Research Design The role of planning in research “ If your result needs a statistician then you should design a better exp...
Objective <ul><li>Understanding the importance of planning and designing approaches or techniques used in research process...
Research Design <ul><li>The Design Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Structure  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory Research...
Research Design  (cont.) <ul><li>Validity Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Other Research Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement i...
Design Problem <ul><li>Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important step to set the direction of your research </li></u...
Problem Structure <ul><li>Exploratory Research </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is badly understood. The objective or goal is...
Exploratory Research <ul><li>The objective or goal is “ unclear”  or the problem is “ badly understood ” </li></ul><ul><li...
Descriptive Research <ul><li>The objective or goal is “ clear ” and “ structured ” </li></ul><ul><li>Usually involves surv...
Casual Research <ul><li>Mixture of both natures. Problems are structured and also confronted with  “cause-n-effect”  probl...
Problem of “cause” <ul><li>Variable affecting the increment or decrement behavior of other variable </li></ul><ul><li>Conc...
Importance of Theory <ul><li>It is impossible to know what to look for without the theory </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying re...
Classic Experiment <ul><li>Include multiple experiment groups </li></ul><ul><li>Groups can be segmented for multiple varia...
Validity Threats <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal validity – whether the results obtained within the study ar...
Validity Threats  (cont.) <ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific event external to the study that occ...
Other Research Designs <ul><li>There are sometimes constraints on researchers to conduct certain types of experiments </li...
Other Research Designs  (cont.) <ul><li>Cross-sectional Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Time Series </li></ul><ul><li>The one-sh...
Requirements <ul><li>User’s intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li...
Questions “ Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what  nobody else has thought” - Albert Szent-Gy...
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Research Design

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Research Design

  1. 1. Research Design The role of planning in research “ If your result needs a statistician then you should design a better experiment” - Ernest Rutherford Compiled: Athar Hussain
  2. 2. Objective <ul><li>Understanding the importance of planning and designing approaches or techniques used in research processes. </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain
  3. 3. Research Design <ul><li>The Design Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casual Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem of “ cause ” </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Experiment </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  4. 4. Research Design (cont.) <ul><li>Validity Threats </li></ul><ul><li>Other Research Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement in Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>The Importance of Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Section Designs </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  5. 5. Design Problem <ul><li>Foundation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important step to set the direction of your research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions & Queries </li></ul><ul><li>List of questions targeted to extract the required information </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly chosen questions can mislead the information </li></ul><ul><li>Precision of Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How effective and productive the results are towards required information </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  6. 6. Problem Structure <ul><li>Exploratory Research </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is badly understood. The objective or goal is unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Research </li></ul><ul><li>The objective or goal is clear and structured </li></ul><ul><li>Casual Research </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of both natures. Problems are structured and also confronted with cause-and-effect problem </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  7. 7. Exploratory Research <ul><li>The objective or goal is “ unclear” or the problem is “ badly understood ” </li></ul><ul><li>Requires strong skills and deep observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sale is dropping … why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the “primary” reason people spend money more on consumable items than long term investments? </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  8. 8. Descriptive Research <ul><li>The objective or goal is “ clear ” and “ structured ” </li></ul><ul><li>Usually involves surveys & comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running an ice-cream business - Alaska or Miami? </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  9. 9. Casual Research <ul><li>Mixture of both natures. Problems are structured and also confronted with “cause-n-effect” problem </li></ul><ul><li>Look for & isolate the “cause” </li></ul><ul><li>Examine if cause has effect on result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the advertising help in achieving greater market share? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this medical drug effective? </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  10. 10. Problem of “cause” <ul><li>Variable affecting the increment or decrement behavior of other variable </li></ul><ul><li>Concomitant covariation should exist between cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Cause should proceed the effect </li></ul><ul><li>Rule out alternative causes </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  11. 11. Importance of Theory <ul><li>It is impossible to know what to look for without the theory </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying research problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying relevant factors & their relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Raising questions </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude of variables with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X > Y (X causes Y) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Y < X (Y causes X) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X <> Y (Mutual causation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X =! Y (no relationship) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting observations </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  12. 12. Classic Experiment <ul><li>Include multiple experiment groups </li></ul><ul><li>Groups can be segmented for multiple variables </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the segments into controlled and experimental groups </li></ul><ul><li>Take observations treating both groups randomly with same experimental stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret the result based on observations </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the difference in observations </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  13. 13. Validity Threats <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal validity – whether the results obtained within the study are true. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External validity – whether the findings can be generalized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experimental design is to isolate and estimate the effects of causes </li></ul><ul><li>The solid design allows manipulation of treatment and proves the validity and authenticity of effects on cause </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights covariation between variables </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiates internal and external threats </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  14. 14. Validity Threats (cont.) <ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific event external to the study that occurs at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Maturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes which operate within the test units as function of the passage of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates the experiment itself may affect the observed response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious threat to validity when the subjects are not assigned randomly </li></ul></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  15. 15. Other Research Designs <ul><li>There are sometimes constraints on researchers to conduct certain types of experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these constraints are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time interval in which to conduct the research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effects of properties are too general or not specific enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot find same type groups to perform comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The time order of events is often difficult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Causing the research designs to move away from the “True” experiment and turning to other research designs </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  16. 16. Other Research Designs (cont.) <ul><li>Cross-sectional Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Time Series </li></ul><ul><li>The one-shot case study </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain Research Design
  17. 17. Requirements <ul><li>User’s intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul>Compiled: Athar Hussain … for Research Design Research Design
  18. 18. Questions “ Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought” - Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Compiled: Athar Hussain

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