Identical Twins

1,864 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Identical Twins

  1. 1. UNDER THE SKIN: GENETICDIFFERENCES IN IDENTICAL TWINSBy: Brittany Lynch
  2. 2. THESIS The distinct differences found at the genetic level in twins are causing scientists to question the idea of “identical”.
  3. 3. TYPES OF IDENTICAL TWINS Dichorionic, Diamniotic Monochorionic, Diamniotic Monochorionic, Monoamniotic
  4. 4. DICHORIONIC, DIAMNIOTIC TWINS Zygote split in the first two days after fertilization Develop in different placentas and amniotic sacs Only occur 20-30% of the time
  5. 5. MONOCHORIONIC, DIAMNIOTIC TWINS Zygote splits after the first two days of fertilization Grow in the same placenta and different amniotic sacs Occur most often
  6. 6. MONOCHORIONIC, MONOAMNIOTIC TWINS Grow in the same placenta and amniotic sac Only occur about 1% of the time
  7. 7. WHAT IS IDENTICAL? To be considered an identical twin:  have to come from the same zygote  have same blood type  have to be the same sex  have the same hair color
  8. 8. JONATHAN MILL Study was used to determine how genes are activated differently in identical twins  studied the genome of 22 pairs of identical twins  did have identical DNA, but they had certain differences in chemical markings  chemical markings do not alter the DNA sequence, but they do leave marks on genes
  9. 9. NATURE VS. NURTURE Genes = Nature Environment = Nurture Manel Esteller  studied 49 pairs of identical twins  determine that epigenetic analysis could differentiate between twins in a criminal case
  10. 10. EVERY BRAIN IS UNIQUE Life experience influences brain differences  change the strength of connections between certain neurons Jumping Genes  genes that paste copies of themselves into the genome  causes cells to act differently  can lead to differences in cognitive abilities, personality traits, and susceptibility to neurological problems
  11. 11. TESTS USED TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENCES High resolution cameras Fingerprinting Iris scanners
  12. 12. DIFFERENCES DISCOVERED Gene Expression Environmental Factors
  13. 13. GENE EXPRESSION Although they did possess nearly identical genomes, closer study revealed they often differed in the number of copies of individual gene segments. For instance, one twin might be missing a segment, or possess more copies of that segment than the other twin They can develop different disorders and illnesses
  14. 14. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Fingerprints  caused by the different conditions experienced by the fetuses in the womb Smoking, drugs, and alcohol Sun Personality Differences  caused by different chemicals in the body that are affected by a person’s lifestyle choices
  15. 15. WORKS CITED http://www.featureshoot.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Eva_Johanna_Gill_0213_F.jpg http://api.ning.com/files/w3vIIvgIdO5AAeFt7G93WcNrsN5nS2fCi-74WFDZbP5tfmnnCp5AOx4IDrKz5bPa1B- QrgSHX25vpBlYsrqHgzYzdm1lzSz4/natgeotwins01.jpg http://en.es-static.us/upl/2011/07/twins_twin.jpg http://questional.com/images/uploads/34/Identical-Twins-in-the-Womb.jpg http://medind.nic.in/ibn/t09/i1/IndianJRadiolImaging_2009_19_1_81_45352_u1.jpg http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/29/5/1371/F16.expansion.html http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_29vlt4MXQ- A/S5Z3oYGfMhI/AAAAAAAAB2U/52NonF1w66Q/s400/DichorionicDiamniotic.jpg http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/dna-ch150.jpg http://www.genengnews.com/media/images/GENHighlight/April4_2011_3769185_BlueBrainDNA_FiveNewAlzh eimerGenes2689161031.jpg http://www.infobarrel.com/media/image/33385.png http://ribomed.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/methylmagnetslidev4-copy.jpg http://myidentico.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/10598078-fbi-fd258-fingerprinting.jpg http://i.i.com.com/cnwk.1d/i/tim/2011/03/09/helmet_brain_540x405.jpg http://scientopia.org/blogs/scicurious/files/2011/05/neurons4.jpg http://truthsquad.tv/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/art_illu_biometrics1.jpg http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/365107-57010-11.jpg http://www.techshout.com/images/nikon-d40x-camera.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Gene.png/270px-Gene.png http://www.bayareaalliance.org/images/e-Environment.jpg http://www.broadinstitute.org/files/news/images/2011/chromosome.jpg http://topnews.in/health/files/Gene_2.jpg http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2012/01/a-thing-or-two-about-twins/

×