The ABc’S of GIZALindsey MelvilleCharlene Swain
A rt in the tombs• Der Manuelian says, “In these decorated tombs you have wonderful scenes of every aspect of life in ancient Egypt- so it’s not just about how Egyptians died by how they lived” (Handwerk 1996-2011).• Art in the tombs ranges from “depictions of ancient farmers working their ﬁelds and tending livestock, ﬁshing and fowling, carpentry, costumes, religious rituals and burial practices” (Handwerk 1996-2011).• The great diorite portrait-statue of Khafre was found from excavations in the Granite Temple near the Sphinx. -The statue stood since it’s discovery in 1860, and is considered almost the greatest masterpiece of Egyptian art history. -The statue has been moved to the Cairo Museum (Reisner 1920).
B uilders• Archaeologists have came to the conclusion that the builders of the pyramids were skilled, healthy Egyptian workers, who resided in a temporary city nearby. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• Skeletal remains of ancient workers found within the tombs -Forensic study of the skeletal remains showed severe stress on the backbones and in come cases the bones were even broken. (Films Media Group 1998)• Average age of death of workman was around 30 to 35 years old where ofﬁcials died when they were around 50 to 60 years old. (Hawass 1998) -X-rays of the remains of workman found have shown that some had syphilis and there is also evidence of brain surgery on these workman. (Hawass 1998)
C ommunity• Evidence from archaeological excavations on the site around the pyramids revealed that the community was highly organized, with a surplus of resources. -From this information archaeologists concluded that Giza must have had a strong central authority. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• Archaeologists infer that it is also likely that other communities across Egypt contributed to the building of the pyramids by offering their workers, possibly food and other living essentials. -These pyramids, in a way, was like a national project to show the wealth and power of the Egyptian pharaohs. (Handwerk 1996-2011)
d er Manuelian, Peter• He heads the Giza Archives Project to help make the information found about Giza available to all. (Handwerk 1996-2011) -The Giza Archives Project is an “enormous collection of Giza photographs, plans, drawings, manuscripts, object records, and expedition diaries that enables virtual visits to the plateau” (Handwerk 1996-2011). -Der Manuelian hopes to add international content and grow the archive into the “world’s central online repository for Giza-related material” (Handwerk 1996-2011).• He is an Egyptologist at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and at Tufts University. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• He said, “Many people think of the sites as just a cemetery in the modern sense, but it’s a lot more than that” (Handwerk 1996-2011).
E xcavations• The Harvard-Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Expedition (1902-1947) hold the items found at the longest-running excavations ever at Giza. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• Giovanni Caviglia carried out the ﬁrst known excavation of the Sphinx in 1816. (Film Media Group 2006)• The Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA) began in 1985 for “the purpose of funding and facilitating the research of the Giza Plateau Project, which grew out of the Sphinx Project” (N.D. Der Manuelian).• In 1902 the Egyptian Antiquities Service (now known as the Supreme Council of Antiquities) granted permits for scientiﬁc excavations at the pyramids and tombs at Giza. (N.D. Der Manuelian)
f ame• Giza is the most famous place within the Giza Plateau (PBS 2011)• It is a frequent stop for tourists within the Mediterranean/ North African Area (PBS 2011)• It is a very intriguing place for people to visit because of the questions that are still associated with the massive architecture found at Giza. (PBS 2011)• Because it is the only Ancient Wonder of the World that still exists, it is a very popular place to visit. (PBS 2011)• When people speak about the Egyptians, they are instantly associated with the Great Pyramids of Giza. (PBS 2011)
G reat pyramid of giza• the only surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World (Rose 2008)• At 481 feet tall it was considered the tallest structure in the world at the time. - held this record for over 3,800 years (Rose 2008)• It was once estimated that there were around 2,300,000 stone blocks making up this pyramid. -each stone block about 2.5 tons (Graham 374)• The Great Pyramid of Giza was part of an “extensive complex including an enclosure wall, a mortuary temple, a long causeway to another temple located in the adjacent Nile Valley, three smaller pyramids for queens, and a number of pits in which dismantled boats were buried” (Graham 364).
H emienu• Khufu’s brother (Rose 2008)• He is known for supervising the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza (Rose 2008).• Helping his brother Khufu out he was the “overseer of all construction projects of the king” (Rose 2008)• His tomb was in a cemetery next to the Great Pyramid of Giza and his tomb is one of the largest tombs found in Egypt (Rose 2008).
I nscriptions• Inscriptions found inside the pyramids (tombs) gave information on Egyptian grammar and language. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• Der Manuelian says, “Almost any subject you want to study about Pharaonic civilization is available on the tomb walls at Giza” (Handwerk 1996-2011).• Giovanni Caviglia discovered the “Dream Stele” between the paws of the Sphinx which contains hieroglyphics dating back to the 14th century B.C. (Films Media Group 2006)
Just Giza Center Field Eastern Cemetery Western Cemetery (N.D. Der Manuelian)Eastern Cemetery Menkaure quarry cemetery
K hufu• A great pharaoh of Egypt ruling from around 2547 to 2524 B.C. (Rose 2008) -4th Dynasty pharaoh (Graham 374)• He was credited for building the ﬁrst Great Pyramid of Giza (Rose 2008)
M enkaure• Egyptian pharaoh (2490 B.C.) (Handwerk 1996-2011)• He was credited for building the third Giza Pyramid. -His pyramid was much smaller than the ﬁrst two pyramids. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• His temple featured “a much more complex mortuary temple” (Handwek 1996-2011).
N ile River• Giza is located on the west bank of the Nile River (used to run through the Giza Plateau). (Graham 371)• It is known for being the longest river in the world, stretching to be 6695 km long. (Graham 371)• When the Nile ﬂooded it provides Egypt with rich fertile soil that made it easier to produce crops. (Graham 371) (Google Images)
O bjects• A few of the ﬁnds from Giza (over 2,000 objects recovered thus far) Basalt shoulder jars Deep Pottery Basin Decorated Pottery Vessel(Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) Limestone blocks from the Nile River
P its• Part of the extensive complex with the Giza Pyramid. (Graham 374)• The excavation of one of these pits lead to the ﬁndings of one of the world’s oldest boats. -the boat was preserved well enough, from the dry atmosphere, to be reconstructed (Graham 374)• The boat was about 142 feet long and weighed about 45 tons. (Graham 374)• Like the rest of the complex, the boat was evidence of the “extraordinary resources that must have been devoted to the burial and subsequent worship of the deceased ruler” (Graham 374).•.
q uestions• How were the pyramids built? (Rose 2008) -How were they built in such a short amount of time, being so huge, especially Khufu’s pyramid? Later pyramids were much smaller. (Graham 374)• Was it Egypt who built the pyramids or did the pyramids build Egypt? (Handwerk 1996-2011)• What pharaoh does the Sphinx depict? -What is the purpose of the Sphinx? -When was the Sphinx built? (Films Media Group 2006)
R eisner, George• George A. Reisner lead the excavations and research being done in Giza from 1902 until his death in 1942. -Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston supported the work that he was conducting in Giza in 1905. -He became the director of the Harvard-Boston Egyptian Expedition, Professor of Egyptology at Harvard University and the Curator of the Egyptian Department of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. -Today, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston has a massive inventory called the Giza Library, which includes every Giza book and article, by the members of the Harvard University- Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition. (Der Manuelian N.D.)• This library makes irreplaceable, rare and out-of-print publications available to millions (Der Manuelian N.D.)
S phinx• The Pharaoh Khafre, Khufu’s son, was credited with building the second pyramid at Giza around 2520 B.C. (Handwerk 1996-2011) -His tomb also included the Great Sphinx.• The Sphinx (a lot unknown- see Questions) -ﬁrst discovered by Napolean in 1798 -either of Khufu or Khafre (still unsure) -faces due east hints that it may honor the sun god Ra -evidence of water erosion suggests that it may date back to before 2500 B.C (Films Media Group 2006)
three pyramids Photographed by (Handwerk 1996-2011) James Stanﬁeld
Underneath giza http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/explore-ancient-egypt.html Interactive Link Khafre’s Pyramid (PBS 2011) Khufu’s Pyramid
V ideo• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FimM9tWm1TE The Pyramid in Giza (Seven wonders of the ancient world) 1/7
W ho - pictures Peter Der Manuelian (PBS 2011)George A. Reisner; photograph by Bob Davies; June 26, 1933 (B8332) (PBS 2011) Hawass
X marks the spot! Overview plan of the entire Giza Necropolis, published by G.A. Reisner, Giza Necropolis I (Cambridge, 1942), Map 1 (EG002027)
years pyramids were builtPredynastic & Dynasty 0 4500-3000 BCDynasties 1-3 2950-2575 BC Early DynasticDynasties 4-8 2575-2150 BC Old KingdomDynasties 9-11 2125-1975 BC First Intermediate PeriodDynastyies11-14 1975-1640 BC Middle KingdomDynasties 14-17 1630-1540 BC Second Intermediate PeriodDynasties 18-20 1540-1075 BC New KingdomDynasties 21-25 1075-715 BC Third Intermediate PeriodDynasties 25-30 715-332 BC Late PeriodMacedonians/ Ptolemies 332-30 BC Greek AdministrationRoman Emperors 30 BC – AD 642 Roman/ Byzantine Administration (Graham 371)
z ahi hawass• He is the secretary general of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities and a National Geographic explorer-in-residence. (Handwerk 1996-2011)• He was one to say, “it was the Pyramids that built Egypt- rather than the other way around” (Handwerk 1996-2011).• He is now the director of the pyramids at Giza (PBS 2011)• “I believe that we’ve only found about 30% of Egyptian monuments, that 70% of them still lie buried underneath the ground. You never know what the sand will hide in the way of secrets” (Hawass 1998).
bibliography• Rose, Mark “Building the Great Pyramid, Giza.” the Archaeological Institute of America, January/February 2008, vol. 61 number 1 http://www.archaeology.org/0801/topten/pyramid.html• Reisner, George A. “The Work of the Hearst Egyptian Expedition of the University of California in 1903–04.” Records of the Past 4, Part V (May 1905), pp. 130–141. http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/reisner_records_past_4_1905.pdf• Handwerk, Brian “Giza Pyramids Hold Pharaohs’ Ancient Secrets.” National Geographic Society, 1996-2011 http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/archaeology/giza-pyramids/
bibliography• Reisner, George, A. “Recent Explorations in Egypt.” The Independent (February 10, 1910), pg. 302-306 http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/reisner_indep_2_10_1910.pdf• The Giza Archives N.d. Peter Der Manuelian. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA.• 2006 “The Sphinx in context.” Films Media Group.• 1998 “Who built the Pyramids?” Films Media Group.• PBS 1997 Pyramids: History of Giza. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/ explore/gizahistory.html. Accessed November 29, 2011
bibliography• Connah, Graham. 2009 Holocene Africa. In The Human Past. Chris Scarre, eds. Pp. 371-376. New York, NY: Thames & Hudson Inc. We divided the work equally by doing 13 slides each, and helping each other with ideas and research.