Krashen and Chomsky


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Krashen and Chomsky

  1. 1. LanguageAcquisition { The emperor and the apprentice
  2. 2. { Noam Chomsky { Stephen Krashen  Professor Emeritus  Professor Emeritus MIT USC  “Father of Modern  350 Books and Linguistics” Papers Published since 1974  Universal Grammar  5 Theories of Second Theory Language Acquisition
  3. 3. “All Children share the same internal constraints In his 1972 book Language which characterize and the Mind Chomsky states that language is innate { narrowly the grammar they are going to construct” -Language and Responsibility, 1977 p.98Noam Chomsky
  4. 4.  The LAD is a postulated organ in the brain that was suggested to perform as a congenital device for language acquisition. This theory stood as the antithesis to B.F. Skinners theories of Classic and Operant Conditioning.LanguageAcquisition Device
  5. 5.  Chomsky rejects the idea that children are born as “tabula rosa” or blank slates. Generative Grammar reveals the explicit and implicit knowledge of the speaker. Linguistics does not include the study of meaning and reference.
  6. 6.  For 40 years Chomsky This change of direction Defended the LAD he may come from problems currently favors a parameter with the Universal setting model of language acquisition called “principles and parameters” { Grammar Theory mainly L2 learners will say things that don’t fit there L1 or L2 and different motivations to learn an L2-The Minimalist Program 1995
  7. 7.  Krashen’s 5 Hypotheses to Language Acquisition: 1. Acquisition Learning 2. Monitor 3. Natural Order 4.Input 5. Affective filterFrom: Principles andPractice in SecondLanguage Acquisition1987
  8. 8. { The Krux of Krashen { Two Systems of language performance acquired and learned.1. Acquired- Subconscious like how a child learns there L1.2. Learned- Knowledge gained from formal instruction, grammar of the L2 is picked up this way. Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
  9. 9.  This is the relationship between acquired and learned language. It is a correcting function that should be used sparingly “to give speech a more polished appearance”what do you mean “more polished”? Monitor Hypothesis
  10. 10.  Based on the findings of Dulay , Burt, Fatham, and Makino during the 1970’s Krashen concluded that independent of age, L1, and conditions of exposure L2 learners will learn grammatical structures in a predictable order almost 100% of the time. However, Krashen rejects grammatical sequencing in instruction. Natural Order Hypothesis
  11. 11.  This only deals with acquisition of L2 not learning. A learner improves when they receive input one step beyond their current competency.Input Hypothesis(i+1)
  12. 12. Motivation, self confidence and anxiety play a major roll in L2 learning. { Learners with high motivation and self- confidence, with a good self image, a little anxiety best equipped for L2 learning.Affective FilterHypothesis
  13. 13. { Noam Chomsky { Stephen Krashen  Humans have the  Acquistion learning, ability to learn any monitor, input, language at birth. natural order, and  Speech is innate we affective filter are are not blank slates the 5 pillars of Krashen’s theory.In closing ;-)