 from each parent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recessive: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Prenatal Development <ul><li>Sensitive Periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A period of increased sensitivity to genetic and environmental influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by nature (heredity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by nurture (environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Sickle cell anemia, German measles, radiation, STDs, cigarettes, alcohol, drugs </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Teratogens <ul><li>Anything capable of causing birth defects in a developing fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: lead, narcotics, smoking, alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 11. Newborns and Reflexes <ul><li>All reflexes come from nature </li></ul>
  9. 12. Newborn Reflexes <ul><li>Grasping Reflex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If an object is placed in the infant’s palm, baby will grasp it automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rooting Reflex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightly touch the infant’s cheek and baby will turn toward the object and attempt to nurse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sucking Reflex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth and baby will make rhythmic sucking movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moro Reflex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a baby’s position is abruptly changed or if he is startled by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Neonatal Abilities <ul><li>Intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies immediately look, touch, taste, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See large patterns, shapes, and edges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mimicry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitate facial gestures and actions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Basic Emotions <ul><li>Anger, fear, joy, surprise, disgust, sadness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take time to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear to be innate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infants able to clearly express excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Social Smile: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling elicited by social stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not exclusive to seeing parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs at 2-3 months </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Roots of Language - Parentese <ul><li>Parentese (Motherese): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern of speech used when talking to infants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>raised voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>short, simple sentences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Language Development <ul><li>Cooing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous repetition of vowel sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-8 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babbling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition of meaningless language sounds “ba-ba” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 months </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-Word Stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Says one word at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic Speech: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two word sentences = single idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Want yogurt” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Jean Piaget Cognitive Development
  15. 18. Jean Piaget “Cognitive Development” <ul><li>All children pass through a set series of stages </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget studied children by noticing their “errors” </li></ul><ul><li>These “errors” served as markers to indicate child </li></ul>
  16. 19. Intellect Grows <ul><li>Piaget proposed that intellect grows through: </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of existing mental patterns to new situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing ideas are changed to accommodate new information or experiences </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Jean Piaget Stages of Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Operations </li></ul>
  18. 21. Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 yr) <ul><li>Know the world through their senses </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is based on acting on the environment (open door, turn on lights) </li></ul><ul><li>Object Permanence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 6 mon “out-of-sight = out-of-mind” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 9 mon. understands that objects still exist when they are out of sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Peek-a-boo” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years) <ul><li>Preoperational Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language development is rapid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol and images develop (blocks= train) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretend play begins (age 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object permanence is fully developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egocentric thought : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thought that is unable to accommodate viewpoints of others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yr.) <ul><li>A ble to use concepts of time, space, volume, and number </li></ul><ul><li>BUT in ways that remain simplified and concrete </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass, weight, and volume remain unchanged when the shape or appearance of objects changes (cup of water) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversibility of Thought: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships involving equality or identity can be reversed (2 + 3 = 5) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No abstract thought </li></ul>
  21. 24. Formal Operations (11 Years and Up): <ul><li>Beginning of abstract thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to “think about thinking” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But adolescents have very little experience: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to understand consequences of their actions (more tickets given to 17 yr vs. 18 yr) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of immortality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (i.e. risky behavior: unsafe sex, traffic deaths) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience develops discipline and understanding (students in 20’s tend to take college more seriously) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Nurture vs. Nature <ul><li>Does nurture really matter? </li></ul>
  23. 26. Enriched vs. Deprived Environments <ul><li>Enrichment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment is intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive during development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May improve abilities and enhance development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Deprivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love during development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to sickness, cognitive development lags, poor school performance, and poor socio-emotional development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Reaction Range <ul><li>Limits that one’s environment places on the effects of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture affects the expression of genetics through reciprocal influence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ave IQ - in nurturing environment can lead to higher intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ave IQ – in deprived environment can lead to lower intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Temperament <ul><li>The physical “core” of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distractibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Newborn Temperaments <ul><li>Easy Children : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40%; relaxed and agreeable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult Children : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10%; moody, intense, easily angered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slow-to-Warm-Up Children : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15%; restrained, unexpressive, shy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remaining Children : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not fit into any specific category (Chess & Thomas, 1968) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Separation Anxiety <ul><li>Crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally appears around 8-12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild separation anxiety is normal </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Mary Ainsworth “Attachment“ <ul><ul><li>Secure: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stable and positive emotional bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure-Avoidant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxious emotional bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecure-Ambivalent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxious emotional bond </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby has mixed feelings: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to be with parent or caregiver </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some resistance to being reunited </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglectful: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No visible bond </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 32. Promoting Secure Attachment <ul><li>Mother: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting and sensitive to their babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to form secure attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More resilient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to problem-solve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good social skills in preschool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High quality day care does not adversely affect attachment </li></ul>
  30. 34. Maternal and Paternal Influences <ul><li>Mothers and fathers parent differently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal influences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects a mother has on her child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feels responsible for most nurturing and caretaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paternal influences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects a father has on his child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to play with children and read stories </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Mother vs. Father Child Care Australian Study: 1400 Families
  32. 36. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Authoritarian: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce rigid rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of punishment and authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand strict obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emotionally stiff and lack curiosity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 37. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Authoritative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide firm and consistent guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined with love and affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to the child’s own abilities, sense of responsibility and feelings when correcting child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competent, self-confident independent, and assertive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 38. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Overly Permissive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give little guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow too much freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t hold children accountable for their actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dependent and immature and frequently misbehave </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 39. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Neglectful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent is not engaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distracted; shows lack of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels unwanted and not valued </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. Discipline – Class Exercise <ul><li>What are your feelings about spanking? </li></ul>
  37. 41. Spanking <ul><li>No long-term damage if backed up by supportive parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent spanking leads to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. Child Discipline <ul><li>Consistent rules are best </li></ul><ul><li>Use with CAUTION: Physical punishment and withdrawal of love </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between feelings and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>“ I-message” teaches children the effects of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and logical consequences </li></ul>
  39. 43. Kohlberg’s Moral Development <ul><li>Moral Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values, beliefs, and thinking abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide responsible behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By age 5 – ability to know right vs. wrong and obey rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases during school years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts in childhood and continues into adulthood </li></ul></ul>
  40. 44. Adolescence <ul><li>Culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood </li></ul>
  41. 45. Puberty <ul><ul><li>Age - capable of sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid physical growth and sexual maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tends to increase body awareness and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns about physical appearance </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Puberty <ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breast development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menarche – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>onset of menstruation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>based on critical level of body fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of testes, scrotum, penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepened voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial and body hair </li></ul></ul>
  43. 47. Timing of Puberty <ul><li>Males mature early: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-image and athletic ability are enhanced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more popular with peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relaxed, dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more likely to get into trouble </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Females mature early: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to be less popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poorer self-image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>victim of “mean girls” syndrome </li></ul></ul>
  44. 48. Females - age 13 vs. Males - age 16
  45. 49. Different Selves <ul><li>Explore your identity </li></ul><ul><li>Try on “different selves” </li></ul>
  46. 50. Class Exercise <ul><li>What “selves” did you try on? </li></ul>
  47. 51. Erik Erickson <ul><li>“8 Stages” of Psychosocial Development </li></ul>
  48. 52. 8 Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas <ul><li>Combination : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>internal psychological factors + external social factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each stage builds upon the others </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on a “challenge” that must be resolved </li></ul><ul><li>Confronted with “ psychosocial dilemma” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal impulses and the social world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successful management of dilemma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces healthy development and satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master a “developmental task” </li></ul>
  49. 53. Psychosocial Stages
  50. 55. Stage One: Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth-1 yr.) <ul><li>Children are completely dependent on others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistrust: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 56. Stage Two : Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 yr.) <ul><li>Autonomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing things for themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shame and Doubt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overprotective or ridiculing parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause children to doubt abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children may feel shameful about their actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: can’t potty train </li></ul></ul>
  52. 57. Stage Three: Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 yr.) <ul><li>Initiative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents reinforce child’s progress by giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guilt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions </li></ul></ul>
  53. 58. Stage Four: Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12 yr.) <ul><li>Industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child is praised for productive activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferiority: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sports dad” – disappointed when son has no interest in football. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Beauty queen mom” – can’t understand her athletic daughter. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 59. Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity vs. Role Confusion <ul><li>Identity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore different selves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Who am I?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Confusion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents haven’t been given the freedom to “try-on” different selves </li></ul></ul>
  55. 60. Stage Six (Young Adulthood): Intimacy vs. Isolation <ul><li>Intimacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to care about others and to share experiences with them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isolation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling alone and uncared for in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling like you are not worthy of love </li></ul></ul>
  56. 61. Stage Seven (Middle Adulthood): Generativity vs. Stagnation <ul><li>Generativity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in guiding the next generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stagnation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts </li></ul></ul>
  57. 62. Stage Eight (Late Adulthood): Integrity vs. Despair <ul><li>Integrity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept life with all its “ups and downs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed when people have lived richly and responsibly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despair: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences heartache and remorse </li></ul></ul>