Toddlers 18-36 Month Development Social Emotional Physical Cognitive Language
What to ExpectTypical and abnormal developmentActivities and strategies to support developmentTeacher and adult roles in supporting developmentCultural, ethnic, socioeconomic and environmental factors
Social Development Normal Development Abnormal Development• Copies others • Doesn’t point to show someone• Plays close to and sometimes with other something children• Shows interest in pretend play • Doesn’t make eye contact with (example… playing with a doll) others• Points to show others things • Doesn’t play pretend• Notices emotions of other people • Doesn’t copy others actions• Usually does not like to share• Excited to see familiar people • Doesn’t show interest in playing• Begins to make friends or favor people with others
Activities and Strategies Teacher and Adult Roles to Support Social Development in Supporting Social Development• Dramatic Play Area • Teachers help children explore how we are alike and different and honor all families. • Children learn about themselves and what they like by trying new activities. • Encourage child to play pretend and be creative. • For example, children can try on new roles and perspective of other people in their lives or in their • Give child props and dress-up clothes. community. • Help your child resolve conflicts or problems in a• Turn taking activities healthy way. • Pushing cars back & forth, putting shapes into a shape sorter or blowing bubbles. • Provide guidance and initiate sharing and turn taking.• Eating/Pretend to eat • Be understanding that toddlers are less willing to be complaint when they are tired or not feeling well.• Classroom Chores • Teaches team work • Model positive social and sharing behaviors in your everyday interactions with children and parents. • Encourage and model conversation to help them accomplish their task
Emotional Development Normal Development Abnormal Development• Has temper tantrums or shows • Shows little to no emotion (example… defiant behavior happy, sad, excited or anger)• Shows fear or is nervous around • Does not realize when unknown strangers people are present• Shows affection towards others • Fails to make eye contact or frequently look at the primary caregiver• Shows concern for others • Does not show any signs of affection toward others (example… another• Understands the idea of “mine” and child crying) “no” • Lacks emotion when a toys is taken by• Begins to show signs of guilt or another child remorse
Activities and Strategies Teacher and Adult Roles to Support Emotional Development in Supporting Emotional Development• Looking at pictures of emotions • Help your child understand and name feelings.• Read/look books about feelings and emotions • Just being there and listening to them.• Have pictures of different emotions and • Show interest, empathy and understanding of how they are feeling. what they are around the classroom where the children can see. • Respond to child’s emotional and physical needs.• Have a quite place in your room where a child can go to if they are feeling angry, • Express feelings and emotions in a safe and sad, or upset and just need a moment to appropriate ways. calm down. • Allow them to show their anger in a way that is okay and what is not okay.
Physical Development Normal Development Abnormal Development• Walk and run • Doesn’t walk steadily• Change speed and direction • Is unable to throw or kick a ball• Climb onto a steady chair• Throw and kick balls • Cannot copy a straight line or circle• Dances to music• Begin to climb stairs • Is unable to climb on or off furniture• Able to balance with minimal effort• Helps dress and undress him or herself • Has difficulties balancing and frequently falls• Is able to use eating utensils (example… spoon, fork and cup)
Activities and Strategies Teacher and Adult Roles to Support Physical Development in Supporting Physical Development• Play ball/bean bags • Have activities that promote balance within your classroom. • Roll the ball, kick, throw, etc… • Give child opportunities to run, throw, jump, climb, walk • Provide your child with push and pull toys.• Dance/Freeze dance • Encourage your children to be active inside and outside • Learns to control body & movements daily.• Climbing up & down stairs • Give child opportunities to use crayons, markers, paintbrushes.• Set up obstacle course • Give child opportunities to use toys with parts to take apart and put together.• Riding toys with peddles • Provide opportunities to use fingers to pick up small items, and do finger plays. • Helps them learn to use to push their feet • Dance and sing songs with actions, and play movement games together.• Painting with fingers/brushes • Provide opportunities to move in variety of spaces such as• Playing with play dough under, through, between; use furniture or playground equipment.• Stringing beads onto a string
Cognitive Development Normal Development Abnormal Development• Uses common items appropriately • Doesn’t know how to use or is (example… spoon, phone, toy hammer) unable to name common items• Line up and stack blocks • Does not frequently gain new• Shows eye-hand coordination words• Grasps items with pointer finger and • Lacks eye-hand coordination thumb• Asks for help when needed • Loses skills he or she once had• Begins counting and Identifying shapes • Is unable to follow simple instructions• Begins solving problems (example… blows on hot food) • Does not gain knowledge of body parts, shapes or numbers
Activities and Strategies Teacher and Adult Roles to Support Cognitive Development in Supporting Cognitive Development• Reading books • Allow them to try & figure out problems and • Encourage vocabulary building and verbal development. suggest possible solutions to them.• Playing with blocks • Learn balancing concepts • Provide different shapes, colors or sizes, of blocks.• Puzzles & shape sorters • Allows them to problem-solve, increases memorization, understand the relationship between objects as they match • Help them sort from smallest to largest, or shapes and figure out how things fit. longest to shortest, or by color.• Sensory table • Sense of touch to learn • Describe what your child is doing during this• Identify noise process.• Give them choices to choose from • Explore outdoors with your child, and look for• Sing/practice the ABC’s patterns, size, number and shapes in nature and in the community.• Counting everything/anything• Point out shapes & colors • Use numerical concepts in everyday routines.
Language Development Normal Development Abnormal Development• Incorporate plurals on simple words • Doesn’t copy others words• Recognizes things or pictures when they are named • Does not speak in sentences• Repeats words • Produces an unusual amount of drool• Can say first name and age• Follows instructions • Speech is unclear• Shows interest in reading and writing • Doesn’t understand simple• Creates sounds while playing with toys instructions (example… animal noises) • Does not communicate feelings
Activities and Strategies Teacher and Adult Roles to Support Language Development in Supporting Language Development• Listening to music, doing things with music, • Encourage your child to use sounds and actions to communicate with you. singing songs, playing with instruments • Talk together• Learning about rhymes • Pay attention when your child talks• Going to the grocery store/library/field trip… • Make stories & books part of your everyday routine• Talking about food/outside/what you are doing • Adapt schedules and activities to meet needs of a certain child• Learning how to use a book • Labels & objects with print and pictures • Speak in complete sentences• Discovery print • respond with the correct pronunciation when your child• Learning my name mispronounces something. • Use props, such as puppets or dolls, with the stories. • Give your child the chance to communicate with other children.
Opportunity to learn about others Cultural and Ethnic Factors • Language • Diet • Parents Approach • Education Indian • Values • Beliefs • Spirit • Personality • Religion • Clothing • Traditions Chinese Eskimo
Opportunity to help others Socioeconomic and Environmental Factors • Family Stability • Nutrition • Mental and Physical Health • Quality of Schools Poverty • Living Conditions • Parenting Style • Parental Involvement • Opportunity to Succeed • Child’s Readiness for School • Social Interaction Middle Class Upper Class
Sources• Center for Disease Control and Prevention Learn the Signs Act Early •http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/• Washington State Early Learning and Development Guidelines •http://www.del.wa.gov/publications/development/docs/guidelines.pdf• Washington State Department of Early Learning Growth and Development •http://www.del.wa.gov/publications/esit/docs/PrescreenChart_English.pdf• National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families Behavior and Development •http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/ •http://www.zerotothree.org/about-us/areas-of-expertise/free-parent-brochures-and-guides/age-based- handouts.html