Aug. 24, 2010- Lab Safety Quiz    Answer the following questions on your own sheet     of paper, using the picture given....
August 24, 2010   Lab Safety Quiz   Modeling Journal Format   Homework discussion/notes
Journal Set up
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology         August 24, 2010
What is the difference betweenAnatomy & Physiology?
Anatomy and Physiology Defined   Anatomy is the study of structure and the    relationship among structures.   What can ...
Anatomy and Physiology      Defined   Physiology is the study of how body structures    function.
What are the levels oforganization for LIVING things?
Levels of Structural       Organization   The human body consists of several levels of    structural organization: cellul...
Directional Terms   These are commonly used by medical    personal in the course of their jobs.       Get into groups of...
Superior   (toward the head)
inferior   (away from the head)
posterior   (near back of the body)
anterior   (near front of the body)
lateral   (near side of the body)
medial   (near midline of the body)
proximal(nearer the attachment of an extremity to   the trunk or a structure)
distal   (farther from the attachment of an    extremity to the trunk or a structure)
superficial   (on the surface of the body)                          Superficial Hemangioma                          or st...
Deep   (away from the surface of the body)               Cystic mass DEEP inside the body
ipsilateral1.   (same side of the body)                          Ipsilateral Paralysis
contralateral   (opposite side of body)    Each hand is controlled by a contralateral motor cortex:    Left brain control...
parietal(outer wall of a cavity)   Think of saran wrap lining   the inside of the body cavity.
visceral(covering an organ).           In or on an organ       Outside of an organ
Wednesday – August 25, 2010“IN”                     Objective:                         I will draw a life size body with  ...
August 25, 2010   Directional Terms Drawing   Out Questions
Directional Terms   In the following activity you will practice labeling    directional terms on a body.   Trace the out...
OUTAnswer the following questions.1.        What are the three body planes mention on page          16 of your book?     a...
Bell activityBody Planes Use page 16 ofbook   Each table will be given a type of body plane.   Pick one person out of ea...
August 26, 2010   Body plane engage   Body Plane Notes   PAG Homework (OUT) Questions   REMINDER       Research paper...
Body Plane   Planes are imaginary sections of the body.   There are commonly 3 planes used to section    the body: trans...
Transverse   Another name:       Horizontal   Defined as:       A crosswise plane dividing the body into        superi...
Coronal   Another name:       Frontal   Defined as:       A lengthwise plane running side to side;        divides body...
Sagittal   Another name:       Median, midsagittal   Defined as:       A lengthwise plane running front to back,      ...
Body Cavities   Spaces in the body that contain internal    organs are called cavities.   There are two major body cavit...
What is dorsal?   What does the word mean?   What does it make you think of?   What organs would you find here?
What is Ventral?   If dorsal refers to the back, then ventral could    only be….   What organs would you find here?
The dorsal body cavity   contains the brain    and the spine.      It is subdivided       into cranial       (brain) and...
Ventral body cavity               The space of the body’s                trunk anterior to the                vertebral c...
OUT   What body cavity (Cranial, spinal,    abdominopelvic, or thoracic) would you find:      Lungs?      Heart?      ...
August 27, 2010   Quiz   Body Type NOTES   Body Type Activity   Research Paper Due
Descriptive Terms of the BodyRegion                       Terms used for                        the body found           ...
Descriptive Terms of the BodyRegion   These terms are    more commonly    used by medical    personally then    the terms...
Body Types   Somatotype is a term used to describe    a specific body build or physique.   There are three body types:  ...
Endomorph                    Apple   Heavy rounded physique       Large accumulation of fat in        trunk and thighs....
Mesomorph   Muscular physique
Ectomorph   Thin, waifish physique characterized by little    body fat.   Ectomorph DOES NOT always mean anorexic.
Body Types   In your journal, make a chart with the column below:    Mesomorph          Endomorph            Ectomorph  ...
Bell activity   Using the body organs, group them as    being in the:    1.   Cranial body cavity    2.   Vertebral Body ...
Wrap up   What organs did you have?   About where on your body is each one    found?   What cavities would that be?
August 30, 2010   Homeostasis    Discussion   Finish Body Type    Activity
Homeostasis   Homeostasis is a condition in which the    internal environment of the body remains    relatively constant....
Set point of range   The normal reading or range of a condition.       For example: set point of glucose/ml is between  ...
Feedback loops1.   Sensor mechanisms2.   Integrating or control center3.   Effector mechanism4.   Feedback    Signals can...
Sensory Mechanisms   Nerve cells or hormone producing glands act    as homeostatic sensors.   They identify conditions (...
Nerve receptorson skin feel cold                    Sends info
Integration/Control Center   Integration center receives signal.   Information is analyzed.   Efferent signal then trav...
Nerve receptorson skin feel cold.                                  Sends info                     Hypothalamus receive inf...
Effectors   Effectors are organs, such as muscles    or glands, that directly influence the    body’s physiology.   An e...
Nerve receptors             on skin feel cold.                                                   Sends info Temperature in...
Feedback   Homeostatic controls can be labeled as    positive or negative.   Most homeostatic controls are negative.
Positive feedback   Positive feedback mechanisms are    designed to accelerate or enhance the    output created by a stim...
Negative Feedback   Negative feedback mechanism consists of    bringing a system back to its normal range of    functioni...
OUT   Lab Preparation
August 30, 2010-         Homeostasis   IN       Objective: Today we will evaluate how exercise        effects the body a...
August 31, 2010-Homeostasis   Bell activity- Get into groups for lab.       Grab a lab handout and review it before we  ...
Research Paper   What is a cytotechnologist?   Due Friday
Homeostasis Lab     Monday August 31st
Question: What homeostatic conditions can beidentified in a body that is exercising?   Exercise causes many factors of   ...
Pre Lab Notes       Work in groups of 4 or 5.       Roles         A HEALTHY jump roper (must jump for 8 minutes)      ...
How to record data       Record the resting observations and values of the        person jumping rope using the following...
Procedure   Make initial observations and measurements of    the subject BEFORE jumping rope while they    are sitting do...
Procedures continued   The student jumping should    begin jumping when the    person with the watch gives    the signal ...
Procedures continued   The student will continue jumping rope at 2    minute intervals until the 8 minute time period    ...
After lab:   Clean the thermometer with alcohol and return it and    all other lab materials to the designated area.   M...
Introduction to anatomy & physiology2
Introduction to anatomy & physiology2
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Introduction to anatomy & physiology2

  1. 1. Aug. 24, 2010- Lab Safety Quiz Answer the following questions on your own sheet of paper, using the picture given.  DO NOT write the questions.1. List 3 unsafe activities shown in the illustration and explain why each is unsafe.2. List 3 correct lab procedures depicted in the illustration.3. Compare Luke and Dukes lab techniques. Who is following the rules?4. What are three things shown in the lab that should not be there?5. Compare Joe and Carls lab techniques. Who is doing it the correct way?
  2. 2. August 24, 2010 Lab Safety Quiz Modeling Journal Format Homework discussion/notes
  3. 3. Journal Set up
  4. 4. Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology August 24, 2010
  5. 5. What is the difference betweenAnatomy & Physiology?
  6. 6. Anatomy and Physiology Defined Anatomy is the study of structure and the relationship among structures. What can we do to study anatomy?  DISSECTION
  7. 7. Anatomy and Physiology Defined Physiology is the study of how body structures function.
  8. 8. What are the levels oforganization for LIVING things?
  9. 9. Levels of Structural Organization The human body consists of several levels of structural organization: cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismic levels.
  10. 10. Directional Terms These are commonly used by medical personal in the course of their jobs.  Get into groups of four.  You will each be given a few directional terms.  You must either act out or draw the definition of each one for the class.
  11. 11. Superior (toward the head)
  12. 12. inferior (away from the head)
  13. 13. posterior (near back of the body)
  14. 14. anterior (near front of the body)
  15. 15. lateral (near side of the body)
  16. 16. medial (near midline of the body)
  17. 17. proximal(nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure)
  18. 18. distal (farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk or a structure)
  19. 19. superficial (on the surface of the body) Superficial Hemangioma or strawberry birthmark
  20. 20. Deep (away from the surface of the body) Cystic mass DEEP inside the body
  21. 21. ipsilateral1. (same side of the body) Ipsilateral Paralysis
  22. 22. contralateral (opposite side of body) Each hand is controlled by a contralateral motor cortex: Left brain controls right hand, etc.
  23. 23. parietal(outer wall of a cavity) Think of saran wrap lining the inside of the body cavity.
  24. 24. visceral(covering an organ). In or on an organ Outside of an organ
  25. 25. Wednesday – August 25, 2010“IN” Objective: I will draw a life size body with Bell activity: different directional terms. Draw anterior,posterior, distal, and proximal.“OUT” Homework:At the end of class… Make sure all supplies are purchased and you have all signature forms in!
  26. 26. August 25, 2010 Directional Terms Drawing Out Questions
  27. 27. Directional Terms In the following activity you will practice labeling directional terms on a body. Trace the outline of a group member’s body (if possible) on butcher paper. Label the following directional terms: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, ipsilateral, contralateral, proximal, & distal. You need to create a REFERENCE POINT for ipsilateral & contralateral (eye patch, scar, etc). Make if LEGIBLE & colorful (if there is time)
  28. 28. OUTAnswer the following questions.1. What are the three body planes mention on page 16 of your book? a) Find an alternate name for each of the body planes above.2. Draw a body with each of the three body planes.3. Define dorsal cavity. What 2 regions is it divided into? a) What organs are found here (list 2).4. Define Ventral cavity. What 2 regions is it split into? a) What organs are found here (list 2).
  29. 29. Bell activityBody Planes Use page 16 ofbook Each table will be given a type of body plane. Pick one person out of each table to be your model. Using the string given, cut your model into each body plan as the name is called out. Table 1- Transverse Table 5-Median Table 2- Frontal Table 6- Sagittal Table 3- Coronal Table 7- Transverse Table 4- Horizontal Table 8- Coronal
  30. 30. August 26, 2010 Body plane engage Body Plane Notes PAG Homework (OUT) Questions REMINDER  Research paper due tomorrow  Quiz next class on week
  31. 31. Body Plane Planes are imaginary sections of the body. There are commonly 3 planes used to section the body: transverse, sagittal, & coronal. These plane sections are commonly used when observing x-rays or other anatomical structures.
  32. 32. Transverse Another name:  Horizontal Defined as:  A crosswise plane dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.
  33. 33. Coronal Another name:  Frontal Defined as:  A lengthwise plane running side to side; divides body into anterior and posterior parts.
  34. 34. Sagittal Another name:  Median, midsagittal Defined as:  A lengthwise plane running front to back, diving the body into left and right sides.
  35. 35. Body Cavities Spaces in the body that contain internal organs are called cavities. There are two major body cavities: Dorsal & Ventral Cavity.
  36. 36. What is dorsal? What does the word mean? What does it make you think of? What organs would you find here?
  37. 37. What is Ventral? If dorsal refers to the back, then ventral could only be…. What organs would you find here?
  38. 38. The dorsal body cavity contains the brain and the spine.  It is subdivided into cranial (brain) and vertebral/spinal cavities (spinal cord) 
  39. 39. Ventral body cavity  The space of the body’s trunk anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum and abdominal muscle wall.  Further divided into: The thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, trachea, etc) and the abdominopelvic cavity (liver, stomach, kidneys, etc).
  40. 40. OUT What body cavity (Cranial, spinal, abdominopelvic, or thoracic) would you find:  Lungs?  Heart?  Uterus  Stomach  Spine  Esophagus  brain
  41. 41. August 27, 2010 Quiz Body Type NOTES Body Type Activity Research Paper Due
  42. 42. Descriptive Terms of the BodyRegion  Terms used for the body found on your handout.  Study them for homework.  Quiz next class on this and everything else. :D
  43. 43. Descriptive Terms of the BodyRegion These terms are more commonly used by medical personally then the terms we use. You are more likely to hear the term occipital then head in the hospital because Occipital is more specific (back of head).
  44. 44. Body Types Somatotype is a term used to describe a specific body build or physique. There are three body types:  Endomorph  Mesomorph  Ectomorph
  45. 45. Endomorph Apple Heavy rounded physique  Large accumulation of fat in trunk and thighs. “Apple shaped” endomorphs have large waistlines & more health risks. Pear shaped endomorphs have smaller waists and more fat in the hip, thighs, and buttock. Less health risks then apples. Pear
  46. 46. Mesomorph Muscular physique
  47. 47. Ectomorph Thin, waifish physique characterized by little body fat. Ectomorph DOES NOT always mean anorexic.
  48. 48. Body Types In your journal, make a chart with the column below: Mesomorph Endomorph Ectomorph Looking through a magazine, find examples of the three body types. Cut out the pictures and glue them on to your journal. Point out the following body regions on your pictures: orbital, nasal, buccal, pectoral, deltoid, axillary, carpal, femoral, patellar, tarsal, lumbar, gluteal, & popliteal.
  49. 49. Bell activity Using the body organs, group them as being in the: 1. Cranial body cavity 2. Vertebral Body cavity 3. Thoracic body cavity 4. Abdominal pelvic cavity Write answers in your IN section.
  50. 50. Wrap up What organs did you have? About where on your body is each one found? What cavities would that be?
  51. 51. August 30, 2010 Homeostasis Discussion Finish Body Type Activity
  52. 52. Homeostasis Homeostasis is a condition in which the internal environment of the body remains relatively constant. Homeostasis is controlled mainly by the nervous and endocrine systems.
  53. 53. Set point of range The normal reading or range of a condition.  For example: set point of glucose/ml is between 80 and 100 mg. Homeostasis attempts to keep reading within the set point of range.
  54. 54. Feedback loops1. Sensor mechanisms2. Integrating or control center3. Effector mechanism4. Feedback Signals can be either Afferent (move toward a control center) or Efferent (moves away from a control center)
  55. 55. Sensory Mechanisms Nerve cells or hormone producing glands act as homeostatic sensors. They identify conditions (temp., blood glucose) that move it out of the set point of range. If deviations from set point range occur, an afferent signal is sent to the integration or control center.
  56. 56. Nerve receptorson skin feel cold Sends info
  57. 57. Integration/Control Center Integration center receives signal. Information is analyzed. Efferent signal then travels from the center to a effector mechanism, where an action is initiated.
  58. 58. Nerve receptorson skin feel cold. Sends info Hypothalamus receive info Sends instructions
  59. 59. Effectors Effectors are organs, such as muscles or glands, that directly influence the body’s physiology. An effector can increase or decrease temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
  60. 60. Nerve receptors on skin feel cold. Sends info Temperature increases.Muscle reacts by shivering. Hypothalamus receive info Sends instructions
  61. 61. Feedback Homeostatic controls can be labeled as positive or negative. Most homeostatic controls are negative.
  62. 62. Positive feedback Positive feedback mechanisms are designed to accelerate or enhance the output created by a stimulus that has already been activated. Ex. Blood clotting increases the amount of platelets released.
  63. 63. Negative Feedback Negative feedback mechanism consists of bringing a system back to its normal range of functioning. Ex. Shivering brings low temperature back up.
  64. 64. OUT Lab Preparation
  65. 65. August 30, 2010- Homeostasis IN  Objective: Today we will evaluate how exercise effects the body and determine homeostatic mechanisms. Bell Activity:  What is an example of a feedback loop (other then the shivering example).
  66. 66. August 31, 2010-Homeostasis Bell activity- Get into groups for lab.  Grab a lab handout and review it before we start Research paper 2
  67. 67. Research Paper What is a cytotechnologist? Due Friday
  68. 68. Homeostasis Lab Monday August 31st
  69. 69. Question: What homeostatic conditions can beidentified in a body that is exercising? Exercise causes many factors of homeostasis to kick in to maintain internal equilibrium. How exercise affects some of these factors can be determined by measuring and observing certain conditions of the human body.
  70. 70. Pre Lab Notes Work in groups of 4 or 5. Roles  A HEALTHY jump roper (must jump for 8 minutes)  A Timer  Someone to record BREATHING RATE (jump can probably count their own breathes in one minute)  Someone to record HEART RATE  Someone to check TEMPERATURE  Someone to check PERSPIRATION Level (dap paper towel on forehead and check amount of sweat)  The rest of the data can be taken with simple observation.
  71. 71. How to record data Record the resting observations and values of the person jumping rope using the following:  skin color of hands and face (pale, pink, red)  perspiration level (none, mild, medium, high)- Dab forehead with a paper towel, noting any difference in sweat left behind.  external body temperature (place the thermometer under the subjects arm pit for 1 minute; the thermometer should be directly against the skin)  breathing rate (count the number of breaths in 1 minute)  heart rate (find the pulse at the wrist and count the number of beats in 1 minute)
  72. 72. Procedure Make initial observations and measurements of the subject BEFORE jumping rope while they are sitting down and resting. Record your observations on the data table.
  73. 73. Procedures continued The student jumping should begin jumping when the person with the watch gives the signal and continue jumping for 2 min. After 2 min quickly make observations and measurements and record them on the data table. REMEMBER to take data for at least 1 min.
  74. 74. Procedures continued The student will continue jumping rope at 2 minute intervals until the 8 minute time period has been completed. After each 2 minute interval observations and measurements should be made. When the 8 minutes is up, the student jumping rope will rest for 1 minute. After 1 minute, observations and measurements will be taken for the final time. Don’t forget to record the data on the data table.
  75. 75. After lab: Clean the thermometer with alcohol and return it and all other lab materials to the designated area. Make a separate graph for each of the following:  Body Temperature at Various Intervals of Exercise  Breathing Rate at Various Intervals of Exercise  Heart Rate at Various Intervals of Exercise Answer the questions in the conclusion section to describe and explain the results of the lab.

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