Enterprise Collaboration and
Innovation Support Systems
(GE/ IE 498 ECI): 

The Semantic Web

Xavier Llora

Illinois Genet...
Where did we leave it? 

- Focus on how enterprise storage is arranged

- Cover basic notions about relational databases

...
o
n‘. 
.

What's the plan for today? 

- Giving structure to information exchange
- Markup languages

~ XML basics

- The ...
Information sharing

- Relational bases hold data,  but made not claim about
information interoperability

- Sharing and e...
One old friend

- HTML is a common markup language for content
visualization

- It is based on a set of tags

- A tag take...
o
1‘. 
o

A HTML example

<HTML>
Ij 
<HEAD> '1

‘ <TITLE>ThiS a test Head section. 
page</ TITLE> |  Contains metadata lik...
A HTML example

c o A >.  Us)";  lr‘i| QhQQi[)oIv| -7p_‘VIV N‘-l Q

l; _ i. .. .  i'. i. . ...  -. . . .x i-.  ..  llr V‘?...
o
n‘. 
a

Some basic HTML content tags

- Sectioning:  <H1>,  <H2>, ... 

~ Paragraphs and line breaks:  <P>,  <BR>,  <HR>...
Another HTML example

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>This a test page</ TITLE)

</  HEAD>

<BODY>

<H1>Presentation</31>

<P><BM>ne1...
Another HTML example

 

 a u - -
Presentation

IIrlIomou1i. '
‘msu: —|Iep¢InusrnwsuIIrbu9cflTlrtLri-rtipuxacscvheapogc. 

...
o
n‘. 
0

XML

- It is also a markup language
- Basic rules about how to markup infomation

~ It requires to be well forme...
o
n‘. 
0

XML preliminaries

- A tag needs to be closed <XXX>  </ XXX>
- If a tag is empty as short version can be used<XX...
Customer
Customer ID

GE-‘IE 498 [Cl Spring 2007

 

Remember the simple example? 

First Name Middle Name Last Name

Joe ...
A simple XML

<? )m1 version= 'l.0' encodinq'= 'U'I‘! '—8'? >

<St. ore>
<Customi-.  rs>

<Customer>
<cus r. omer_ID>0< I ...
A simple XML

<? xml version= "1.0” encoding= "UTF-8"? >

<St0r9>
<Ci. lSt0lI'le!  S >

<customer Custme: _ID= "0" Pirst_N...
ig  XML namespaces

- Designed to avoid collisions
- Based on using URls

<? xnl version-'l.0‘ encoding-‘UT? -B'? >

<Stor...
The semantic web

- Semantic nets are designed to allow machines to infer
semantics out of information

- Semantic web hea...
An RDF Example

<? xml version= "1.0" encoding= "UTF-8"? >

<rdf :  RDF
xmlnszrdf-"http: //www. w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-synt...
o
o‘. 
a

What will we do in the next lecture? 

-1 Graphs as structure

-1 Basic concepts

1 Types of graphs

1 Basic con...
Something to think about

-1 Further reading

http:  // www. xml. com/ pub/ a/98/10/guideO. html
http:  / / www. w3schools...
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GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web

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GE498-ECI, Lecture 7: The semantic web

  1. 1. Enterprise Collaboration and Innovation Support Systems (GE/ IE 498 ECI): The Semantic Web Xavier Llora Illinois Genetic Algorithms Lab & National Center for Supercomputing Applications University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign xlIo: a@uiuc. edu
  2. 2. Where did we leave it? - Focus on how enterprise storage is arranged - Cover basic notions about relational databases - A simple example - Set up the storage system - Enter and query information from the storage system GE/ IE 498 EC! Spring 2007 Xavier Llora -1.1 Spring 2007 2
  3. 3. o n‘. . What's the plan for today? - Giving structure to information exchange - Markup languages ~ XML basics - The semantic web (RDF) GE ‘II 475. [C Ear mg EC-CI? Xavier Llora in Spring 2007
  4. 4. Information sharing - Relational bases hold data, but made not claim about information interoperability - Sharing and exchanging information requires a standard (or a common language) - For a long time there has been niche-oriented standards (e. g. EDI for banking) - Two comfortable pair of shoes: — XML (extensible markup language) — RDF (resource description framework) GE/ IE 498 EC! Spring 2007 Xavier Llcira 1.1 Spring 2007
  5. 5. One old friend - HTML is a common markup language for content visualization - It is based on a set of tags - A tag takes the form of <XXX> - A tag may have attributes <XXX key= value> - A tag may enclose marked contents - A tag may have a finalization tag expressed as </ XXX> - The basic HTML page have 2 main tag sections: — The header section containing metadata about the page — The body section contains the contents to be rendered GE/ IE 498 EC! Spring 2007 Xavier Llcira in Spring 2007 5
  6. 6. o 1‘. o A HTML example <HTML> Ij <HEAD> '1 ‘ <TITLE>ThiS a test Head section. page</ TITLE> | Contains metadata like the title of the page L5/HEAD> <BODY> | He11o world! This is a simple page that show | Bmwsaflom I some basic HTML markup Contains the content to be rendered to describe a page. | | _</ BODY> </ HTML> ___—'| Si 9 it -135. [C Snr rig 203.7 Xavier Llor'a -8 Spring 2007 6
  7. 7. A HTML example c o A >. Us)"; lr‘i| QhQQi[)oIv| -7p_‘VIV N‘-l Q l; _ i. .. . i'. i. . ... -. . . .x i-. .. llr V‘? ! ll . . li| ,.I . -i. .. - Hi. ‘ 1 . . . *u. i . iii. .. . .~ . - Ilclki until‘ This is : xiii-fie pig: inn mm mm hunt HTML imrtup m k’CnN 1 [up- G[! l[ 493 [Cl Spring 2007 Xavier Lloré 0 Spring 2007 7
  8. 8. o n‘. a Some basic HTML content tags - Sectioning: <H1>, <H2>, ... ~ Paragraphs and line breaks: <P>, <BR>, <HR> -i Text presentation: <STRONG>, <EM> 4- Images: <IMG> - Links to other pages: <A> * Tables: <TABLE> "E ‘TE -1 %E. [C SN rig EC-CI? Xavier Lloré in Spring 2007
  9. 9. Another HTML example <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>This a test page</ TITLE) </ HEAD> <BODY> <H1>Presentation</31> <P><BM>ne11o wor1dl</ EH><BR>This is a <sTRONG>simp1e page</ sTRoNG> that show some basic HTML markup to describe a page. </P> <H1>Photos</31> <IMG src= "ht; _;p: L/'. 'ww—i.1 lig_a1. g§2.uiu_§: .@jx‘. i1Qra_/ wp-c, ;Qn'g_en; /uploads/ me. jpg"> You can find more pictures <A href= "g; ;p; ijinnediiigaigge, uiuq; egggxii9:a“>here</ a>. <H1>Tab1e</ fl1> <TABLE> <TR><TD>Co1umn 1</ TD><TD>Co1umn 2</ TD></ TR> <TR><TD>Potato</ TD><TD>20</ TD></ TR> <TR><TD>Onion</ TD><TD>11</ TD></ TR> </ TABLE> </ BODY> </ ETM> GE. -‘IE 493 EC! Spring 2007 Xavier Lloré 0 Spring 2007 9
  10. 10. Another HTML example a u - - Presentation IIrlIomou1i. ' ‘msu: —|Iep¢InusrnwsuIIrbu9cflTlrtLri-rtipuxacscvheapogc. Photos You can Iindimli: pairs tun. Table (‘ohiiu l Cnlnnz Fun :0 Onion ll GE/ IE 493 ECI . Spring 2007 Xavier Lioi-A 0 Spring 2007
  11. 11. o n‘. 0 XML - It is also a markup language - Basic rules about how to markup infomation ~ It requires to be well formed: - Any open tag needs to be close - Proper nesting needs to be provided - Tags may have attributes - General purpose - Provide mechanisms to describe the possible markups (for instance via document type definitions) "E ‘l[ —1%E. [C SN rig EC-CI? Xavier Lloré in Spring 2007 ‘ i
  12. 12. o n‘. 0 XML preliminaries - A tag needs to be closed <XXX> </ XXX> - If a tag is empty as short version can be used<XXX / > i Tags may have attributes <X)(X key= value / > - A tag may contain more tags, content with tags, or unprocessed data - Any XML document starts with an specific header <? xml version= "1.0" encoding= "UTF-8"? > where <? ?> are directives for the parser GE ‘l[ 4 it. [C S; ir rig EC-CI? Xavier Lloré in Spring 2007
  13. 13. Customer Customer ID GE-‘IE 498 [Cl Spring 2007 Remember the simple example? First Name Middle Name Last Name Joe E 10101010 Z Xavier Llora 041 Spring 2007 13
  14. 14. A simple XML <? )m1 version= 'l.0' encodinq'= 'U'I‘! '—8'? > <St. ore> <Customi-. rs> <Customer> <cus r. omer_ID>0< I Customer_ID> <P irst_tlaim: >J°u-. </Pi. rst_blaau: > <uiddle_)iam. e>John< / H1dd1e_Name> <Last. _Name>Doe< / Laat_}lame> < / Customer-> <Cusr. omer> <Custorr1c, ar_1D>1< / Custom r_I D> < P. l.rst_uame>Jean< / First. _hla: r.e> <Midd1e_Nazr~e>muy< / Hidd1e_Naurie> <Last_ila: m:>Do<e< / Last_Na: zie: > < I Customer> < / Customs rs> <Ordcta> <Order> <Order_1D>0< /0rder_ID> <Cus: omer_ID>6< / Cus: onier_ID> < / order? <Ord= r> <Order ID> 1</ Order _ ID> <Custori1e r_1D>3</ Custonier_I D> < / order: </ Orders) </ Store) GENE 49B ECI Spring 2007 Xavier Llora 0 Spring 2007 1-1
  15. 15. A simple XML <? xml version= "1.0” encoding= "UTF-8"? > <St0r9> <Ci. lSt0lI'le! S > <customer Custme: _ID= "0" Pirst_Name= "Joe' Last_Name= “Doe" Midd1e_Name= "John"/ > <Customer Custmer_ID= '1" First_Name= "Jean" Last_Name= "Mary" Hidd1e_Name-"John"/ > </ Customers> <0rders> <Order Customer_ID= ”6' Order_ID= '0"/ > <order Customer_ID= "3' order_ID= '1"/ > </0rders> </ Store> GE. -‘IE 493 rc: Spring 2007 Xavier Lloré 0 Spring 2007 15
  16. 16. ig XML namespaces - Designed to avoid collisions - Based on using URls <? xnl version-'l.0‘ encoding-‘UT? -B'? > <Store xmlns: foo-'http: //foo. org/ store/ ' xnlns: note-'http: //foo. otg/ note/ '> <foo: CustoIers> <£ocxcu: tomer Cu: tomer_ID-"0" Firat_Name-"Joe" La: t_Namc-"Doe" Nidd1e_Name-“John”/ > <! ooiCu: tomer Customer_ID-"1" First_Name-"Jean" Last_Name-"Mary" Midd1e_Name-"John"/ > </ !ooxCusLomers> <foox0rdors> <fooi0rdor Cu: tomor_ID-"6" 0rdor_ID-"0"/ > <1ooiOrder Customer_ID-"J" 0rder_ID-"1"/ > </ too: Ordera> <note: math> <i[CDATA[ 1+1>-2 11> </ note: math> </ Store> GEIIE 498 ECI ~ Spring 2007 Xavier Llora 1:: Spring 2007 16
  17. 17. The semantic web - Semantic nets are designed to allow machines to infer semantics out of information - Semantic web heavily rely on XML - They use a standardized version of XML documents known as RDF - Attach descriptions to resources - Statements have the form (subject predicate object) GE/ IE 498 ECI Spring 2007 Xavier Llora in Spring 2007 17
  18. 18. An RDF Example <? xml version= "1.0" encoding= "UTF-8"? > <rdf : RDF xmlnszrdf-"http: //www. w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xm1ns= "http: //foo. org/ store/ data#"> <rdf: Description about-"http: //foo. org/ store/ data/ customer/0"> <Customer_ID>0</ Customer_ID> <Fist_Name>Joe</ Fist_Name> <Midd1e_Name>John</ Midd1e_Name> <Last_Name>Doe</ Last_Name> </ rdf: Description> </ rdf: RDF> GEIIE 498 ECI ~ Spring 2007 Xavier Lloré 0 Spring 2007 18
  19. 19. o o‘. a What will we do in the next lecture? -1 Graphs as structure -1 Basic concepts 1 Types of graphs 1 Basic concepts of graph analysis GE ‘l[ 475. [C S; ir rig 212-CI? Xavier Lloré in Spring 2007
  20. 20. Something to think about -1 Further reading http: // www. xml. com/ pub/ a/98/10/guideO. html http: / / www. w3schools. com / xml/ default. asp 1 Homework: Read this article carefully http: //www—128.ibm. com/ developerworks/ library/ w—rdf/ '“Z l[ 4 iEi [C '33’ ng 212137 Xavier Llcira -1.1 Spring 2007 ID

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