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Broadband Access Over HFC Networks

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Invited speech on Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1999

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Broadband Access Over HFC Networks

  1. 1. Broadband Access over HFC Network Xiaolin Lu OFC 1999 AT&T LabsXL 2/10/99
  2. 2. What is this?  Aninvited speech on Optical Fiber Communication Conference (1999) about technology evolution of HFC NetworksXL 2/10/99
  3. 3. TollXL 2/10/99
  4. 4. INTERDEPENDENCY VOICE VIDEO  Communication  Entertainment Services  Point-to-point  Broadcast  “On-Demand”  Always there Billing  Usage-based  Flat rate  Narrowband/  RF Broadband Transport baseband  Point-to-point  Point-to-multipoint Network  Coax  Twist pairXL 2/10/99
  5. 5. OUTLINE  EVOLUTIN OF CABLE INDUSTRY  MOVING FORWARDXL 2/10/99
  6. 6. WHEN IT STARTED … HE  Broadcast Tree-and-Branch  Consistent with street layout  Security  Flexible user connection  Reliability  Broadband (1GHz)  QualityXL 2/10/99
  7. 7. EVOLVING Transport - Lightwave - RF Network  Upgrade - Distribution - Quality - Trunk  Broadband SDV  AM-VSB - Reliability - Bandwidth Terminal - Upstream - Modem - Protocol Operation - Monitoring - ManagementXL 2/10/99
  8. 8. EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION Need Architecture More Evolution/ Revolution Digital Cable Services Modem Quality Reliability HFC Linear Lightwave RF & DSP Low-cost lightwave Technology and WDMXL 2/10/99
  9. 9. Coax to HFC HEXL 2/10/99
  10. 10. Coax to HFC FN FN HE FN  Increase transport capability  Improve quality and reliability  Challenge for linear lightwaveXL 2/10/99
  11. 11. CHALLENGES OF AM-VSB TRANSMISSION AM- XTR RCV Requirements: CNR 52dB 47dB CTB/CSO -65dBc -55dBc Saleh Limit Challenges: CIR - Linearity - Dispersion - Linearity - Noise - Reflection - Noise - Chirp - Others OMDXL 2/10/99
  12. 12. TREND IN LINEAR LIGHTWAVE/RF NEED TECHNOLOGY PRODUCT APPLICATION Moderate  Node Digital 2-way 2- DFB & FP  Hub High- High-end DFB  Capacity+  Analog  Digital External  HE  Trunk  Lower cost Modulator  Hub  Broadcast  Two-way upgrade  EDFA  WDM GaAs RF Coax Coax Plant Amplifier Amplifier UpgradeXL 2/10/99
  13. 13. Performance of An Uncooled FP Laser  No TE cooler, no isolator  60 QPSK channels at 2Mbps/ch  ~ $100  Temperature: 200C ~ 800C -2 Theory Room Temperature -3 T>80C Reflection log(BER) -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 0.1 1 10XL 2/10/99 OMD(%) S. Woodward, G. Bodeep, OFC’95
  14. 14. RF MODEM TECHNOLOGY I I 10110 10110 DMUX Carrier Carrier MUX S S Recovery 900 900 Q Q Modulation Spectral Efficiency CNR Technique Theory Practical (10-8) QPSK 2 1.2 - 2 15 16-QAM 4 2.5 – 3.5 22.5 64-QAM 6 4.5 – 5 28.5 AM-VSB 47XL 2/10/99
  15. 15. New Transport Opportunities DSP Multimedia  MPEG-2, MPEG- etc Digitization RF Modem Digital SCM System  BW efficiency  Robustness  Broadcast/narrowcast digital TV Digital RF Transmission S  Interactive video RF/(wireless)  2-way communication  Front-end Front-  Voice, data, etc  Wireless backhauling Linear Lightwave Low- Low-cost  Maturity LightwaveXL 2/10/99
  16. 16. EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION Need Architecture More Evolution/ Revolution Digital Cable Services Modem Quality Reliability HFC Linear Lightwave RF & DSP Low-cost lightwave Technology and WDMXL 2/10/99
  17. 17. CHALLENGES HE FN HE FN HE FN Analog Emerging TV Services 5 50 500 750 1G  Bandwidth Capacity: 5-40MHz/1000s HHP upstream  Transport Integrity: Ingress noise, dynamic range  103-to-1 Architecture: to- Centrally- Centrally-mediated MACXL 2/10/99
  18. 18. SOLUTIONS Bandwidth UPGRADE Capacity  Fiber Node Network Segmentation  DWDM Trunk Transport Integrity DOCSIS  High level modulation Modem  Centrally- 103-to-1 mediated MAC ArchitectureXL 2/10/99
  19. 19. Fiber Node Segmentation HE FN 1,200 Homes  Long cascade coax bus shared by many users (1000s)XL 2/10/99
  20. 20. Fiber Node Segmentation 300 Homes 300 Homes HE FN 300 Homes 300 Homes  1,200 HHP/FN with 300 HHP/BusXL 2/10/99
  21. 21. Fiber Node Segmentation RCV H XTR LXL 2/10/99
  22. 22. Fiber Node Segmentation H H L L RCV XTR H H L L  Frequency Stacking or DWDM for 4X capacity  Closer tracking of ingress noiseXL 2/10/99
  23. 23. DISTRIBUTED HEAD-END HEAD- HE FN Primary Primary Hub HE Ring FN HE  Operation complexity  Cost of CMTS at lower take rateXL 2/10/99
  24. 24. DWDM TRUNK SH FN Primary Primary Hub SH Ring FN SH  DWDM transport for end-to-end transparency end-to-  Route diversity for service protection  Consolidate high-end terminals (CMTS) high-XL 2/10/99
  25. 25. DWDM TRUNK Primary Hub Secondary Hub 1.3mm XTR Coarse WDM l 1 x 8 DWDM 1 x 8 DWDM l l . . . . . . Fiber Node 1.5mm RCV RCV l 1 x 8 DWDM 1 x 8 DWDM RCV l RCV . . . . . .XL 2/10/99
  26. 26. MODERN HFC NETWORK SH FN Primary Primary Hub SH Ring SH FN DWDM Transport Segmentation End-to-end Transparency 4X capacityXL 2/10/99
  27. 27. What If We Succeed?  Bandwidth exhaustion  Transport integrity  Take rate and multiple lines  New services  User behavior  Performance 10000 1000 Delay (ms) 100 Life cycle cost 10 v.s. 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Front- Front-end costXL 2/10/99 Users
  28. 28. ARCHITECTURES Tree-and-Branch  Broadcast FN  Cascaded ??? Cell-Based  Narrowcast RN  ClusteredXL 2/10/99
  29. 29. Mini Fiber Node (mFN) mFN FN mFN Primary Primary Ring Hub mFN FN mFN DWDM Analog Digital TV TV 5 50 500 750 1G  mFN overlay for a cell-based digital platform cell-  Multi- Multi-purpose infrastructure  50- 50-100 times more clean two-way bandwidth two-  Distributed MAC protocol with better performanceXL 2/10/99
  30. 30. Early Version of an mFN PrototypeXL 2/10/99
  31. 31. Line extender mFNXL 2/10/99
  32. 32. DELAY COMPARISON 1000 100 Average delay (ms) 10 mFN-NAD CM 1 0.1 mFN-NAD Cable modem 0.01 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number of active usersXL 2/10/99
  33. 33. Mini Fiber Node (mFN) mFN FN mFN Primary Primary Ring Hub mFN FN mFN DWDM PCS Analog Digital TV TV 5 50 500 750 1G 2G  Multi- Multi-service platformXL 2/10/99
  34. 34. MOVING FORWARD Software  Data/IP Program  Competition Coax Network HFC Upgrade Evolution  Integrity  More services for two-way & HE HE FN broadband Revolution  Lightwave Linear and RF Lightwave  RF Modem Hardware  DSPXL 2/10/99
  35. 35. EVOLUTION Demand Bandwidth per Customer Take Rate Applications User Behavior Push Fiber Deeper Split Nodes Higher RF Efficiency TimeXL 2/10/99
  36. 36. Fiber Optics for Cable 108 FTTH 107 FTTC (102 HP/node) 106 Fiber termination 105 FSA (103 HP/node) 100 ch AM 104 103 102 40 ch AM 86 92 00 06 Broadcast Two-way BroadbandXL 2/10/99
  37. 37. White Space $$ Harmonic Lightwaves Phillips GI Scientific Atlanta ANTEC Ortel Lucent C-COR ??? VolumeXL 2/10/99
  38. 38. “There is no wrong technology, there are only wrong assumptions.”XL 2/10/99

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