Aug. 24, 2010- Lab Safety Quiz Answer the following questions on your own sheet of paper, using the picture given. DO NOT write the questions.1. List 3 unsafe activities shown in the illustration and explain why each is unsafe.2. List 3 correct lab procedures depicted in the illustration.3. Compare Luke and Dukes lab techniques. Who is following the rules?4. What are three things shown in the lab that should not be there?5. Compare Joe and Carls lab techniques. Who is doing it the correct way?
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology August 24, 2010
What is the difference betweenAnatomy & Physiology?
Anatomy and Physiology Defined Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. What can we do to study anatomy? DISSECTION
Anatomy and Physiology Defined Physiology is the study of how body structures function.
What are the levels oforganization for LIVING things?
Levels of Structural Organization The human body consists of several levels of structural organization: cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels.
Directional Terms These are commonly used by medical personal in the course of their jobs. Get into groups of four. You will each be given a few directional terms. You must either act out or draw the definition of each one for the class.
proximal(nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure)
distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure)
superficial (on the surface of the body) Superficial Hemangioma or strawberry birthmark
Deep (away from the surface of the body) Cystic mass DEEP inside the body
ipsilateral1. (same side of the body) Ipsilateral Paralysis
contralateral (opposite side of body) Each hand is controlled by a contralateral motor cortex: Left brain controls right hand, etc.
parietal(outer wall of a cavity) Think of saran wrap lining the inside of the body cavity.
visceral(covering an organ). In or on an organ Outside of an organ
Wednesday – August 25, 2010“IN” Objective: I will draw a life size body with Bell activity: different directional terms. Draw anterior,posterior, distal, and proximal.“OUT” Homework:At the end of class… Make sure all supplies are purchased and you have all signature forms in!
August 25, 2010 Directional Terms Drawing Out Questions
Directional Terms In the following activity you will practice labeling directional terms on a body. Trace the outline of a group member’s body (if possible) on butcher paper. Label the following directional terms: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, & distal. You need to create a REFERENCE POINT for ipsilateral & contralateral (eye patch, scar, etc). Make if LEGIBLE & colorful (if there is time)
OUTAnswer the following questions.1. What are the three body planes mention on page 16 of your book? a) Find an alternate name for each of the body planes above.2. Draw a body with each of the three body planes.3. Define dorsal cavity. What 2 regions is it divided into? a) What organs are found here (list 2).4. Define Ventral cavity. What 2 regions is it split into? a) What organs are found here (list 2).
Bell activityBody Planes Use page 16 ofbook Each table will be given a type of body plane. Pick one person out of each table to be your model. Using the string given, cut your model into each body plan as the name is called out. Table 1- Transverse Table 5-Median Table 2- Frontal Table 6- Sagittal Table 3- Coronal Table 7- Transverse Table 4- Horizontal Table 8- Coronal
August 26, 2010 Body plane engage Body Plane Notes PAG Homework (OUT) Questions REMINDER Research paper due tomorrow Quiz next class on week
Body Plane Planes are imaginary sections of the body. There are commonly 3 planes used to section the body: transverse, sagittal, & coronal. These plane sections are commonly used when observing x-rays or other anatomical structures.
Transverse Another name: Horizontal Defined as: A crosswise plane dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.
Coronal Another name: Frontal Defined as: A lengthwise plane running side to side; divides body into anterior and posterior parts.
Sagittal Another name: Median, midsagittal Defined as: A lengthwise plane running front to back, diving the body into left and right sides.
Body Cavities Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. There are two major body cavities: Dorsal & Ventral Cavity.
What is dorsal? What does the word mean? What does it make you think of? What organs would you find here?
What is Ventral? If dorsal refers to the back, then ventral could only be…. What organs would you find here?
The dorsal body cavity contains the brain and the spine. It is subdivided into cranial (brain) and vertebral/spinal cavities (spinal cord)
Ventral body cavity The space of the body’s trunk anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum and abdominal muscle wall. Further divided into: The thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, trachea, etc) and the abdominopelvic cavity (liver, stomach, kidneys, etc).
OUT What body cavity (Cranial, spinal, abdominopelvic, or thoracic) would you find: Lungs? Heart? Uterus Stomach Spine Esophagus brain
August 27, 2010 Quiz Body Type NOTES Body Type Activity Research Paper Due
Descriptive Terms of the BodyRegion Terms used for the body found on your handout. Study them for homework. Quiz next class on this and everything else. :D
Descriptive Terms of the BodyRegion These terms are more commonly used by medical personally then the terms we use. You are more likely to hear the term occipital then head in the hospital because Occipital is more specific (back of head).
Body Types Somatotype is a term used to describe a specific body build or physique. There are three body types: Endomorph Mesomorph Ectomorph
Endomorph Apple Heavy rounded physique Large accumulation of fat in trunk and thighs. “Apple shaped” endomorphs have large waistlines & more health risks. Pear shaped endomorphs have smaller waists and more fat in the hip, thighs, and buttock. Less health risks then apples. Pear
Ectomorph Thin, waifish physique characterized by little body fat. Ectomorph DOES NOT always mean anorexic.
Body Types In your journal, make a chart with the column below: Mesomorph Endomorph Ectomorph Looking through a magazine, find examples of the three body types. Cut out the pictures and glue them on to your journal. Point out the following body regions on your pictures: orbital, nasal, buccal, pectoral, deltoid, axillary, carpal, femoral, patellar, tarsal, lumbar, gluteal, & popliteal.
Bell activity Using the body organs, group them as being in the: 1. Cranial body cavity 2. Vertebral Body cavity 3. Thoracic body cavity 4. Abdominal pelvic cavity Write answers in your IN section.
Wrap up What organs did you have? About where on your body is each one found? What cavities would that be?
August 30, 2010 Homeostasis Discussion Finish Body Type Activity
Homeostasis Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment of the body remains relatively constant. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems.
Set point of range The normal reading or range of a condition. For example: set point of glucose/ml is between 80 and 100 mg. Homeostasis attempts to keep reading within the set point of range.
Feedback loops1. Sensor mechanisms2. Integrating or control center3. Effector mechanism4. Feedback Signals can be either Afferent (move toward a control center) or Efferent (moves away from a control center)
Sensory Mechanisms Nerve cells or hormone producing glands act as homeostatic sensors. They identify conditions (temp., blood glucose) that move it out of the set point of range. If deviations from set point range occur, an afferent signal is sent to the integration or control center.
Integration/Control Center Integration center receives signal. Information is analyzed. Efferent signal then travels from the center to a effector mechanism, where an action is initiated.
Nerve receptorson skin feel cold. Sends info Hypothalamus receive info Sends instructions
Effectors Effectors are organs, such as muscles or glands, that directly influence the body’s physiology. An effector can increase or decrease temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
Nerve receptors on skin feel cold. Sends info Temperature increases.Muscle reacts by shivering. Hypothalamus receive info Sends instructions
Feedback Homeostatic controls can be labeled as positive or negative. Most homeostatic controls are negative.
Positive feedback Positive feedback mechanisms are designed to accelerate or enhance the output created by a stimulus that has already been activated. Ex. Blood clotting increases the amount of platelets released.
Negative Feedback Negative feedback mechanism consists of bringing a system back to its normal range of functioning. Ex. Shivering brings low temperature back up.
August 30, 2010- Homeostasis IN Objective: Today we will evaluate how exercise effects the body and determine homeostatic mechanisms. Bell Activity: What is an example of a feedback loop (other then the shivering example).
August 31, 2010-Homeostasis Bell activity- Get into groups for lab. Grab a lab handout and review it before we start Research paper 2
Research Paper What is a cytotechnologist? Due Friday
Question: What homeostatic conditions can beidentified in a body that is exercising? Exercise causes many factors of homeostasis to kick in to maintain internal equilibrium. How exercise affects some of these factors can be determined by measuring and observing certain conditions of the human body.
Pre Lab Notes Work in groups of 4 or 5. Roles A HEALTHY jump roper (must jump for 8 minutes) A Timer Someone to record BREATHING RATE (jump can probably count their own breathes in one minute) Someone to record HEART RATE Someone to check TEMPERATURE Someone to check PERSPIRATION Level (dap paper towel on forehead and check amount of sweat) The rest of the data can be taken with simple observation.
How to record data Record the resting observations and values of the person jumping rope using the following: skin color of hands and face (pale, pink, red) perspiration level (none, mild, medium, high)- Dab forehead with a paper towel, noting any difference in sweat left behind. external body temperature (place the thermometer under the subjects arm pit for 1 minute; the thermometer should be directly against the skin) breathing rate (count the number of breaths in 1 minute) heart rate (find the pulse at the wrist and count the number of beats in 1 minute)
Procedure Make initial observations and measurements of the subject BEFORE jumping rope while they are sitting down and resting. Record your observations on the data table.
Procedures continued The student jumping should begin jumping when the person with the watch gives the signal and continue jumping for 2 min. After 2 min quickly make observations and measurements and record them on the data table. REMEMBER to take data for at least 1 min.
Procedures continued The student will continue jumping rope at 2 minute intervals until the 8 minute time period has been completed. After each 2 minute interval observations and measurements should be made. When the 8 minutes is up, the student jumping rope will rest for 1 minute. After 1 minute, observations and measurements will be taken for the final time. Don’t forget to record the data on the data table.
After lab: Clean the thermometer with alcohol and return it and all other lab materials to the designated area. Make a separate graph for each of the following: Body Temperature at Various Intervals of Exercise Breathing Rate at Various Intervals of Exercise Heart Rate at Various Intervals of Exercise Answer the questions in the conclusion section to describe and explain the results of the lab.